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^ March 23, 19 



3.19" J 



Nature 



A WEEKLY 



ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 



VOLUME LXXXV 

NOVEMBER, 1910, to MARCH, 1911 



" To the solid ground 
Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for ay*;."— Wordsworth 




iipa ." 



MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited 
NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 



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HZ 

top. V 




Naiurt, 1 



March, 3 



INDEX. 



Abbay (Canon R.), the Sailing-flight of Birds, 475 

Abb6 (Prof. C), the Mr tcorology of the Future, 550 

Abel (O.), die Kekonstruktion des Diplodocus, no 

Abel (Dr. Williamina), Description of the Cerebral Cortex 
of the Guinea-pig, 5^ ^ 

•Abetti (Dr.), Proper Motion of the Star B.D. + 33° qq, 181 

Abney (Sir W. de W.), Colour-blindness and the Trichro- 
matic Theory of Colour-vision, 259 

.Abrahams (A.), the Photography of Moving Objects and 
Hand-camera Work for .Advanced Workers, 102 

.Abruzzi's (the Duke of the) Expedition to the Karakoram 
Himalayas, Dr. F. De F'ilippi at Royal Geographical 
Society, 124 

.Absorbing Matter in Space, Messrs. Innes and Worssell, 41:3 

.Acland (H. D.), Some Prehistoric Monuments in the Scilly 
Isles, 22 

Acquired Characters, Darwin and the Transmission of, 
E. .A. Parkyn, 474; Prof. John W. Judd, C.B., F.R.S-, 
474 

.Acquired Characters, the Inheritance of. Sir W. T. 
Thiselton-Dver, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. , 371 ; Prof. John W. 
Judd, C.B., F.R.S., 405 

.Adami (Prof. J. G., F.R.S.), the Principles of Pathology, 4 

.Adams (H. Isabel), Wild Flowers of the British Isles, 134 

.Adamson (R. S.), Comparative Anatomy of the Leaves of 
Certain Species of Veronica, 395 

Adeney (Dr. W. E.). Estimation of the Organic Matters 
in Unpolluted and Polluted Waters with Potassium 
Bichromate and Sulphuric Acid, 531 

.Adhicary (Birendra Bhusan), Reactions in Presence of 
Nickel, 130 

.Administration : the Broad Stone of Empire, Problems of 
Crown Colony .Administration, with Records of Personal 
Experience, Sir Charles Bruce, G.C.M.G., 229 

-Adria und des Mittelmeergebietes, der Naturfreund am 
, Strande der. Prof. Carl I. Cori, 369 

Aeronautics: an Attempt at " Vol d vortex,^' G. D. 
Boerlage, 227 ; Balloon Experiments carried out at Black- 
pool, Capt. C. H. Ley, 295 

Aeroplane Patents, Robert M. Neilson, 270 

Africa, the Yellow and Dark-skinned People of, South of 
the Zambezi, Dr. G. McCall Theal, Sir H. H. John- 
ston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 542 

African Game Trails, Theodore Roosevelt, Sir H. H. 
Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 77 

Agenda Club, the, 214 

Agriculture : Report on the Distribution of Grants for 
Agricultural Education and Research in the Years 1908-9 
and 1909-10, 13 ; the British Science Guild, the Present 
Position of Agricultural Research in the United Kingdom, 
13 ; Growth of Sugar-beet in England, Chas. Bathurst, 
20 ; Production of Sugar from Sugar-beet, J. Saxon 
Mills, 85 : Sugar-beet Grown for Export in Norfolk, Mr. 
Sawyer, 317; Constituents of the Soil, Mr. Failyer, 40; 
Wheat-growing and its Present-day Problems, Dr. E. J. 
Russell, i;7 ; the Milling and Baking Qualities of Indian 
Wheat, Albert Howard and Gabrielle L. C. Howard, 
249 ; the Influence of Environment on the Milling and 



Baking Qualities of Wheat in India, Albert Howard, 
H. M. Leake, and Gabrielle L. C. Howard. 249 ; Wheat in 
India, its Production, Varieties and Improvements, .Albert 
Howard and Gabrielle L. C. Howard, 240 ; Memorandum 
on Indian Wheat for the British Market, Sir James 
Wilson, K.C.I.E., 547; the Practice of Soft Cheese- 
making, C. W. Waliter-Tisdale and T. R. Robinson, 71 ; 
Death of Dr. W. H. Brewer, 83 ; Report on the Experi- 
ment Station, Tortola, Virgin Islands, for 1909-10, 85 ; 
Cotton Cultivation in Egypt, Mr. Foaden, 85 ; Cotton 
Growing within the British Empire, J. H. Reed at 
Royal Geographical Society, 184 ; Cotton Growing in the 
British Empire, Maurice .Alfassa, 382 ; Report on the 
Present Position of Cotton Cultivation, Dr. Wyndham 
R. Dunstan, F.R.S., 520; Agriculture in the Dry 
Regions of the British Empire, Dr. E. J. Russell, in ; 
Transvaal Agricultural Journal, Dr. E. J. Russell, in; 
Agricultural Journal of the Cape of Good Hope, Dr. 
E. J. Russell, in; Water Requirements of Crops in 
India, J. W. Leather, Dr. E. J. Russell, in ; Destruc- 
tion of .Agricultural Plant Pests by Chemical Means, 
H. C. Long, 117; Question of Utilising Wind Power in 
Country Districts, Dr. Sutton, 148 ; Agricultural Research 
in Japan, 151 ; Silkworm Problems. K. Toyama, 151 ; 
Prof. C. Sasaki, 151 : Kleines Handworterbuch der 
Agrikulturchemie, Dr. Max Passon, Dr. E. J. Russell, 
164 ; Milch und Molkereiprodukte, ihre Eigenschaften, 
Zusammensetzung und Gewinnung, Dr. Paul Sommer- 
feld, 168 ; Preservation of Bamboos from the Attacks of 
the Bamboo Beetle or " Shot-borer," E. P. Stebbing, 
178; Suitability of Bamboos and Lalang or Cogon Grass 
for Making Paper Pulp, G. F. Richmond, 246 ; .Advan- 
tages of Maize as a Crop for Export, Mr. MacDonald, 
178; Use of Fertilisers for Cereals, 178: Feeding Value 
of Mangels, Prof. Wood, 161 : Effects of Tarred Roads 
on Vegetation, Marcel Mirande, 161 ; Influence of the 
Tarring of Roads on the Adjacent Vegetation, Ed. 
Griffon, 227 ; Jubilee of the German .Agricultural Society, 
214; " Koleroga," a Palm Disease, Dr. L. C. Coleman, 
217; Bacterial Disease of the Potato Plant in Ireland, and 
the Organism causing it, G. H. Pethybridge and Paul 
.A. Murphy, 296; Peru To-day, 317; Reports of the 
Botanical Departments in Trinidad and Tobago, Prof. P. 
Carmodv, 345 ; .Agricultural and Forestry Department 
of the Nyasaland Protectorate, 346 ; Cultivation of Millet. 
Jute, and Caravonica Cotton, 346 ; Phosphate Fields of 
Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming, 346; Soil Fertility, Dr. R. 
Greig-Smith. 362 ; Grant for Encouragement of Light 
Horse Breeding in Great Britain, 381 ; Rural Economy 
of the Bombay Deccan, Mr. Keatinge, 382 ; the Imperial 
Department of .Agriculture in the West Indies, Sir 
Daniel Morris, K.C.M.G., at Royal Colonial Institute, 
418 ; transformation of Proteids into Fats, M. Nieren- 
stein, 427 ; .Argentine Republic, Agricultural and Pastoral 
Census of the Nation, Stock-breeding and Agriculture in 
1908, 415.1; ; Live Stock and Agricultural Census of the 
.Argentine Republic. 4?'; : What Science has done for 
the West Indies, Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, K.C.M.G., 



IV 



Index 



r Nature, 

L March 23, 191 1 



F.R.S., 477; the Manuring of Market-garden Crops, 
Dr. B. Dyer and F. W. E. Shrivell, 505 ; Report on the 
Botanic Station Experimental Plots and Agricultural 
Education, 520 ; see also British Association 

Agrogeological Congress at Stockholm, the International, 88 

A^ulhon (H.), Action of the Ultra-violet Rays upon 
Diastases, 566 

Ahrens (C. D.), Ahren's Biliquid Prism, 124 

Aigrettes and Bird Skins : the Truth about their Collection 
and Export, Harold Hamel Smith, 207 

Aird (Sir John), Death of, 343 

Airship : Methods of Finding the Height of an. Captain 
Paul Renard, 21 ; the Airship for the British Navy, 555 

Aitken (Dr. R. G.), Double Stars, 418 

Aitken (Dr. W. A.), the Voice, igg 

Albec (Helen R.), Hardy Plants for Cottage Gardens, loi 

Albrecht (Dr.), Mars and its Atmosphere, 486 

Alcoholism, a Second Study of the Influence of Parental, on 
the Physique and Ability of the Offspring, Karl Pearson, 
F.R.S., and Ethel M. Elderton, 470 

Alcoholism in Adults, a Preliminary Study of Extreme, 
Amy Banington and Karl Pearson, F.R.S., and Dr. 
David Heron, 470 

Alechin (V.), Vegetation on the Kasatzkisch Steppe, 246 

Alexander (D.), Nigerian Punch and Judy Show, 116 

Alfassa (Maurice), Cotton Growing in the British Empire, 
382 

Algebra : a School Algebra, H. S. Hall, 167 ; Elements of 
Algebra, A. Schultze, 167; College Algebra, Prof. H. L. 
Reitz and A. R. Crathorne, 368 

Alkaloide, die, Prof. E. Winterstein and Dr. G. Trier, i-^i 

Allbutt (Sir T. Clifford, K.C.B., F.R.S.), Physiology the 
Servant of Medicine, being the Hitchcock Lectures for 
igoc) delivered at the University of California, Berkeley, 
Cal., 465 

Allegheny Observatory, Publications of the. Prof. 
Schlesinger, 218; Dr. Schlesinger and D. Alter, 218; 
Dr. R. H. Baker, 218 

Allen (M. J.), Easy Method of Treating Printing-out Paper 
(P.O.P.) for all'kinds of Photography, 361 

Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis, 37, 365 

Alpago (Dr. R.), Observations of Magnetic Declination and 
Dissipation of Electric Charge which they made at Padua 
on May 14-21, 150 

Alpine Switzerland, Plant Life in, E. A. Newall Arber, 404 

Alter (D.), Publications of the Allegheny Observatory, 218 

Altitude Tables, Computed for Intervals of Four Minutes 
between the Parallels of Latitude 0° and 30° and Parallels 
of Declination 0° and 24°, designed for the Determination 
of the Position-line at all Hour Angles without 
Logarithmic Computation, F. Ball, 201 

Alverstone (Lord), the Work of Polytechnic Institutes, 220 

Amann (M.), the Total Eclipse of the Moon of November 
16, 10 10, observed at Aosta, Italy, 261 

Amar (Jules), Respiratory Exchanges after Work has been 
Done, 161 

Ameghino (Dr. F.), Certain Teeth from a Cavern in 
Cuba, 48 ; Stone Implements found near Mar del Plata, 
285 

America : American Meat and its Influence upon the Public 
Health, Dr. Albert Leffingwell, 232 ; .Surface Water 
Supply of the United States, 1007-8, 283 ; American 
Association for the Advancement of Science : the Making 
of a Darwin, Dr. David Starr Jordan, 31^4; the Minne- 
apolis Meeting of the, 410 ; American Men of Science, 
307 ; Leading American Men of Science, 397 

Ammodiscus incertus, the Megalospheric Form of, F. 
Chapman, ii^q 

Anatomy : Summary of Recent Investigations upon the 
Anatomical Localisation of the Human Cerebral Cortex, 
Prof. Marinesco, 278 ; the Archaeological Survey of Nubia, 
Report on the Human Remains, Drs. G. Elliot Smith, 
F.R.S., and F. Wood-Jones, 310 

Anderson (Dr. Tempest), Matavanu, a New Volcano in 
Savaii (German Samoa), Discourse at Royal Institution, 
92; Decay of Building Stones, 116 

Andrews (Dr. C. W., F.R.S.), a Descriptive Catalogue of 
the Marine Reptiles of the Oxford Clay, based on the 
Leeds Collection in the British Museum (Natural History), 
London, 264 

Andrews (E. C.), an Excursion to the Yosemite, 130 



Anecdotes of Big Cats and other Beasts, David Wilson, 333 
Angiosperms, Lower Cretaceous, Dr. M. C. Slopes, 139 
Angot (Alfred), Earthquake of January 3-4, 1911, 396 
Annandale (Dr.), New Genus of Psychodid Diptera from 

the Himalaya and Travancore, 122 
Anniversary Meeting of the Royal Society, 143 
Annuaire du Bureau des Longitudes, 151 
.\ntarctica : the Second French Antarctic Expedition, Dr. 
J. B. C'harcot at Royal Geographical Society, 257; Pro- 
posed Work of the German Antarctic Expedition, 315 ; 
Present Position of Antarctic Meteorology, R. C. Moss- 
man, 318; Australian Antarctic Expedition, 414; the 
Ancient Fossil Archieocyathus in Antarctica, 415 ; the 
Nitrates in the Atmosphere of the Antarctic Regions, A. 
Miintz and E. Lain6, 463 ; Japanese Antarctic Expedition, 
519 
Anthropology : Changes in Bodily Form of Descendants 
of Immigrants, Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S., 11; Worked 
Flints from the Ipswich District, W. Whittaker, F".R.S., 
116; Nigerian Punch and Judy .Show, D. Alexander, 116; 
Bull-fighting among the Fuiani, Capt. A. J. N. Tre- 
mearne, 116; Homo aurignacensis. Hauseri, ein palaeo- 
lithischer Skelettfund aus dem unteren Aurignacien der 
Station Combecapelle bei Montferrand (P^rigord), H. 
Klaatsch and O. Hauser, Richard N. Wegner, 119; Die 
Aurignac-Rasse und ihre Stellung im Stammbaum der 
Menschheit, H. Klaatsch, Richard N. Wegner, 119; a New 
Theory of the Descent of Man, Prof. A. Keith, 206, 509 ; 
Gerhardt v. Bonin, 508 ; the Arrival of Man in Britain, 
Huxley Memorial Lecture at Royal Anthropological In- 
stitute, Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., 122 ; the Negro 
in the New World, Sir Harry H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., 
K.C.B., Prof. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S., 172 ; Living speci- 
men in the Island of Luzon bearing close Relationship to 
the Palaeolithic Type, Dr. R. B. Bean, 176 ; Racial Ana- 
tomy of the People of Taytay, Dr. Bean, 176; Origin of 
the Rajputs and Mahrattas, W. Crooke, 177; Different 
Types of Ears occurring among the Philipinos, R. B. 
Bean, 216; Certain Physical Characters of the Negroes of 
the Congo Free State and Nigeria, Dr. Arthur Keith, at 
Royal Anthropological Institute, 221 ; Neolithic Interment 
discovered between Attard and Nobile, T. Zammit, 245 ; 
the Tribe, and Intertribal Relations in Australia, G. C. 
Wheeler, 267 ; Two Representative Tribes of Queensland, 
with an Inquiry concerning the Origin of the Australian 
Race, J. Mathew, 267 ; the Archaeological Survey of 
Nubia, Report on the Human Remains, Dr. G. Elliot 
Smith, F.R.S., and F. Wood Jones, 310; the Tomb of 
Two Brothers, Miss M. A. Murray, 332 ; Mating, Mar- 
riage, and the .Status of Women, James Corin, 334; 
Women of All Nations, 537 ; Ceylonese Drum known as 
Udakiya, Dr. A. Willey, 344 ; Exploration of a Palaeo- 
lithic Cave-dwelling, known as La Cotte, at St. Brelade, 
Jersey, E. T. Nicholls and J. Sinel, 344; Dioptrographic 
Tracings in Four Normal of Fifty-two Tasmanian Crania, 
Prof. R. J. A. Berry and A. W. D. Robertson, 366 ; Der 
Stand unserer Kenntnisse vom fossilen Menschen, Prof. 
W. Branca, Prof. G. Elliot Smith, 402 ; a Tribe of 
Pygmies on the Kapare River, Claude Grant, 413 ; Pre- 
historic Operation " T. sincipital," Pr. F. Gron, 4.';o ; 
Exploration of a Flint Implement Factory, H. S. Cowper, 
520 ; see also British Association 
Antiquary's Life, Accidents of an, D. G. Hogarth, 238 
Antoniadi (E. M.), Observations of Mars, 305 
Ants, on the Origin of Slavery and Parasitism in, Henri 

Pi^ron, 351 
Aphrodite, the Incense-altar of, at Paphos, Dr. Max Ohne- 

falsch-Richter, 323 
Appell (Paul), Biographic,. Bibliographic analytique des 

Ecrits, Ernest Lebon, 335 

Appellof (Dr. A.), Life-history of the Common Lobster, 179 

Arber (E. A. Newell), Plant Life in Alpine Switzerland, 404 

Archa;ologv : Early Burial Customs in Egypt, Prof. W. M. 

Flinders' Petrie, F.R.S., 41; Prof. G. Elliot Smith, 

F.R.S., 41 ; New Discoveries at Knossos, H. R. Hall, 45; 

Death of Richard Froude Tucker, 114; Excavations at 

the Site of the Roman Station of Margidunum on the 

Fosse Way, 114; the So-called "Stone Circle" on Shurd- 

ington Hill, L. Richardson, 146; Arctic Plants from the 

Valley Gravels of the River Lea, S. Hazzledine Warren, 

206 ; the Sea-Kings of Crete, Rev. James Baikie, 235; 



Nature, 
March 23, 1911 



Index 



Accidents of an Antiquary's Life, D. G. Hogarth, 238 ; 
Excavations on the Island of Pseira, Crete, Richard B. 
Seager, H. R. Hail, 272 ; the Archaeological Survey of 
Nubia, Report on the Human Remains, Drs. G. Elliot 
Smith, F.R.S., and F. Wood-Jones, 310; the German 
Excavations at Babylon, H. R. Hall, 312; an Arabic 
Pompeii in the Neighbourhood of Cordova, 314; the 
Incense-altar of Aphrodite at Paphos, Dr. Max Ohno 
falsch-Richter. 323 ; the Annual of the British School at 
Athens, H. R. Hall, 339 ; an Institute of Human Palaeont- 
ology, 412; Papers of the British School at Rome, 445; 
Megalithic Monuments and Prehistoric Culture in the 
Western Mediterranean, Dr. Mackenzie, .445 ; Mr. Peet, 
445 ; Distribution of Early Civilisation in Northern 
Greece in relation to its Geographical Features, .A. J. B. 
Wace and M. S. Thompson, 450; Death of P. D. Scott- 
Moncrieff, 548 ; the Maya Hieroglyphs, W. E. Gates, 549 
.\rchbutt (S. L.), Constitution of the Alloys of Aluminium 

and Zinc, 564 
.Architecture : Measurements of Spiral Stairway of the 
Leaning Tower of Pisa, Wm. H. Goodyear, 347 ; the 
Settlement in Strassburg Cathedral, M. Knauth, 384 
Arctic Plants from the Valley Gravels of the River Lea, 

S. Hazzledine Warren, 206 
Ardern (E.), Oxidation of Phenol by Certain Bacteria in 

Pure Culture, 127 
Argentina, Anales de la Oficina Meteorologica, 250 
-Argentine Republic — Agricultural and Pastoral Census of 
the Nation : Stock-breeding and Agriculture in 1908, 455 
Argentine Republic, Climate of the, W. G. Davis, 250 
Argentine Republic, Live Stock and Agricultural Census of 

the, 455 
Aristotelian Society, Proceedings of the, 370 
Arithmetic : Public School Arithmetic, \\'. M. Baker 
and A. A. Bourne, 167; Key to Hall and Stevens's School 
Arithmetic, L. W. Grenville. ^05 
.Armfieid (Constance S.), the Ffower Book, 507 
Armstrong (Dr. E. F.), Oxidases differ from other kinds 

of Enzymes, 26 
.Armstrong (Prof. H. E., F.R.S.), Leathes' Work on the 
.Splitting of Fats at Intermediate Points in the Carbon 
Chain, and the Formation of Peroxides by Manganese 
and Iron with Hydroxy-acids, 26 ; Relations of Science 
with Commercial Life, 90 
.Arnold (Prof. J. O.), a Fourth Recalescence in Steel, 157 
-Arrow (G. J.), the Fauna of British India, including 
Ceylon and Burma : Coleoptera Lamellicornia (Cetoniinae 
and Dynastinae), 467 
Ashby (Dr. Henry), Notes on Physiology, 304 
Ashby (Dr. T.), Excavations at Caerwent, the Site of 
Venta Silurum, 22 ; Excavations at Hagear Kim and 
Mnaidra, Malta, 23 
Ashley (G. H.), the Value of Coal Land, 420 
Ashworth (Dr.), Partial Sterilisation of Soils, 25 
Asia, the Recent Earthquakes in, Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S., 

335; Dr. C. Chree, F.R.S., 335 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 130, 396 
-Asphalt Paving or Lining and Vegetation, 318 
-Association of Teachers in Technical Institutions, the, 55 
Aston (F. W.), Distribution of Electric Force in the 

Crookes Dark Space, 394 
Astronomy: Our .Astronomical Column, 21, 51, 87, 118, 
150, 180, 218, 248, 282, 319, 348, 384, 417, 453, 486, 
,S23, 552 ; Fireball of October 23, W. F. Denning, 21 ; 
the Motion of Molecules in the Tail of Halley's Comet, 
Prof. Lowell, 21 ; Ephemeris for Halley's Comet, Dr. 
Ebell, 51 ; Selenium Photometer Measures of the Bright- 
ness of Halley's Comet, Joel Stebbin, 51 ; Halley's Comet, 
M. Bassot, 97 ; H. E. Wood, 349 ; Messrs. Innes and 
Worssell, 350 ; Father Goetz, 350 ; Profs. Nijland and 
Van der Bilt, 350; F. Sy, 351; Dr. J. Mascart. 351: 
M. Jamain, 351 ; Recent Helwan Photographs of Halley's 
Comet, Prof. Barnard, 180; Observations of Halley's 
Comet made at the Nice Observatory with the Gautier 
Equatorial of 76 cm. -Aperture, M. Javelle, 129; Condition 
of the .Atmosphere during the Recent Proximity of 
Hallev's Comet, H. G. A. Hardinge, 130; the Spectrum 
of Halley's Comet, C. P. Butler, 193 ; the Dark Band 
Surrounding the Polar Caps of Mars, Prof. Lowell, 22 ; 
Markings of Mars, James H. Worthington, 40 ; Prof. 
A. M. Worthington, C.B., F.R.S., 372 ; "Observations of 



Mars, E. M. Antoniadi. 305 ; Mars and its Atmosphere, 
-Mr. Innes and Mrs. H. fe. Wood, 486; Prof. Campbell 
and Dr. Albrecht, 486 ; the Satellites cf Mars, Prof. 
Ix)well, 552 ; the Spectrum of Nova Sagittarii No. 2, 
I^eon Campbell, 22 ; Prof. Millosevich, 22 ; Magnitude of 
Nova Sagittarii No. 2, Dr. Ristenpart, 151 ; Discovery of 
-Another Nova, Sagittarii No. 3, Miss Cannon, 248; Nova 
-Sagittarii No. 3, H.V. 3306, Miss Cannon, 552 ; a New 
Variable Star or a Nova 97, 1910, Cygni, Mr. Hinks, 22 ; 
New Variable Stars in Harvard Map, No. 52, Miss 
Cannon, 22 ; November Meteors, John R. Henry, 40 ; 
Fireball on November 2, 51 ; Rotation of the Moon, 51 ; 
the Secular Acceleration of the Moon's Mean Motion, 
Dr. Robert Bryant, 119; the Total Eclipse of the Moon, 
November 16, E, .A. .Martin, 118; Madame de Robeck, 
118; M-M. Luizet, Guillaume, and Merlin, 180; M. Mon- 
tangerand, 180; M. Lebeuf, 180; M. Jonckheere, 180; 
Dr. Max Wolf, 319; Father Fenyi, 319; the Total Eclipse 
of the Moon of November 16, 1910, observed at Aosta, 
Italy, M. -Amann and CI. Rozet, 261 ; a New Map of 
the Moon, Mr. Goodacre, 319; the Apparent Diameter 
of Jupiter, Father Chevalier, 51 ; Equatorial Current of 
Jupiter in 1880, A. Stanley Williams, 226 ; Analytical 
Theory and Tables of Motion of Jupiter by Le Verrier, 
-A. Gaillot, 327 ; Observations ot Jupiter's Galilean Satel- 
lites, Mr. Innes, 524 ; Curved Photographic Plates, Prof. 
E. C. Pickering, 51 ; Observations of the New Cerulli 
Planet (K U), 1910, M. Coggia, 65 ; the Romance ol 
Modern Astronomy, describing in Simple but Exaci 
Language the Wonders of the Heavens, Hector Mac- 
pherson, jun., 71 ; Death of Dr. F. Valle, 83 ; Discover> 
of a Comet, Dr. Cerulli, 87 ; Cerulli's Comet, 19106, Prof. 
Hartwig, 119; Dr. Ebell, 119; Observations of, made at the 
Obser\-atory of Besanijon with the Bent Equatorial, P. 
Chofardet, 129; Cerulli's Comet (i9io€). Identified with 
Faye's Short-period Comet, Prof. Pickering, 150; Dr. 
Ebell, 150; Dr. Schiller, 151; Dr. Ristenpart, 151; Dr. 
Cerulli, 151 ; Observations of Cerulli's Come! 
made at the Observatory of Lyons, J. Guillaume, 161 ; 
Ephemeris for Faye's Comet, 1910^, Dr. Ebell, 180; 
Identity of the Cerulli Comet with the Faye Comet, G. 
Fayet, 193; Faye's Comet, G. Fayet, 248; Observation of 
the Faye-Cerul'i Comet made at the Observatory of Mar- 
seilles with the Comet Finder, M. Borrelly, 261 ; Elements 
for Faye's Comet, 1910^, Prof. Ristenpart and Dr. 
Prager, 319; Mr. Mejer and Miss Levy, 319; Ephemeris 
for Faye's Comet, Dr. Ebell, 523 ; Metcalf's Comet 
igiofe). Dr. Ebell, 87, 319; Recent Fireballs, 87; Mr. and 
^frs. Wilson, 150 ; C. B. Pennington, 150 ; J. Hicks, 
150; Saturn's Rings, M. Jonckheere, 150; K. Schiller, 
218; Solar -Activity and Terrestrial Temperatures, W. J. 
Humphreys, 87 ; Stars having Peculiar Spectra, and New 
A'ariable Stars, 87 ; the Discovery of Neptune, 87 ; the 
Discovery of Neptune, Leverrier's Letter to Galle, 184 ; 
Variable Stars in the Orion Nebula, 87 ; Means of 
Determining by Colour Photometry the Parallaxes of a 
certain Class of Stars, Charles Nordmann, 97 ; der 
Sternenhimmel, Prof. J. D. Messerschmitt, 102 ; Selenium 
Photometry of Stars, Dr. Joel Stebbins, 119; Photo- 
graphic Magnitudes of Seventy-one Pleiades Stars, .Adolf 
Hnatek, 119; Elements and Numbers of Recently Dis- 
covered Minor Planets. Prof. Neugebauer, 1 19 ; Spectro- 
scopic Measurement of the Rotation of Stars possessing 
an -Atmosphere, with Special Reference to the Sun, -A. 
Perot, 129 ; a Popular Guide to the Heavens. Sir 
Robert S. Ball, 136 ; the Photography of Nebulje. 
Dr. William J. S. Lockyer. 140 : Observations of 
Magnetic Declination and Dissipation of Electric 
Charge which they made at Padua on May 14-21, Drs. 
R. .Alpago and G. Silva, 150 ; a Projection on 
Saturn's Outer Ring, M. Jonckheere, 248: a System of 
Standard Wave-lengths, Prof. Kayser, 151 ; the Radial 
Velocity of Sirius, W. Miinch, 151 ; -Annuaire du Bureau 
des Longitudes, 191 1, 151 ; Comets and Electrons. Prof. 
-Augusto Righi, 180 ; the Probable Errors of Radial- 
velocity Determination, Mr. Plaskett, 180: the Photo- 
graphic Magnitudes of Stars. Prof. E. C. Pickering, i8i : 
E. Hertzsprung, 181 ; Proper Motion of the Star 
B.D.-l-33°q9, Dr. .Abetti, 181; Several Entirely Unknown 
-Autographs of Nicolaus Copernicus, Dr. L. Birkenmajer, 
217; the Orbit of the Perseids, Henri Dierckx, 218; De- 



VI 



Index 



Nature, 
March 23,>igii 



finitive Elements for the Orbit of Comet 1904 II. (1904^), 
J. Sedlac'ek, 218; Designations of Newly Discovered 
Variable Stars, 218; Nova Arse 98, 1910, Dr. Ristenpart, 
218; Publications of the Allegheny Observatory, Prof. 
Schlesingor, 218; Dr. Schlesinger and D. Alter, 218; 
Dr. R. H. Baker, 218; Royal Astronomical Society, 226; 
Multiple Solutions in the Determination of Orbits from 
Three Observations, C. \^. L. Charlier, 226 ; Accuracy of 
the Positions of the Star Images in the " Harvard Sky," 
H. H. Turner, 226 ; Determination of Selenographic 
Positions, and the Measurement of Lunar Photographs, 
S. A. Saunders, 226-7 ; the Quadrantid Meteor Shower, 
T. W. Backhouse, 236 ; Determination of the Inter- 
national Boundaries in Africa, 247 ; New Experimental 
Demonstration of the Earth's Rotation, Father Hagen, 
248; B. Latour, 248; Investigation of the Orbit of the 
Wolf's Comet, 1898-1911, M. Kamensky, 248; the Light 
Changes of Forty-nine Variable Stars, Dr. L. Pracka, 
248 ; January Meteors, John R. Henry, 271 ; the Spectrum 
of the America Nebula, Dr. Max Wolf, 282 ; the Move- 
ments of Certain Stars, in Space, compared with that 
of the Sun, Dr. P. Stroobant, 282 ; the Italian Observa- 
tories, 282 ; Astronomy at the Brussels Exhibition, Dr. 
Stroobant, 282 ; Tracing the Solar Corona in Lunar 
Observations, Em. Touchet, 283 ; Annual Publications, 
283 ; Determination of the Solar Parallax, Charles D. 
Perrine, 287 ; the Stars from Year to Year, with Charts 
for Every Month, H. Periam Hawkins, 304 ; the Star 
Calendar for 1911, H. Periam Hawkins, 304; the Star 
Almanac for 1911, H. Periam Hawkins, 304; the New 
Hamburg Observatory, 309 ; Death and Obituary Notice 
of, Dr. M. W'ilhelm Meyer, 313 ; Discovery of an Eighth- 
magnitude Nova, Mr. Espin, 319; Nineteen .Stars with 
Newly Discovered Variable Radial Velocities, O. J. Lee, 
319; Observations of Planets, J. Halley, 319; Aims of 
Astronomy of Precision, S. C. Hough, F.R.S., at Roval 
Society of South Africa, 323 ; Observations of the Sun 
made at the Observatory of Lyons during the Third 
Quarter of 1910, J. Guillaume, 327 ; Round the Year 
with the Stars, Garrett P. Serviss, 333 ; Astronomical 
Society of Barcelona, 344 ; the January Meteors, W. F. 
Denning, 348 : Nova Lacerta;, Mr. Hinks, 348 ; Mr. 
Espin, .348, 384; Prof. Max Wolf, 384, 453, 1^23, i^t;2 ; 
Prof. Pickering, 3S4, 523 ; Mr. Bellamy, 384 ; Dr. Graff, 
417; Prof. Barnard, 453; Prof. Millosevich, 453; Dr. 
Miinch, 41^3 ; Prof. Hertzsprung, 4c;3 ; Felix de Roy, 4153 ; 
Herr Mewes, 453 ; P. Idrac, 486, 523 ; Prof. Nijland, 
523 ; Dr. Kiih!, 523 ; P. M. Ryves, 523 ; First Observa- 
tions on the New Star in Lacerta, P. Idrac, 463 ; Comets 
Due to Return in 1911, Mr. Lynn, 348; Preliminarv 
Results derived from Radial-velocity Determinations, 
Prof. Campbell, 348: Stellar Magnitudes, J. E. Maybee, 
348 ; Temperature Changes and Solar Activity, Prof. 
F. H. Bigelow, 3152 ; Fireball of January 9, W. F. 
Denning, 372 ; the Orbits of Several Spectroscopic 
Binaries, R. H. Baker, 384 ; F, C. Jordan, 385 ; the 
Discovery of Kepler's Laws, M. Bigourdan, 381; ; Bright 
Bolides, M. Birkenstock, 385 ; the Astrographic Cata- 
logue, Catania Zones, 385 ; Effective Diameters of the 
Stars, Charles Nordmann, 395 ; Death and Obituary 
Notice of Gustave Leveau, 414 ; Death of F. W. 
Hermann Leppig, 414 : Death of M. Roz^, 414 ; Meteors 
in February, W. F. Denning, 417 ; a New Variable or 
Nova (134, 1910, Piscium), E. Ernst, 417; Mass-ratios of 
the Components of Kriiger 60 and Castor, Dr. H. N. 
Russell, 418; Double Stars, Dr. R. G. Aitken, 418; Prof. 
Burnham, 418 ; the United States Naval Observatory, 
418; Star Colours, Mr. Innes, 418; Absorbing Matter in 
Space, Messrs. Innes and W'orssell, 41:3 ; Photographic 
Determinations of Stellar Parallax, Prof. F. Schlesinger, 
, 4<;4 ; Lines in the Spectra of Nebulas, Dr. W. H. Wright, 
-KJ. ; Utilisation of the Sun's Heat, Prof. Ceraski, /^tA : 
Splendid Meteor on January 21;, W. F. Denning, 4^3; 
a Morning Meteor, Joseph H. Elgie, 471:;; Cometary 
Theories, Messrs. Roe and Graham. 486 ; Prof. Eginitis, 
486 ; Polarisation in the Spectrum of o Ceti, Dr. W'right, 
486; the Earth's Action on Sunlight and Heat, James 
D. Roots, 486 ; Stars shown to the Children, Ellison 
Hawks, 506 ; Standard Astronometrv, W. E. Cooke, 523 ; 
New Spectroscopic Binaries, J. H. Moore, 523 ; Mr. 
Paddock, 523 ; Prof. Campbell, 524 ; The Progressive 



Disclosure of the Entire Atmosphere of the Sun, Albert 
Alfred Buss, 540 ; the Spectra of some Wolf-Rayet Stars, 
J. C. Duncan, 552 ; Southern Nebulre, Mr. Innes, 5152 ; 
Mr. Woods, 552 ; Mr. Mitchell, 552 ; a Slowly Moving 
Meteor, F. E. Baxandall, c<;2 

-Astrophysics : les Theories Modernes du Soleil, J. Bosler, 
68 ; Vorlesungen iiber die Physik der Sonne, Prof. E. 
Pringsheim, 68 ; the Solar Physics Observatory, 373 ; the 
Progressive Disclosure of the Entire Atmosphere of the 
Sun, Dr. H. Deslandres at Royal Institution of Great 
Britain, 422, 457 

Athens, the Annual of the British School at, H. R. Hall, 

Athens, the Latitude of, Demetrius Eginitis, 56 

Atkinson (Prof. G. F.), Botany for High Schools, 370 

Atmospheric Nitrogen, Fixation of. Prof. J. Zenneck, 556 

.Atomic Weights of Cadmium, Manganese, Bromine, Lead, 
Arsenic, Iodine, Silver, Chromium, and Phosphorus, 
Researches upon the, G. P. Baxter, 202 

Atomistik, die experimentelle Grundlegung der, W. 
Mocklenberg, 403 

Audas (J. W.), Botanical Expedition in the Victorian 
Alps, Plants recorded in the District by Dr. A. J. Evvart, 
177 

Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, 
the, 558 

Australia : the Tribe, and Intertribal Relations in Aus- 
tralia, G. C. Wheeler, 267 ; Two Representative Tribes 
of Queensland, with an Inquiry concerning the Origin of 
the Australian Race, J. Mathew, 267 ; a Research on the 
Pines of Australia, R. T. Baker and H. G. Smith, 465 

Aviation : Morning Post National Fund Airship's Flight 
from Moisson to Aldershot, 18 ; Death of Octave Chanute, 
211;; Aeroplane Patents, Robert M. Neilson, 270; 
Aviators and Squalls, M. Durand-Gr^ville, 322 ; Flight 
in a Curtis Biplane from Selfridge Field, Eugene Ely, 
4i> ; Increasing the Stability of Aeroplanes by Means of 
Gyroscopes, M. Girardville, 429; Oversea Flight by Mr. 
McCurdy, 448 ; the Structural Design of Aeroplanes, 
Prof. Herbert Chatley, 41^2 ; Forthcoming Attempt to 
Cross the Atlantic Ocean by Airship, 484 ; Loss of Life 
by Aeroplane Accidents, Prof. G. H. Bryan, 484 ; the 
Airship for the British Navy, 555 

Ayrton (Hertha), Sex Relationship, 406; Motion of Oscil- 
lating Water, 462 



Babylon, the German Excavations at, H. R. Hall, 312 
Backhouse (T. W.), the Quadrantid Meteor Shower, 236 
Bacteriology : Applications of the Kinematograph to 
Bacteriological Photomicrography, iq ; Method for Isolat- 
ing and Growing the Lepra Bacillus of Man, E. W. 
Twort, 127 ; Oxidation of Phenol by Certain Bacteria in 
Pure Culture, G. J. Fowler, E. Ardern, and W. T. 
Lockett, 127 ; Search for Bacterium coU in Sea Water by 
the Methods Employed for Fresh Water, P. Fabre- 
Domergue and R. Legendre, 162 ; Bacterial Disease of 
the Potato Plant in Ireland and the Organism causing it, 
G. H. Pethybridge and Paul A. Murphy, 296 ; Per- 
manency of the Characters of the Bacteria of the Bacillus 
coli Group, Dr. R. Greig-Smith, 362 ; Soil Fertility, Dr. 
R. Greig-Smith, 362 
Baensch (Otto), Baruch de Spinoza, Ethik, 367 
Bagster (L. S.), Properties of some Binary Mixtures of 

some Liquefied Gases, 453 
Baikie (Rev. James), the Sea-Kings of Crete, 235 
Bailey (L. H.), Manual of Gardening, 132 
Baker (Dr. R. H.), Publications of the Allegheny Observa- 
torv, 218; the Orbits of Several Spectroscopic Binaries, 

.S84 
Baker (R. T.), a Research on the Pines of Australia, 465 
Baker (W. M.), Public School Arithmetic, 167 
Baldwin (Prof. James Mark), Darwinism and the 

Humanities, 504 
Ball (F.), Altitude Tables, computed for Intervals of Four 
Minutes between the Parallels of Latitude 0° and 30° and 
Parallels of Declination o* and 24°, designed for the 
Determination of the Position-line at all Hour Angles 
without Logarithmic Computation, 201 
Ball (Sir Robert S.), a Popular Guide to the Heavens, 136 



Nature, 1 
March 23, 191 1 J 



Inde. 



'X 



VII 



Baning^on (Amy), a Preliminary Study of Extreme 

Alcoholism in Adults, 479 
Banquet to Jubilee Past-presidents of the Chemical Society, 

87 

Banse (Ewald), the Influence of River Systems in the East, 
288 

Barbour (Capt. J. H.), Two Notes from India, 73 

Barclay (\V. R.), Adhesion of Electro-deposited Silver in 
Relation to the Nature of the German Silver Basis Metal, 
428 

Barnard (Prof.), Recent Helwan Photographs of Halley's 
Comet, 180 ; Nova Lacertae, 453 

Barnard (H. Clive), the British Empire in Pictures, 39 

Barnes (Prof. C. R.), a Text-book of Botany for Colleges 
and Universities, 399 

Barnes (Prof. H. T.), Marine Microthermograms and 
Influence of Icebergs on the Temperature of the Sea, 137 

Baroni (V.), Action of the Ultra-violet Rays upon the 
Tubercle Bacillus and upon Tuberculin, 34 

Barratt (Dr. J. O. Wakelin), Complement Deviation in 
Mouse Carcinoma, 496 

Barrett (Prof. VV. P., F.R.S.), Historical Note on Re- 
calescence, 235 

Barrett-Hamilton (Major G. E. H.), British Mammals, 6 ; 
Notes on Winter Whitening in ^fammals, 42 

Barwell (N.), Cambridge, 202 

Basset (.^. B., F.R.S.), a Treatise on the Geometry of 
Surfaces, 231 ; Singularities of Curves and Surfaces, 336, 
440 

Bassot (M.), Halley's Comet, 97 

Bateman (Capt. A. E.), Experiments to ascertain if Ante- 
lope may act as a Reservoir of the Virus of Sleeping 
Sickness {Trypanosoma gambiense), 428 ; Experiments to 
ascertain if the Domestic Fowl of Uganda may act as a 
Reservoir of the Virus of Sleeping Sickness {Trypano- 
soma gambiense), 428 

Bates (E. L.), Practical Mathematics and Geometrv, 470 

Bather (Dr. F. A., F.R.S.), Conflicting Dates of Inter- 
national Congresses, 139 ; Index to Desor's Synopsis des 
Echinides Fossiles, 404 

Bathurst (Charles), Growth of Sugar-beet in England, 20 

Battersea Park as a Centre for Nature Study, VV. Johnson, 

435 

Bauer (Edmund), the Blue Colour of the Sky and the 
Constant of Avogadro, 129 

Bauer (Dr. L. A.), on the Simultaneity of Abruptly-begin- 
ning Magnetic Storms, 306 ; Observations of the Value 
of the Gravitational Acceleration on Boarrf the American 
Magnetic Ship Carnegie, 485 ; some Problems- of Terres- 
trial Magnetism, 551 

Baumann (Prof. Julius), Wolffsche BegrifTsbestimmungen, 
367 

Baxandall (F. E.), a Slowly Moving Meteor, 552 

Baxter (G. P.), Researches upon the Atomic Weights of 
Cadmium, Manganese, Bromine, Lead, Arsenic, Iodine, 
Silver, Chromium, and Phosphorus, 202 

Biiyeux (Raoul), Experiments made at Mt. Blanc in 1910 
on Gastric Secretion at very High Altitude, 566 

Baylden (H. C), Notes on Chilian Mills in Russia, 295, 497 

Bean (Mr.), Venomous Toad-fishes of the Genera Thalas- 
sophryne and Thalassothia, 84 

Bean (Dr. R. B.), Living Specimen in the Island of Luzon 
bearing close Relationship to the Palaeolithic Type, 176; 
Racial .Anatomy of the People of Taytay, 176; Different 
Types of Ears occurring among the Philipinos, 216 

Bean (W. J.), the Arnold Arboretum, 117; Garden Notes 
on New Trees and Shrubs, 414 

Beattie (Prof. J. C), Historical Account of the Growth of 
our Knowledge of Terrestrial Magnetism, 522 

Beattie (R.), Measurements of the Magnetic Properties of 
Iron, Steel, Nickel, and Cobalt at the Temperature of 
Liquid Air, 347 

Beatty (R. T.), lonisation of Hea\7 Gases by X-rays, 128 

Becker (G. F.), the Age of the Earth, 173 

Becquerel (Jean), the Reversal of the Phosphorescence 
Bands, 193 ; Magnetic Modifications of the Absorption 
and Phosphorescence Bands of Rubies and on a Funda- 
mental Question of Magneto-optics, 463 

Beddard (F. E.), the Alimentary Tract of Certain Birds, 
and on the Mesenteric Relations of the Intestinal Loops, 
226 



Bedford (Duke of, K.G., F.R.S.), Twelfth Report of the 
Woburn Experimental Fruit Farm, 71 

Bee, the Anatomy of the Honey, R. E. Snodgrass, 169 

Beech (.Mervyn W. H.), the Suk of East Africa, 23 

Beerlage (G.' D.), an Attempt at " Vol d Vortex," 227 

Beetham (B.), the Home-life of the Spoonbill, the Stork, 
and some Herons, 544 

Beilby (Dr.), Relations of Science with Commercial Life, 90 

Belief, Reason and. Sir Oliver Lodge, 201 

B«?llamy (Mr.), Nova Lacertae, 384 

Bellati (Prof.), .Application of the Dilatometric Method to 
the Study of the Polymorphism of the .Alkali Nitrates, Hd 

Bemmelen (Dr. W. van), Report upon the Investigations of 
the Upper Air, 20 

Benedict (F. G.), the Metabolism and Energy Transforma- 
tions of Healthy Man during Rest, 276; Metabolism in 
Diabetes Mellitus, 455 

Bengough (G. D.), Report to the Corrosion Committee 
on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Corrosion 
of Non-ferrous Metals and Alloys, with Suggestions for 
a Research into the Causes of the Corrosion of Brass 
Condenser Tubes by Sea Water, 428 

Benham (Charles E.), the Origin of Man, 336 

Bensusan (.A. J.), Notes on Passagem Mine and Works, 33 

Bentley (Dr. Chas. A.), Drainage and Malaria, 471 

Berger (E.), T.etranitromethane, 98 

Berry (.A. J.), Conduction of Heat through Rarefied Gases, 

95 
Berry (G. H.), Vibrations of a Pianoforte Sound-board, 

541 

Berry (Prof. R. J. A.), Dioptrographic Tracings in Four 
Normal of Fifty-two Tasmanian Crania. 366 

Berry (Prof.), the Ether Extract of the Oat Kernel, 24 

Berthelot (Daniel), Principal Types of Photolysis of Or- 
ganic Compounds by the Ultra-violet Rays, 327 ; Photo- 
lysis of Complex Acids by the Ultra-violet Rays, 498 ; 
Comparative Action of the Ultra-violet Rays on Organic 
Compounds Possessing Linear and Cyclic Structure, 565 

Bertrand (Gabriel). Influence of Temperature on the 
Activity of Cellase, 227 ; Haemoglobin as a Peroxydase, 
429 ; Influence of Manganese on the Development of 
Aspergillus niger, 464 

Besson (A.), Reduction of Phosphoryl Chloride by Hydrogen 
under the Influence of the Silent Discharge, 129; by 
Passing a Rapid Current of Hydrogen Bromide over 
Amorphous Silicon at a Red Heat a Liquid is obtained, 
which, on Submitting to Fractional Distillation, gives as 
the Main Product of the Reaction Silicon Tetrabromide, 
227 

Bidwell (E.), Fragments of the Egg of an Ostrich obtained 
in a Nalla on the Kain River, 316 

Biffen (Prof.), some Crosses with Rivet Wheat, 160 

Bigelow (Prof. F. H.), Temperature Changes and Solar 
Activity, 352 

Bigelow (H. B.), the Siphonophora of the Research Biscayan 
Plankton, 96 

Bigourdan (M-), the Discovery of Kepler's Laws, 385 

Biliquid Prism, Ahren's, C. D. .Ahrens, 124 

Binns (F.), the Potter's Craft, 269 

Biochemistr}-, Monographs on, the Fats, Prof. J. B. 
Leathes, 502 

Biological Physics, Physic, and Metaphysic, Thomas 
Logan, 35^ 

Biology : Series of Specimens illustrating Irregularities in 
the Differentiation of Sexual Characters, Dr. .Arthur 
Keith, 19 ; Das System der Biologic in Forschung und 
Lehre, Dr. Phil. S. Tschulok, 37 ; the Differentiation 
and Specificity of Corresponding Proteins and other Vital 
Substances in Relation to Biological Classification and 
Organic Evolution and the Crystallography of Haemo- 
globins, Prof. E. T. Reichert and Prof. A. P. Brown, 57 ; 
Evolution of the Flat-fishes, Tate Regan, 65 ; Sexual 
Dimorphism in Plants, Prof. K. Goebel, 85 ; Hicksonella, 
a New Gorgonellid Genus, J. J. Simpson, 95 ; Some 
Varietal Forms of Massilina secans, E. Heron-Allen and 
A. Earland, 05 : Division of the Collar-cells of Calcareous 
Sponge, Clatfirina Coriacea, Muriel Robertson and Prof. 
E. .A. Minchen, 117; Effect of Gravity upon the Move- 
ments and .Aggregation of Euglena viridis, Ehrb., and 
other Micro-organisms, Harold Wager, 126; the Haema- 
tozoa of Australian Batrachians, Dr. J. Burton Cleland 



Vlll 



Index 



Nature, 
March 23, 191 1 



and T. Harvey Johnston, 130; Chemotactic and Similar 
Reactions of the Swarm Spores of Myxomycetes, S. 
Kusano, 151 ; Nuclear Relations of Paramecium cauda- 
ium during the Asexual Period, K. R. Lewin, 161 ; 
Further Evidence in favour of a so-called Pure-line 
Method in Corn Breeding, Dr. G. H. Shull, 217; a Bio- 
logical Inquiry into the Nature of Melanism in 
Amphidasis hetularia, Linn., H. S. Leigh, 270; Remark- 
;ible New Species of Volvox collected by Mr. Rousselet in 
Rhodesia, Prof. G. S. West, 278 ; Spawn and Larva of 
the Salamander, Amhly stoma Jeffersonianum, Prof. W. H. 
Piersol, 279 ; Ostracoda collected by D. Pedashenko in 
Issykkul, 279 ; Sex Relationship, Dr. R. J. Evvart, 322, 
406 ; Hertha Ayrton, 406 ; Life-history of the Reindeer 
Warble-fly {Oedcmagena tarandi), Prof. G. H. Carpenter, 
345 ; Preliminary Note on Unio pictorum, U. tumidus, 
and D. cygnea, Margaret C. March, 361, 429 ; Some 
African Rotifers — Bdelloida of Tropical .Africa, Jas. 
Murray, 361 ; an Introduction to Biology for Students in 
India, Prof. R. E. Lloyd, 370 ; Action of X-rays on the 
Developing Chick, J. F. Gaskell, 428; Determination of 
Sex, Prof. J. Arthur Thomson, 463 ; Problem of Sex- 
determination, 550 ; Die Variabilitat niederer Organis- 
men, Hans Pringsheim, C. Clifford Dobell, 501 ; Populare 
Vortrage aus dem Gebiete der Entwickelungslehre, Dr. 
Wilhelm Breitenbach, 540 ; Microfauna of the Nile, Dr. 
E. von Daday, 549 ; Germinal Localisation in the Egg 
of Cerebratulus, N, Yatsu, 550 ; an Entoproctan Poly- 
zoon {Barentsia benedeni), James Ritchie, 565 ; Marine 
Biology, the Michael Sars North Atlantic Deep-Sea 
Expedition, 1910, Dr. Johan Hjort, 52 ; the Michael 
Sars North Atlantic Deep-Sea Ex{>edition, 1910, Dr. 
Johan Hjort at Royal Geographical Society, 388 ; Work 
of the Port Erin Biological Station, 83 ; the Ova and 
Larvae of Teleostean Fishes taken at Plymouth in the 
Spring and Summer of 1909, 85; Comparison of the 
Summer Plankton on the West Coast of Scotland with 
that in the Irish Sea, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 96 ; the 
Siphonophora of the Research Biscayan Plankton, H. B. 
Bigelow, 96 ; Eel-Larvae {Leptocephalus hrevirostris) 
from the Central North Atlantic, Dr. Johan Hjort, 104; 
the Megalospheric Form of Ammodiscus incertus, F. 
Chapman, 139 ; the Southern Division of the Mannar 
Pearl-oyster Fishery, Dr. A. Willey, 148 ; Pearl and Pearl- 
oyster Fishery, A. Scale, 177; Pearl-fishery off Bantayan, 
L. E. Griffen, 246 ; the Breeding Seasons of Calanus 
finmarchius, G. P. Farren, 565 

Birds: the Flight of Birds against the Wind, Dr. W. Ainslie 
HoUis, 107 ; the Flight of Birds, Lucien Fournier, A. Mal- 
lock, F.R.S., 445 ; the Sailing-flight of Birds, Canon R. 
Abbay, 475; F. W. Headley, 511; A. Mallock, F.R.S., 
£;n ; Edward D. Hearn, 511 ; Position of Birds' Nests in 
Hedges, Lt.-Col. J. H. Tull Walsh, 207; the Conduct 
and Song of Birds, F. C. Constable, 308 ; the Birds of 
Dumfriesshire, a Contribution to the Fauna of the Solway 
Area, Hugh S. Gladstone, 378 ; the British Bird-Book, 
407 

Birkenmajer (Dr. L.), Several Entirely Unknown Auto- 
graphs of Nicolaus Copernicus, 217 

Birkenstock (M.), Bright Bolides, 385 

Bison, Present Condition of American, and Seal Herds, 12 

Black (Adam), Study of Artificial Pyrexia produced by 
Tetrahydro-^-naphthalamine Hydrochloride, 565 

Blackman (Dr. F. F., F.R.S.), on Respiration, 26; 
Germination Conditions and the Vitality of Seeds. 58 ; 
a New Method for Estimating Gaseous Exchanges of 
Submerged Plants, 1530 ; on Assimilation in Submerged 
Water-plants and its Relation to the Concentration of 
. Carbon Dioxide and other Factors, c;3o 

Blackman (Prof. V. H.), the Vermiform Male Nuclei of 
Lilium, 58 ; a Form of Nuclear Division Intermediate 
between Mitosis and Amitosis in Coleosporium Tussila- 
ginus, 59 

Blair (Mr.), Relations of Science with Commercial Life, 90 

Bloch (Eugene), Action of a Magnetic Field on the Electric 
Discharge, 97-8 ; the Discharge Potential in the Magnetic 
Field, 463 

Bodeker (Dr.), Native Methods of Fishing in Relation to 
the Incidence and Dissemination of Sleeping .Sickness, 178 

Bodroux (F.), .Action of some Esters on the Monosodium 
Derivative of Benzyl Cyanide, 328 



Bohr (M.), Determination of the Tension of a Recently 
Formed Water-surface, <)5 

Boisbaudran (Lecoq de), the Dehydration of Salts, 565 

Bolides, Bright, M. Birkenstock, 385 

Bolton (Herbert), Collection of Insect Remains from the 
South Wales Coalfield, 462 

Boltwood (Dr. B. B.), Radiochemistry, A. T. Cameron, 1C3 

Bongrand (J. Ch.), Propiolic Compounds, 161 

Bonhote (J. Lewis), Experiments on the Occurrence of the 
Web-foot Character in Pigeons, 160 

Bonin (Gerhardt v.), Klaatsch's Theory of the Descent of 
Man, 508 

Borrelly (M.), Observation of the Faye-Cerulli Comet made 
at the Observatory of Marseilles with the Comet Finder, 
261 

Boselli (Jacques), Resistance to the Movement of Small 
Non-spherical Bodies in a Fluid, 429 

Bosler (J.), les Theories Modernes du Soleil, 68 

Bosvvorth (T. O.), Keuper Marls around Charnwood 
Forest, 360 ; Metamorphism round the Ross of Mull 
Granite, 387 

Botany : Death and Obituary Notice of Prof. D. P. 
Penhallow, 16; Specimen of Agave Americana in 
Flower, 17; New Philippine Plants, E. D. Merrill, 20; 
Flowers which Undergo Marked Changes after Fertilisa- 
tion, Dr. H. Fitting, 20 ; the Teaching Botanist, Prof. 
W. F. Ganong, 36 ; Death of Dr. Theodore Cooke, 46 ; 
Obituary Notice of, 82 ; the Botanical Journal, 47 ; Rela- 
tionship that Exists between the amount of Chlorophyll 
present in a Leaf and the Energy of Photosynthesis, 
W. N. Lubimenko, 48 ; Examples of a Monstrous 
Carnation, 48 ; Pteridophyta for the Transvaal Province, 
J. Burtt-Davy, 48; Two Notes from India, Capt. J. H. 
Barbour, 73 ; Sexual Dimorphism in Plants, Prof. K. 
Goebel, 8.1^ ; Linnean Society, 96, 160, 226, 395, 496 ; 
Struggle for Water between the Soil and the Seed, .V. 
Muntz, 97 ; the Jodrell Laboratory at Kew, Sir W. T. 
Thiselton-Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., 103; the Arnold 
Arboretum, W. J. Bean, 117; Wild Flowers of the 
British Isles, H. Isabel Adams, 134 ; Catalogue of Hardy 
Trees and Shrubs Growing in the Grounds of Syon 
House, Brentford, A. B. Jackson, 136 ; Action of Light 
on Plants, H. Rousset, 149 ; Theoretical Origin of 
Plantago maritima, L., and P. alpina, L., from P. 
coronopus, L. Vars, Prof. G. Henslow, 160 ; a Theoretical 
Origin of Monocotyledons from Aquatic Dicotyledons 
through Self-adaptation to an Aquatic Habit, Prof. G. 
Henslow, 160 ; Some Crosses with Rivet Wheat, Prof. 
Biffen, 160; Inheritance of the Yellow Tinge in Sweet- 
pea Colouring, Mrs. D. Thoday and D. Thoday, 160 ; 
Extinction of Cryptogamic Plants, A. R. Horwood, 177 : 
Botanical Expedition in the Victorian Alps, Plants Re- 
corded in the District bv Dr. A. J. Ewart, J. W. Audas, 
177; Flora of Mt. Pulog, E. D. Merrill and M. L. 
Merritt, 217: New South W'ales Linnean Society, 22S, 
362 ; Vegetation on the Kasatzkisch Steppe, V. Alechin, 
246; Bud-rot Disease of Palms, Dr. E. J. Butler, 246; 
Veronica prostraia, L., teucrium, L., und austriaca, L., 
nebst einem anhang iiber deren nachste vervvandte. Dr. 
Bruno Watzl, 267 ; Comparative Anatomy of the Leaves 
of Certain Specifs of Veronica. R. S. Adamson. 30- ; 
Lichen Collected in the Jugiur Chain (Stanovoi), Ir. M. 
.Shegolef, 279 ; das Pflanzenreich, Papaveraceae- 
Hvoecoideae et Papaveraceae-Papaveroideae, Friedrich 
Feddc, 302 ; Plant Anatomy from the Standpoint of the 
Development and Functions of the Tissues and Handbook 
of Microtechnic, Prof. W. C. Stevens, 33.5 ; Dr. Ernest 
Durand's Bequest to Paris Museum of Natural History, 
343 ; Sporangium of Lycopodiiim pithyoides, Miss A. G. 
Stokey, 341; ; Reports of the Botanical Departments in 
Trinidad and Tobago. Prof. P. Carmody. 345 : Catalogue 
of Hybrid Plants raised at Kew during Past Years, 346 ; 
Sigillaria and Stigmariopsis, Prof. F. E. Weiss, 361, 
429 ; Botany for High Schools. Prof. G. F. Atkinson, 
-370; Hausliche Blumenpflege. Paul F. F. Schulz. 370: 
Flora of the Samoa Islands, Dr. F. Vaupel. 382 ; Report 
on the International Botanical Congress, held at Brussels 
on May 14-22, iqio. Dr. O. Stapf, -^q; ; a Text-book of 
Botany for Colleges and Universities, Prof. J. M. 
Coulten, Prof. C. R. Barnes, and Prof. H. C. Cowles. 
399 ; Plant Life in Alpine Switzerland, E. A. Newell 



nature, ~\ 

March 25, 191 1 J 



Index 



IX 



Arbor, 404 ; Garden Notes on New Trees and Shrubs, 
W. J. Bean, 414; Journey into Nepal, I. K. Burkil!, 
417 : Abnormal Fertile Spike of Ophioglossum vulgatum, 
H. S. Holden, 429 : Structure of the Seed Coats of Hard 
Seeds, and their Longevity, Bertha Rees, 430 ; Rosen- 
krankheiten und Rosenfeinde, Dr. K. Laubert and Dr. 
M. Schwartz, 4"?^ : Vergiftungen durch Pflanzen und 
Pflanzenstoffe, ein Grundriss der vegetalen Toxikologie 
fiir praktische Aerzte, Apotheker, und Botaniker, Dr. 
K. Kanngiesser, Henry G. Greenish, 436 ; Sexual Di- 
morphism in Plants, Prof. Goebel, 450 ; Desirability and 
.Advantages of a South .\frican National Botanic Garden, 
Prof. H. W. Pearson. 451 ; Two Botanical Excursions 
in the South-west Region of West -Australia, Captain A. 
Dorrien-Smith, 4:;! ; Are the Gnetales Apetalous Angio- 
sperms? O. Lignier and A. Tison, 463-4; Action upon 
Green Plants of some Substances Extracted from Coal- 
tar and Employed in .Agriculture, >farcel Mirande, 464 ; 
a Research on the Pines of .Australia, R. T. Baker and 
H. G. Smith, 46^ ; Orchids, James O'Brien, 470 ; the 
late Leo Grindon's Herbarium Presented to the Man- 
chester Museum, 481 ; the Chinese Tree, Cupressus 
hodginsii. Dr. .A. Henry, 484 ; Fertile Sport of the 
Maidenhair Fern, Adiantum Farleyense, 484 ; Flora of 
the Falkland Islands, C. H. Wright, 496 ; the Flower 
Book, Constance S. .\rmfield, 507 ; Effect of Coloured 
Light on the Development of Pure Cultures of the Green 
.Alga, Stichococcus bacillaris. Prof. G. A. Nadson, 520 ; 
Open-air Studies in Botany, R. L. Praeger. 540 ; Occur- 
rence of Matonia sarmentosa in Sarawak, Cecil J. 
Brooks, 541 ; see also British .Association 
Bottomley (Prof.), Nitrogen Fixation, 25 ; the Cyano- 
phyceae Endophytic in the Apogeotropic Roots of Cycads 
and in the Cavities of .Azolla and .Anthoceros are 
Invariablv Accompanied bv Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria, 

Bouasse (Prof H.), Cours de M^canique Rationelle et 

Experimentelle, sp^cialement ^crit pour les physiciens et 

les ing^nieurs, conforme au programme du Certificat de 

m^anique rationelle, i 
Boudouard (O.), Testing of Metals by the Study of the 

Damping of Vibratory Movements, 361 
Bougault (J.), Transformation of Phenyl-o)3-pentenic Acid 

into its 75-isomer, 463 
Boulenger (G. .A.), Lacerta peloponnesiaca, Bibr., 160 
Bourgeois (R.), Cause of an Instrumental Error in the 

Measurement of a Base Line, 497 
Bourne (.A. .A.), Public School .Arithmetic, i/^f- 
Bourquelot (Em.), New Sugar Verbascose, Extracted from 

the Root of Verbascum thapsus, 65 
Bouville (De Drorein de), Salmon-disease on the Continent, 

416 
Boveri (Prof. Th.), .Anton Dohrn : Gedachtnisreele gehalten 

auf den Internationalen Zoologen-Kongress in Graz am 

18 .August. 1910, T?4 
Bower (C. R.), the Zones of the Lower Chalk of Lincoln- 
shire, 387 
Bower (Prof. F. O.). Note on Obhiot^Iossum talniatum, 

59 : Two Synthetic Genera of Filicales, 59 ; Sand-dunes 

and Golf Links, •59 
Bowyer (.A.), the .Abuse of the Singing and Speaking Voice, 

Causes, Effects, and Treatment, 190 
Boyd's (the late .Alexander) Collection of Birds Presented 

to the British Museum, 316 
Braak (Dr. C), Report upon the Investigations of the 

Upper -Air, 20 
Bragg (Prof. William H., F.R.S.), Radio-activity as a 

Kinetic Theory of a Fourth State of Matter, Discourse 

at Royal Institution, 4qi 
Braithwaite (Miss D. M.). Method by which the Presence 

of the Drug-room Beetle (Sitodrepa Panicea) may be 

Readily Detected in Powdered Drugs, 85 
Branca (Prof. W.), der Stand unserer Kenntnisse vom 

fossilen Menschen. 402 
Breitenbach (Dr. Wilhelm), Populare Vortrage aus dem 

Gebiete der Entwickelungslehre. :;40 
Breteau (Pierre), .Addition of Hydrogen in Presence of 

Palladium. 328 : Method for the Complete Destruction of 

Organic Matter in the Detection and Estimation of 

Mineral Poisons. 46^ 
Brewer (Dr. W. H.). Death of, 83 



Bridel (M.), New Sugar, V^erbascose, Extracted from the 
Root of Verbascum thapsus, 65 

Brissemoret (.A.), Contribution to the Study of the Physio- 
logical Action of the Organic Bases, 262 

Britain, the .Arrival of Man in, Huxley Memorial Lecture 
at Royal .Anthropological Institute, Prof. W. Boyd 
Dawkins, F.R.S., 122 

British -Association : Sheffield Meeting of, Third Report of 
the British .Association Committee, consisting of Sir 
W. H. Preece (Chairman), Dugald Clerk and Prof. 
Bertram Hopkinson (Joint Secretaries), Profs. Bone. 
Burstall, Callendar, Coker, Dalby, Dixon, Dr. Glaze- 
brook, Profs. Petavel, Smithells, and Watson, Dr. 
Harker, Lieut. -Col. Holden, Captain Sankey, and 
D. L. Chapman, appointed for the Investigation of 
Gaseous Explosions, with Special Reference to Tem- 
perature, 186 
Sub-section of B (Agricultural Sub-section), continued. — 
The Impurities of the Town .Atmosphere and their 
Effect on Vegetation, Dr. Crowther and Mr. Ruston, 
24 ; the Ether Extr.act of the Oat Kernel, Prof. Berry, 
24 ; a Bacterial Disease of Potatoes, A. S. Home, 25 ; 
Sugar-beet Growing, Sigmund Stein, 2^ ; G. L. Court- 
hope, 2^ ; Nitrogen Fixation, Mr. Golding, 2/; ; Prof. 
Bottomley, 2? ; Partial Sterilisation of Soils, Dr. 
Russell and Dr. Hutchinson, 25; ; Dr. Shipley, 25 ; 
Dr. Ashworth, 2^; T. J. Evans, 25;; J- J. Lister, 25; 
an .Account of the " Points " Prized by the Breeder 
of High-class Stock, K. J. J. MacKenzie, 2;^ ; Objects 
and Methods of .Agricultural Soil Surveys, Mr. Hall 
and Dr. Russell, 25 ; the " Teart " Land of Somerset, 
C. T. Gimingham, 25; Cost of a Day's Horse Labour 
on the Farm, Mr. Hall, 25 ; Errors of Agricultural 
Experiments, Prof. Wood, 25 
Section H (Anthropologv), continued — Excavations at 
Caerwent. the .Site of Venta Silurum, T. Ashby, 22 ; 
Some Prehistoric Monuments in the Scillv Isles. H. D. 
.Acland, 22 ; Excavations of a Broch at Cogle, Watten, 
Caithness, .Alexander Sutherland, 22 ; the Prehistoric 
Horse, found at Bishop's Stortford, Rev. Dr. Irving, 
22 ; Some Unexplored Fields in British Archaeology, 
George Clinch, 23 ; Results of the Work carried out at 
Meare, on Two Distinct Groups of Low Circular 
Mounds, 23 ; Group of Prehistoric Sites Excavated 
in South-west .Asia Minor, .A. M. Woodward 
and H. A. Ormerod, 2^ ; Excavations in Thessaly 
in 1910, A- J. B. Wac ard M. .S. Thomp- 
son, 23 ; Excavations at Hagiar Kim and 
Mnaidra, Malta, Dr. T. .Ashby, 23 ; Work carried on 
by the British School in Egypt at Meydum and 
Memphis, Prof. Pctrie. 23 ; a Neolithic Site in the 
Southern Sudan, Dr. Seligmann, 23 ; the Bu-Shongo of 
the Congo Free State. E. Torday. 23: the Suk of 
East .Africa, Mervyn W. H. Beech, 23 ; Native Pottery 
Methods in the .Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, G. W. 
Grabham, 23 ; Kava Drinking in Melanesia, Dr. 
W. H. R. Rivers, 23 : the Exogamic Character of the 
' Omaha Social Organisation, Miss Fletcher. 24 ; the 
Origin of Mourning Dress. E. S. Hartland. 24 ; the 
Peoole of Eevpt. Prof. Elliot Smith. 24 : the People 
of Cardiganshire, Prof. H. J. Fleure and T. C. James. 
24 : a Rare Form of Divided Parietal in the Cranium 
of a Chimpanzee. Prof. C. J. Patten, 24 : Head Form 
and Pigmentation of Cretan School Children. Dr. 
Duckworth. 24 
Section I (Phvsiologv). continued — on Respiration. Dr. 
F. F. Blackman. F.R.S., 26; Dakin's Work on Oxida- 
tion of Fatty -Acids and .Amino-acids by Hydrogen Per- 
oxide and Traces of Ferrous Salts. Dr. H. M. Vernon, 
26 ; Oxidases differ from Other Kinds of Enzymes, Dr. 

E. F. .Armstrong. 26 ; Experiments on .Anaestheti«ed 
Leaves, D. Thoday, 26 ; Leathes' Work on the Splitting 
of Fats at Intermediate Points in the Carbon Chain, 
and the Formation of Peroxides by Manganese and 
Iron with Hydroxv-acids. Prof. H. E. .Armstrong, 
F.R.S., 26: Prevention of Compressed Air Illness, Dr. 
Leonard Hill, F.R.S., 26; the Cause of the Treppe, 
Prof. F. S. Lee, 27 ; .Summation of Stimuli. Prof. 

F. S. Lee and Dr. M. Morse, 27 ; Constant Current 
as a Stimulus of Reflex .Action, and the Effect of the 
Intensity of the Current on the Response to Stimula- 



Index 



Nature, 
March 23, 191 1 



tion, Prof. C. S. Sherrington and Miss S. C. M. 
Sowton, 27 ; tjie Conditions Necessary for Tetanus of 
the Heart, Dr. J. Tait, 27 ; Neurogenic Origin of 
Normal Heart Stimulus, Dr. J. Tait, 27; Results of 
Some Experiments on the Combination of Poisons with 
the Contractile Substance of Cardiac Muscle, Dr. H. M. 
Vernon, 27 ; the Morphology and Nomenclature of 
Blood Corpuscles, Prof. C. S. Minot, 27 ; Results of 
Some Experiments indicating the Existence of Afferent 
Nerves in the Eye Muscles, Prof. C. S. Sherrington, 
F.R.S., Dr. E. E. Laslett and Miss F. Tozer, 27; 
Results of the X-rays in Therapeutic Doses on the 
Growing Brains of Rabbits, Dr. Dawson Turner and 
Dr. T. George, 27 ; Origin of the Inorganic Composi- 
tion of the Blood Plasma, Prof. A. B. Macallum, 
F.R.S., 27; the Inorganic Composition of the Blood 
Plasma in the Frog after a Long Period of Inanition, 
Prof. A. B. Macallum, F.R.S., 27 ; the Microchemistry 
of the Spermatic Elements in Vertebrates, Prof. A. B. 
Macallum, 27 ; Nutritive Value of Beef Extract, Prof. 
W. H. Thompson, 27 
Section K (Botany), continued— Paths of Translocation 
of Sugars from Green Leaves, S. Mangham, 58 ; Assi- 
milation and Translocation under Natural Conditions, 
D. Thoday, 58 ; New Method of Observing in Living 
Leaves, while Still Attached to the Plant, the Degree 
to which the Stomatal Apertures are Open or Closed, 
Dr. F. Darwin, 58; Germination Conditions and the 
Vitality of Seeds, Miss N. Darwin and Dr. F. F. 
Blackman, 58 ; the Cyanophyceae Endophytic in the 
Apogeotropic Roots of Cycads and in the Cavities of 
Azolla and Anthoceros are invariably accompanied by 
Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria, Prof. Bottomley, 58 ; Distri- 
bution of Halophytes on the Severn Shore, 58 ; the New 
Force, Mitokinetism, Prof. Marcus Hartog, 58 ; .Arti- 
ficial Parthenogenesis in the Eggs of a Sea-urchin 
{Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), Dr. E. Hindle, 58 ; 
Behaviour of the Chromosomes during Mitosis, Prof. 
Farmer and Miss Digby, 58 ; Dr. Eraser and Mr. 
Snell, 58 ; the Vermiform Male Nuclei of Lilium, Prof. 
V. H. Blackman, 58 ; Some Experiments on the Inherit- 
ance of Colour in the Pimpernel, Prof. F. E. Weiss, 59 ; 
the Function and Fate of the Cystidia of Coprinus, 
Prof. Buller, 59 ; H. Wager, 59 ; the Methods of Asexual 
Reproduction in a Species of Saprolegnia, A. E. Lech- 
mere, 59 ; a Form of Nuclear Division Intermediate 
between Mitosis and Amitosis in Coleosporiuni Tiissi- 
laginis, Prof. V. H. Blackman, /(q ; Chromosome Re- 
duction in the Hymenomycetes, Harold Wager, 59 ; 
Cause of the Silver-leaf Disease of Fruit Trees, F. T. 
Brooks, 59 ; Note on Ophioglosstim palniaiiim. Prof. 
F. O. Bower, 59 ; Two Synthetic Genera of Filicales, 
Prof. F. O. Bower, 59 ; Structure of the " False Stems " 
of the Fossil Genus Tempskya, Dr. Kidston and Prof. 
Gwynne-Vaughan, 59 ; Morphology of the Ovule of 
Gnetum Africanum, Mrs. Thoday, 59 ; the Pollen Cham- 
bers of Various Fossil' Seeds, Prof. F. W. Oliver, 59 ; 
Morphology of the Stock of Isoetes, Prof. W. H. Lang, 
50 ; Sand-dunes and Golf Links, Prof. F. O. Bower, 

59. 
Section L (Education), continued — ReiX)rt of the Section 
L Research Committee on Mental and Physical Factors 
involved in Education, Prof. Schuyten, 89 ; Prof. Green, 
89 ; Prof. Findlay, 89 ; Methods of Algebra Teaching, 
Dr. T. P. Nunn, 89 ; Inquiry into Individual Variations 
of Memory among some 400 Subjects, Dr. Spearman, 
89 ; Methods of Binet and Simon, Dr. Otto Lipmann, 
Sq ; Series of Experiments Performed with a Group of 
Elementary-school Children at Oxford, Cyril Burt, 89 ; 
Value of Perseveration as an Index of the Quality of 
Intelligence, J. G. Gray, 89 ; Series of Tests to which 
the Candidates for Scholarships at a Midland Secondary 
School were Submitted, H. S. Lawson, 8q ; .Application 
of Binet's Tests to 200 Schoolgirls in Sheffield, Kath- 
arine L. Johnson, 90 ; Collection of Masses of Psycho- 
logical Data by Untrained Observers, Dr. C. S. Myers, 
90 ; Practical Work in Schools, Sir Philip Magnus, 90 ; 
J. G. Legge, 90 ; Relations of Science with Commercial 
Life, Mr. Blair, 90; Principal E. H. Griffiths, 90; Dr. 
Beilby, 90 ; Sir William White, 90 ; Dr. Stead, 90 ; Dr. 
H. E. Armstrong, 90 



I British Association, Forthcoming Meeting of the, at Ports- 
mouth, 481 

British Bird-book, the, 407 

British Empire, Agriculture in the Dry Regions of the, 
Dr. E. J. Russell, 11 1 

British Empire in Pictures, the, H. Clive Barnard, 39 

British Isles, Geology of the, 386 

British Journal Photographic Almanac, 1911, the, 401 

British Lands, Geological Work in, 553 

British Mammals, Major G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton, 6 

British Museum : Guide to the British Vertebrates Exhi- 
bited in the Department of Zoology, British Museum 
(Natural History), 234 ; a Descriptive Catalogue of the 
Marine Reptiles of the Oxford Clay, based on the Leeds 
Collection in the British Museum (Natural History), 
London, Dr. C. W. Andrews, F.R.S., 264; a Guide to 
the Fossil Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fishes in the 
Department of Geology and Palaeontology in the British 
Museum (Natural History), 264 ; Guide to the Crustacea, 
Arachnida, Onychophora, and Myriopoda exhibited in the 
Department of Zoology, 505 ; Catalogue of the Lepid- 
optera Phalaenje in the British Museum, 539 

British Navy, the Airship for the, 555 

British Place-names in their Historical Setting, Edmund 
McClure, Rev. John Griffith, 131 

British School at Athens, the Annual of the, H. R. Hall, 

339 

British School at Rome, Papers of the, 445 

British Science Guild, the, the Present Position of Agricul- 
tural Research in the United Kingdom, 13 

Brizard (L.), Radiation of Quinine Sulphate, 429 

Broglie (^L de). Radiation of Quinine Sulphate, 429 

Broniewski (VVitold), Electrical Properties of the Alumin- 
ium Mng^nesium .Alloys, 395 

Brooks (Cecil J.), Occurrence of Matonia sarmentosa in 
Sarawak, 541 

Brooks (F. T.), Cause of the Silver-leaf Disease of Fruit 
Trees, 59 

Brooks Patent T-square Lock, the, 5 

Broom (Dr. R.), Systematic Position and Feeding-habits of 
the African Jurassic Genus Tritylodon and its Northern 
.Allies Plagiaulax and Ptilodus, 48 

Brown (A. E.), Death of, 82 

Brown (Prof. A. P.), the Differentiation and Specificity of 
Corresponding Proteins and other Vital Substances in 
Relation to Biological Classification and Organic Evolu- 
tion and the Crystallography of Haemoglobins, 57 

Brown (T. A. Harvie), Scottish Natural History, 336 

Brown (Prof. W.), Mechanical Stress and Magnetisation 
of Nickel, 161, 531 

Browne (Rev. H. C.), Suggested Improvement in Epicyclic 
Variable Gears, 327 

Brownlee (Dr. John), Relation of the Mono-Molecular 
Reaction of Life Processes to Immunity, 497 

Bruce (Sir Charles, G.C.M.G.), the Broad Stone of Empire, 
Problems of Crown Colony .Administration, with Records 
of Personal Experience, 229 

Bruce (Col. Sir David), Experiments to ascertain if "Ante- 
lope may act as a Reservoir of the Virus of Sleeping 
Sickness (Trypanosoma ganihiense), 428 ; Experiments 
to ascertain if the Domestic Fowl of Uganda may act 
as a Reservoir of the Virus of Sleeping Sickness (Trypan- 
osoma gambiense), 428 

Bruce (Dr. William S.), the Oceanographical Institute at 
Paris, 513 

Briihl (Julius Wilhelm), Obituary Notice of, 517 

Bruntz (L.), Physiological Significance of the Vital Colora- 
tion of Leucocytes, 361 ; Eliminating role of the Leuco- 
cytes, 429 

Brussels Exhibition, Astronomy at the. Dr. Stroobant, 282 

Bryan (Prof. G. H.), Loss of Life bv .Aeroplane Accidents, 
484 

Brvant (Dr. Robert), the Secular .Acceleration of the Moon's 
Mean Motion, 119 

Bryant (Mrs.), Specialisation in Teaching, 353 

Buchanan (J. Y., F.R.S.), the Oceanographical Museum 
at Monaco, 7 

Bucking (Mr.), the Tierras Cocidas of the Pampas Beds 
of Argentina, 178 

Buckland (James), the Birds of our Colonies and their 
Protection, 315 



Nature, "I 

ircli 23, 1911 J 



Index 



XI 



Bucknill (Mr.), Eggs of Certain South African Birds, 557 
Building : Novel Types of Timber Construction, Otto Hetzer^ 

86; Decay of Building Stones, Dr. Tempest Anderson, 

116 
BuUer (Prof.), the Function and Fate of the Cystidia of 

Coprinus, 59 
Bulloch (Dr.), Appeal for the Adequate Endowment of 

Medical Education and Research, 316 
Burchard (E. F.), Iron Ores, Fuels, and Flu.xes of the 

Birmingham District, Alabama, 420 
Burial Customs in Egypt, Early, Prof. W. M. Flinders 

Petrie, F.R.S., 41 ; Prof. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S., 41 
Burkill (I. K.), Journey into Nepal, 417 
Burnham (Prof.), Double Stars, 418 
Burnside (Prof.), the Neglect of Group-theory, 313 
Burt (Cyril), Series of Experiments Performed with a Group 

of Elementary-school Children at Oxford, 89 
Burtt-Da\T (J.), Pteridophyta for the Transvaal Province, 48 
Buss ^.Albert Alfred), the Progressive Disclosure of the 

Entire Atmosphere of the Sun, 540 
Butler (C. P.), the Spectrum of Halley's Comet, 193 
Butler (Dr. E. J.), Bud-rot Disease of Palms, 246 
Butler (F. H.), Kaolin, 496 
Butler (Samuel), Unconscious Memory, 3 ; Life and Habit, 

505 
Butts (C), Iron Ores, Fuels and Fluxes of the Birmingham 
District, Alabama, 420 



Calcul des Variations, Lecons sur le, Prof. J. Hadamard, 

197 
Calculus, the, for Beginners, J. W. Mercer, 136 
Calculus, First Course in, Prof. E. J. Townsend and Prof. 

G. A. Goodenough, 368 
Calcutta, Asiatic Society of Bengal, 130, 396 
Calendar, a Perpetual, Sir William Ramsav, K.C.B., 

F.R.S., 540; W. T. L., 540 
Calendar Reform, Proposed, f. C. Chamberlin, 454; M. 

Grosclaude, 454 
California, University of, Berkeley, Cal., Physiology the 

Servant of Medicine, being the Hitchcock Lectures for 

1909, delivered at. Dr. Augustus D. Waller, F.R.S., Sir 

T. Clifford Allbutt, K.C.B., F.R.S., 465 
Caiman (Dr. W. T.), the Transference of Names in Zoology, 

406 
Calorimetry : the Metabolism and Energy Transformations 

of Healthy Man during Rest, F. G. Benedict and T. M. 

Carpenter, Prof. J. S. Macdonald, 276 
Cambridge, N. Barwell, 202 

Cambridge Philosophical Society, 128, 160, 261, 531 
Cameron (A. T.), Radiochemistry, 165 

Campbell (Leon), the Spectrum of Nova Sagittarii No. 2, 22 
Campbell (Prof.), Preliminary Results Derived from Radial- 
velocity Determinations, 348 ; Mars and Its Atmosphere,' 

486 ; New Spectroscopic Binaries, 524 
Campion (A.), Iron and Steel .Analysis, 268 
Candlemas Day still Observed in Holland, 483 
Cannizzaro (Stanislao), Sketch of a Course of Chemical 

Philosophy, 2 
Cannon (Miss), New Variable Stars in Harvard Map No. 52. 

22 ; Discovery of Another Nova, Sagittarii No. 3, 248 ; 

Nova Sagittarii No. 3 H.V. 3306, 552 
Cantrill (Mr.), the Geologv of the South Wales Coalfield, 

386 
Cape of Good Hope, Agricultural Journal of the. Dr. 

E. J. Russell, 111 
Carey (A. E.), Winning of Coastal Lands in Holland, 282 
Carmody (Prof. P.), Reports of the Botanical Departments 

in Trinidad and Tobago, 345 
Carnegie Institution of Washington and its Work, the, 

Dr. R. S. Woodward, 74 
Carpenter (Prof. G. H.), Life-history of the Reindeer 
, Warble-fly {Oedernagena tarandi), 345 
Carpenter (Prof. H. C. H.), Die Untersuchungs-Methoden 

des Eisens und Stahls, Dr. A. Riidisiile, 233 ; New Criti- 
cal Point in Copper-zinc Alloys, 428 
Carpenter (T. M.), the Metabolism and Energy Trans- 
formations of Healthy Man during Rest, 276 
Carruthers (D.), Exploring Upper Part of the Basin of the 

Yenesei and the Western Frontier of Mongolia, 315 
Carse (Dr. G. A.), .Atmospheric Electricity, 281 



Carslaw (Prof. H. S.J, the Bolyai-Lobatschewsky System, 
346 

Carthaus (Dr. Emil), Die klimatischen Verhiiltnisse dcr 
geologischen \'orzeit vom Prajcambrium an bis zur 
Jetztzeit und ihr Einfluss auf die Entwickelung der 
Haupttypen des Tier- und Pfianzenreiches, 36 

Carvallo (J.), Electrical Purification of Liquid Sulphur 
Dioxide and its Electrical Conductivity, 34 

Castor, Mass-ratios of the Components of Kriiger 60 and, 
Dr. H. N. Russell, 418 

Catania Zones, the Astrographic Catalogue, 385 

Cave (C. J. P.), Pilot Balloon Observations made in 
Barbados during the International Week, December 6-11, 
190Q. 128 

Cavendish Laboratory, the, 112 

Cavendish Laboratory, a History of the, 1871-1910, 195 

Cellulose, die Chemie der, unter besonderer Beriicksichti- 
gung der Textll- und Zellstoflindustrien, Prof. Carl G. 
Schwalbe, 67 

Ceramics : the Potter's Craft, F. Binns, 269 ; Report of 
th<j Department Committee appointed to Inquire into the 
Dangers Attendant on the Use of Lead and the Danger 
or Injury to Health Arising from Dust and other Causes 
in the Manufacture of Earthenware and China and 
in Processes incidental thereto, including the Making of 
Lithographic Transfers, 273 ; Transactions of the 
English Ceramic Society, 411 

Ceraski (Prof.), Utilisation of the Sun's Heat, 4^4 

Cerulli (Dr.), Discovery of a Comet, 87; Cerulli's Comet 
(iqioe) Identified with Faye's Short-period Comet, 151 

Cerulli's Comet 19106, Prof. Hartwig, 119: Dr. Ebell, 
119; Identified w-ith Faye's Short-period Comet, Prof. 
Pickering, 150; Dr. Ebell, 150; Dr. Schiller, 151; Dr. 
Ristenpart, 151 ; Dr. Cerulli, 151 

o Ceti, Polarisation in the Spectrum of. Dr. Wright, 486 

Challenger Society, 6-^, 564 

Chamberlin (T. C.), Proposed Calendar Reform, 4^4 

Chanute (Octave), Death of, 215 

Chapman (F.), Fossilised Birds' Feathers from the 
Tertiary Ironstone of Redruth, Victoria, 20 ; the 
Mee^alospheric Form of Ammodiscus incertus, 139; 
Trilobite Fauna of Upper Cambrian .Age (Olenus Series) 
in N.E. Gippsland, Victoria, 160 ; Revision of the 
Species of Limopsis in the Tertiary Beds of Southern 
.Australia, 430 

Charcot (Dr. J. B.). the Second French Antarctic Expedi- 
tion, Lecture at Royal Geographical Society, 257 

Charlesworth (F.), Practical Mathematics and Geometry, 
470 

Charlicr (C. V. L.). Multiple Solutions in the Determina- 
tion of Orbits from Three Observations, 226 

Charm of the Road, the, James J. Hissey, 137 

Chatley (Prof. Herbert^ the Structural Design of Aero- 
planes, 4-?2 

Chauss^ (P.), Latent Mesenteric Tuberculosis produced 
Experimentally in the Dog, 98 ; Production of Primitive 
Thoracic Tuberculosis in Cattle by the Inhalation of 
Infinitesimal Amounts of Bovine Tuberculous Material, 
194 

Chauvenet (Ed.). New General Method of Preparing 
Anhydrous Metallic Chlorides. 383 

Cheesemaking, the Practice of Soft, C. W. Walker-Tisdale 
and T. R. Robinson, 71 

Chemistry : Sketch of a Course of Chemical Philosophy, 
Stanislao Cannizzaro, 2 ; History of Chemistry, Sir 
Edward Thorpe, C.B., F.R.S., ^ ; on Hydrogen in Iron, 
John Parry, 6; Helium and Geological Time, Hon. R. J. 
Strutt, F.R.S., 6, si : Two .Active .Alcohols and a Third 
Ketone contained in Spirit from Cocoanut Oil, A. Haller, 
3^ : the Nitrous Esters of Cellulose, Paul Nicolardot and 
Georges Chertier. 34 ; die Chemie der Cellulose unter 
besonderer Beriicksichtigung der Textil- und ZellstofT- 
industrien. Prof. Carl G. Schwalbe, 67 ; Action of the 
L'ltra-violet Rays upon the Tubercle Bacillus and upon 
Tuberculin, Madame V. Henri-Cernovodeanu. Victor 
Henri and V. Baroni, 34 ; Sterilisation of Water 
on the Large Scale by Ultra-violet Light, M. Urbain, 
CI. Seal, and A. Feige, 65 ; Principal Types of Photolysis 
of Organic Comoounds by the Ultra-violet Rays, Daniel 
Berthelot and Henry Gaudechon. 327 ; Photolysis of 
Complex .Acids by the Ultra-violet Ravs, Daniel Berthelot 



Xll 



Index 



[ 



Nature, 
March 23, 191 1 



and Henry Gaudechon, 498; Comparative Action of the 
Ultra-violet Rays on Organic Compounds possessing 
Linear and Cyclic Structure, Daniel Berthelot and Henry 
Gaudechon, 565 ; Action of the Ultra-violet Rays upon 
Diastases, H. Agulhon, 566 ; Action of Nitrates in 
Alcoholic Fermentation, A. Fernbach and A. Lanzenberg, 
•}.i. : Influence of Nitrates on Alcoholic Ferments, E. 
Kayser, 98 ; Obscure Phenomenon of Alcoholic Fermenta- 
tion, O. Overbeck, 3S0 ; Electrical Purification of Liquid 
Sulphur Dioxide and its Electrical Conductivity, J. 
Carvallo, 34; Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis, 37, 
365 ; Constituents of the Soil, Mr. Failyer, 49 ; Prepara- 
tion of Argon, Georges Claude, 65 ; Method of Analysis 
of Fatty Bodies by the Separation of the Solid Fatty 
Acids from the Liquid Acids, M. David, 65 ; Synthesis 
of Ketones in the Tetrahydroaromatic Series, G. Darzens 
and H. Rost, 65 ; New Sugar Verbascose Extracted from 
the Root of Verhascum fhapsus, Em. Bourquelot and M. 
Bridel, 6^ ; Liquids with Focal Conies, G. Friedel and 

F. Grandjean, 61:; ; the Elements, Sir William A. Tilden, 
F.R.S., Dr. Arthur Harden, F.R.S., 69; the Relations 
between Chemical Constitution and some Physical 
Properties, Prof. Samuel Smiles, Dr. Arthur Harden, 
F.R.S., 69 ; Physical Chemistry, its Bearing on Biology 
and Medicine, Prof. James C. Philip, Dr. Arthur Harden, 
F.R.S., 6q ; a College Text-book of Chemistry, Prof. Ira 
Remsen, 70; Outlines of Chemistry, Prof. Louis Kahlen- 
berg, 70; Nobel Prize awarded to Prof. Otto Wallach, 
82 ; Application of the Dilatometric Method to the Study 
of the Polymorphism of the Alkali Nitrates, Prof. Bellati 
and Dr. Tinazzi, 86 ; the Banquet to Jubilee Past- 
presidents of the Chemical Society, 87; Chemical Physics 
involved in the Precipitation of Free Carbon from the 
Alloys of the Iron-carbon System, W. H. Hatfield, 9:; ; 
Development of the Atomic Theory, Dr. A. N. Meldrum, 
97, 531 ; Preparation of Crystallised Strontium, A. Guntz 
and M. Galliot, 98 ; Tetranitromethane, E. Berger, 98 ; 
Purification of Starch, G. Malfitano and Mile. A. N. 
MoschkofT, 98 ; Principles of Chemical Geology, a Review 
of the Applications of the Equilibrium Theory to 
Geological Problems, Dr. J. V. Elsden, 100 ; Introduc- 
tion to Physical Chemistry, Prof. H. C. Jones, 103 ; 
Destruction of Agricultural Plant Pests by Chemical 
Means, H. C. Long, 117: Oxidation of Phenol by 
Certain Bacteria in Pure Culture, G. J. Fowler, E. 
Ardern, and W. T. Lockett, 127; Investigations on the 
State of Aggregation of Matter, S. B. Schryver, 127 ; 
Reduction of Phosphoryl Chloride by Hydrogen under 
the Influence of the Silent Discharge, A. Basson and L. 
Fournier, 129; Research on Gases Occluded in the 
Copper Allovs. G. Guillemin and B. Delachanal, 129 ; 
New Method for the Preparation of the Glycidic Esters, 

G. Darzens, 129 ; Influence Exerted by the Reaction upon 
Certain _ Properties of Malt Extracts, A. Fernbach and 
M. Schoen, 129 ; Absolute Measurement of the Magnetic 
Double Refraction of Nitrobenzene, A. Cotton and H. 
Mouton, 129; Reactions in Presence of Nickel, 
Panchanan Neosfi and Birendra Bhusan Adhicary, 130 ; 
die Alkaloide, Prof. E. Winterstein and Dr. G. Trier, 
131: a Text-book of Organic Chemistry, Prof. A. F. 
Holleman, 136 ; Death of Dr. Henry Wurtz, 146 ; Deter- 
minations of the Amount of Arsenic present in Soil, 
Plants, Fruits, and Animals, Dr. Headden, 148; Protein 
Hydrolysis, F. W. Foreman, 161 ; Progressive Phos- 
phorescent Spectrum of Organic Compounds at Low 
Temperatures, J. de Kowalski and J. de Dziergbicki, 
161 ; Propiolic Compounds, Charles Moureu and J. Ch. 
Bongrand, 161 ; Kleines Handworterbuch der Agrikultur- 
chemie. Dr. Max Passon, Dr. E. J. Russell, 164: Radio- 
chemistry, A. T. Cameron, Dr. B. B. Boltwood, 165 • 
Practical Physiological Chemistry, a Book Designed for 
Use in Courses in Practical Physiological Chemistry in 
Schools of Medicine and of Science, Philip B. Hawk, 
169 ; Theory of the Chemical Action of the Electric 
Discharge in Electrolytic Gas and other Gases, P. J. 
Kirby, 192 ; Dynamic Method for Measuring Vapour 
Pressures with its Application to Benzene and Ammonium 
Chloride, Profs. Alex. Smith and A. W. C. Menzies, 19-? : 
Quantitative Studv of the Constitution of Calomel 
Vapour, Profs. Alex. Smith and A. W. C. Menzies, 193 ; 
Anisotropic Liquids, G. Friedel and F. Grandjean, 194 ; 



Biological Degradation of the Carbohydrates, A. Fern- 
bach, 194 ; Action of the Bulgarian Ferment upon 
Proteid and Amido Substances, J. Effront, 194; die 
Wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen der analytischen Chemie, 
W. Ostwald, 201 ; Researches upon the Atomic Weights 
of Cadmium, Manganese, Bromine, Lead, Arsenic, 
Iodine, Silver, Chromium, and Phosphorus, G. P. 
Baxter, 202 ; Tribo Luminescence of Uranium, Prof. 
W. A. Douglas Rudge, 207 ; Alfred C. G. Egerton, 308 ; 
Nature of the Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide 
Solutions produced by Light, M. Tian, 227 ; by Passing 
a Rapid Current of Hydrogen Bromide over Amorphous 
.Silicon at a Red Heat a Liquid is obtained which, on 
Submitting to Fractional Distillation, gives as the Main 
Product of the Reaction Silicon Tetrabromide, A. Besson 
and L. Fournier, 227 ; Addition of Hydrogen to the 
Isomeric Thujenes and Sabinene, L. Tchougaeff and \^'. 
Fomin, 227 ; New Reaction of Morphine, Georges 
Deniges, 227 ; Nature of the Oxides causing the Colora- 
tion of the Oriental Sapphire, A. Verneuil, 227 ; Influ- 
ence of Temperature on the Activity of Cellase, Gabriel 
Bcrtrand and Arthur Compton, 227 ; die Untersuchungs- 
Methoden des Eisens und Stahls, Dr. A. Riidisiile, Prof. 
H. C. H. Carpenter, 233; Properties of Zinc Amalgam 
as Affecting the Clark Cell, Ernst Cohen and P. J. H. 
van Ginneken, 248; Radium Content of Salts of Potas- 
sium, J. Satterly, 261 ; Probable Chemical Properties of 
Radium and its Combinations, M. de Forcrand, 395 ; 
Discharge of Positive Electricity from Sodium Phosphate 
Heated in Different Gases, F. Horton, 261 ; Luminescent 
Tubes containing Neon, Georges Claude, 262 ; Chemical 
Composition of the Gases Spontaneously given off by 
the Thermal-mineral Spring of Uriage Is^re, G. Massol, 
262 ; Action of Nitric Acid upon the Aloins, E. Leger, 
262 ; Hexahydroacetophenone and Hexahydrobenzoyl- 
acetone. Marcel Godchot, 262 ; General Principles which 
ought to be Followed in Establishing Formulae for 
Insecticides, V. Vermorel and E. Dantony, 262 ; Smoke 
and its Prevention, Prof. Vivian B. Lewes at London 
Institution, 290; Practical Physiological Chemistry, Dr. 
R. H. Aders Plimmer, 302 ; New Reaction for Cupreine, 
Georges Deniges, 328 ; Brown Gold, M. Hanriot, 32S, 
429 ; Action of some Esters on the Monosodium Deriva- 
tive of Benzyl Cyanide, F. Bodroux, 328 ; Condensation 
of Acrolein Bromide with Melonic Acid, M. Lespieau, 
328 ; Addition of Hydrogen in Presence of Palladium, 
Pierre Breteau, 328 ; Chemical Distinction between 
Orthose and Microcline, W. Vernadsky and Mile. E. 
R^voutsky, 328 ; Theoretical Principles of the Methods 
of Analytical Chemistry based upon Chemical Reactions, 
Prof. M. G. Chesneau, Dr. H. M. Dawson, 330 ; Soured 
Milk and its Preparation, Lactic Cheeses, Prof. R. T. 
Hewlett, 338 ; Apparatus for the Rapid Electro-analytical 
Determination of Metals, Dr. H. J. S. Sand and W. M. 
Smalley, 360 ; Thermochemical Study of some Binary 
Compounds of the Metals of the Alkalies and the Alkaline 
Earths, M. de Forcrand, 361 ; New General Method of 
Preparing Anhydrous Metallic Chlorides, Ed. Chauvenet, 
383 ; Experimental Determination of the Equivalent of 
Magnesium, W. M. Hooton, 386 ; New Property of the 
Magnetic Molecule, Pierre Weiss," 301; ; Influence of 
Functional Groups on the Spectrum of Progressive Phos- 
phorescence, J. de Kowalski and J. de Dzierzbicki, 
30; ; Electrical Properties of the Aluminium Magnesium 
Allovs, Witold Broniewski, 39.!^ ; Ketones derived from 
the Three Isomeric Toluic Acids, J. B. Senderens, -^9:; ; 
New Thiophene Compound, Cj^H^S,, and some of its 
Derivatives, M. Lanfry, 396 ; Condensation of Acetic 
Ester with its Higher Homologues, A. Wahl, 396 ; 
Methvlamine Nitrite, P. C. Ray and Jitendra Nath 
Rakshit, 306 ; die experimentelle Grundlegung der 
Atomistik, W. Mecklenberg, 403 : Action of B. lactis 
aerogenes on Glucose and Mannitol, G. S. Walpole, 427 ; 
Transformation of Proteids into Fats during the Ripen- 
ing of Cheese, M. Nierenstein, 427 : Haemoglobin as a 
Peroxydase, Gabriel Bertrand and F. Rogozinski, 429 ; 
Radiation of Quinine Sulphate, M. de Broglie and L. 
Brizard, 429 ; New Element accompanying Lutecium and 
Scandium in the Gadolinite Earths Celtium, G. Urbain, 
429; Traits complet d'analyse Chimique, appliqu^e aux 
essais industriels. Prof. J. Post and Prof. B. Neumann, 



Katurc, 
March 23, 19 11 



] 



Index 



xiu 



C. Simmonds, 43'^ ; the Afterglow of Electric Discharge 
in Nitrogen, Hon. R. j. Strutt, F.R.S., 439; Properties 
of Binary Mixtures of some Liquefied Gases, Dr. B. D. 
Steele and L. S. Bagster, 453; a Manual of Practical 
Inorganic Chemistry, Dr. A. M. Kellas, 466 ; Trans- 
formation of Phenyl-o/3-pentenic Acid into its ^S-Isomer, 
J. Bougault, 463 ; Acetylene Pinacone, Georges Dupont, 
463 ; Method for the Complete Destruction of Organic 
flatter in the Detection and Estimation of Mineral 
Poisons, Pierre Breteau, 463 ; Action upon Green Plants 
of some Substances Extracted from Coal-tar and Em- 
ployed in Agriculture, Marcel Mirande, 464 ; Monographs 
on Biochemistry, the Fats, Prof. J. B. Leathes, 502 ; 
Death and Obituary Notice of Julius Wilhelm Briihl, 
517; Synthesis of Camphoric Acid, Prof. Komppa, 522; 
Estimation of the Organic Matters in Unpolluted and 
Polluted Waters with Potassium Bichromate and Sul- 
phuric Acid, Dr. W. E. Adeney. 531 ; Kapillarchemie, 
Dr. Herbert Freundlich, 534 ; the Microscopical Examina- 
tion of Food and Drugs, Prof. H. G. Greenish, 538 ; 
Death of Dr. Leonard Parker Kinnicutt, 547 ; Crystal 
Structure and Chemical Composition, Prof. W. J. Pope, 
F.R.S., 5-51 ; Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen, Prof. J. 
Zenneck, 5.^6 ; Recent Advances and Problems in 
Chemistry, Prof. Emil Fischer, :;-;8 ; Preparation of the 
Black Enamel of the Italo-Greek Potteries, A. Verneuil, 
565 ; Ketones derived from Phenylpropionic Acid, J. B. 
Senderens, 56^ ; New Methods for the Synthesis of 
Nitriles, M. Grignard, 565 ; the Dehydration of Salts, 
Lecoq de Boisbaudran, 565 ; Direct Esterification by 
Catalysis, Paul Sabatier and A. Mailhe, 565 ; the Magni- 
tude of Magnetism deduced from the Coefficients of 
Magnetisation of Solutions of Iron Salts, Pierre Weiss, 
56.=; 

Chertier (Georges), the Nitrous Esters of Cellulose, 34 

Chesneau (Prof. M. G.), Theoretical Principles of the 
Methods of Analytical Chemistry, based upon Chemical 
Reactions, 330 

Chevalier (Aug.), Ou^m^ River Curious Phenomenon, 49 

Chevaliir (Father), the Apparent Diameter of Jupiter, 51 

Child Problems, Dr. G. B. Mangold, 538 

China, Gleanings from Fifty Years in, A. Little, 275 

China, Native Working of Coal and Iron in, 251 

Chofardet (P.), Observations of CeruUi's Comet (1910c) 
made at the Observatory of Besangon with the Bent 
Equatorial, i2q 

Chree (Dr. C. F.R.S.). on the Electricity of Rain and its 
Origin in Thunderstorms, Dr. George C. Simpson, 81 ; 
Supposed Propagation of Equatorial Magnetic Disturb- 
ances with Velocities of the Order of 100 Miles per 
Second, 160; the Recent Earthquakes in Asia, 33;; 
Russian Magnetic Observations, Prof. Ernst Leyst, 388 

Chronology : a Preliminarv Studv of Chemical Denudation, 
F. W. Clarke. 177 : the'Age of the Earth, G. F. Becker, 
173 ; Proposed Calendar Reform, T. C. Chamberlin, 6Xx : 
M. Grosclaude. 4:^4 ; a Perpetual Calendar, Sir William 
Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S., :;40 ; W. T. L.. 540 

Chronometry : Accuracy of Time on Magnetograms, G. W. 
Walker, 236 ; Standard Time in France, 277 : Daylight 
Saving Bill. 41-; ; System of Fixed or Differential 
Synchronisation, Ernest Esclangon, 463 ; Synchronisation 
of Clocks, 482, 516; Time Ball, 483: Government Bill 
for Adoption of Greenwich Time as Official Time in 
France, 518 

Cisotti (U.), Dynamical Reaction of a Liquid Jet, 463 

Civilisation, Engfineering and, Alexander Siemens at Insti- 
tution of Civil Engineers, ^q 

Clarification of Liquids by the Process of Tanking, the, 
Rowland A. Earp. 308 

Clarke (F. W.), a Preliminary Studv of Chemical Denuda- 
tion, 173 

Claude (Georges), the Preparation of Argon, 65 : 
Luminescent Tubes containing Neon, 262 

Claude (M.), Telephonic and Radio-telegraphic Comparisons 
of Chronometers by the Method of Coincidences between 
Paris and Brest, 161 

Cleland (Dr. J. Burton), the Ha?matozoa of Australian 
Batrachians, 130 ; Occurrence of Pentastomes in Aus- 
tralian Cattle. 130 

Climatic Conditions and Organic Evolution, Ivor Thomas, 
36 



Clinch (George), some Unexplored Fields in British 

Archaeology, 22 
Clocks, Synchronisation of, 482, 516 
Clough (W. T.), Elementary Experimental Electricity and 

Magnetism, 135 
Coal : die Entstehung der Steinkohle und der Kaustobio- 
lithe uberkaupt, Prof. H. Potoni^, 199; Native Working 
of Coal and Iron in China, 251 
Coal Dust Experiments, Records of the First Series of tho 
British, conducted by the Committee Appointed by the 
Mining Association of Great Britain, Prof. W. Galloway. 
4S7 
Cocos-Keeling Atoll, the, Rev. E. C. Spicer, 41 ; F. Wood- 
Jones, 41, 106, 139; the Reviewer, 42, 106; Madge W. 
Drummond, 107, 206 
Cofjgia (M.), Observations of the New CerulH Planet 

(K.U.) 1910, 65 
Cohen (Ernst), Properties of Zinc Amalgam as Affecting 

the Clark Cell, 248 
Cohn (Prof. E.), Principles of Relativity, 452 
Coker (Prof. E. G.), Photo-elasticity. 347 
Cole (Dr.). Blackhead in Turkeys, 85-6 
Cole (Prof. Grenville A. J.), Submarine Geology of the 
West Coast of Ireland, 388 ; Weathering on the Surface 
of a Sheet of Fine-grained Diorite near Rathmullan, 
•^88: Lehrbuch der Geologie von Deutschland, Prof. J. 
Walther, 468 : Geologie von Deutschland und den 
angrenzenden Gebieten, Prof. R. Lepsius. 468 ; Geologie 
von Ostpreussen, Prof. A. Tourquist, 468 
Cole (L. J.l. Bird-marking in the United States, 147 
Coleman (Dr. L. C), the Palm Disease, "Kolerc^a."' 

217 
Coleoptera Lamellicornia (Cetoniinae and Dynastinas), the 
Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma, 
G. J. Arrow, 467 
Colliery Surveying, Field and, T. A. O 'Donahue, 405 
Colliery Warnings, Prof. Henry Louis, 336, 438 ; the 

Author of the Warnings, 437: R. M. Deeley. :;i2 
Collin (J. E.), New Species of Small Hairy Flies of the 
Genus Limosina taken from a Coprophagous Beetle in 
Cevlon, 246 
Collins (F. Howard). Death of, 146 
Collins (J. H.), Wood-tin, 127 
Colour Contrast in Photomicrography, Messrs. Wratten 

and Wain Wright. 319 
Comets : Halley's Comet. 21 ; M. Bassot. 97: H. E. Wood, 
340 ; Messrs. Innes and Worssell, 350 ; Father Goetz. 
3^0; Profs. Nijland and van der Bilt. 350: F. Sy. 351; 
Dr. J. Mascart. 3^1 ; M. Jamain, 3^;! ; the Motion of 
Molecules in the Tail of Halley's Comet, Prof. Lowell. 
21 ; Ephemeris for Halley's Comet, Dr. Ebell, 51 ; 
Selenium Photometer Measures of the Brightness of 
Halley's Comet, Joel Stebbin. 51 ; Recent Helwan Photo- 
graphs of Halley's Comet, Prof. Barnard, 180 ; Observa- 
tions of, made at the Nice Observatorv with the Gautier 
Equatorial of 76 cm. Aperture, M. Javelle, 129 ; Con- 
dition of the Atmosphere during the Recent Proximity 
of, H. G. A. Hardinge. 130 : the Spectrum of, C. P. 
Butler. IQ3 ; Discovery of a Comet, Dr. Cerulli, 87 : 
Cerulli's Comet, T9io<?. Prof. Hartwig, 119; Dr. Ebell. 
1 19 ; Obser\' ations of. made at the Observatory of 
Besangon with the Bent Equatorial, P. Chofardet, 129 ; 
Cerulli's Comet (i9ioe), Identified with Faye's Short- 
period Comet, Prof. Pickering, 150; Dr. Ebell, i^o; Dr. 
Schiller, 151 ; Dr. Ristenpart. i^i ; Dr. Cerulli. 151 : 
Observations of Cerulli's Comet made at the Observatory 
of Lyons. J. Guillaume. 161 ; Ephemeris for Faye's 
Comet, iQioe, Dr. Ebell. 180; Identity of the Cerulli 
Comet with the Faye Comet, G. Fayet, 103 ; Faye's 
Comet, G. Fayet, 248 : Observations of the Faye-Cerulli 
Comet made at the Obser\-atory of Marseilles with the 
Comet Finder, M. Borrclly, 261 ; Elements for Faye's 
Comet. i9ioe. Prof. Ristenpart and Dr. Prager. 310; 
Mr. Meyer and Miss Levy. 319 ; Ephemeris for Faye's 
Comet, Dr. Ebell. ^23 ; Metcalf's Comet, 1910&. Dr. 
Ebell. 87. 310; Definitive Elements for the Orbit of 
Comet 1904 IT. (1904^). J. Sedla^ek. 218; Investigation 
of the Orbit of Wolf's Comet, 1898-1911. M. Kamensky, 
248; Comets due to Return in 1911. Mr. Lynn, 348: 
Cometary Theories. Messrs. Roe and Graham. 486 ; Prof. 
Eginitis. 486 



XIV 



Index 



[ 



March 23, 191 1 



jCompton (Arthur), Influence of Temperature on the Activity 

of Cellase, 227 
Congresses, Conflicting Dates of International, Dr. F. A. 

Bather, 130 
Conic Sections, S. Gangopdclhydya, 167 
Conservation Commission of Maryland, Report of the, for 

1908-9, 545 
Conservation of Natural Resources in the United States, 

the, Charles R. Van Hise, 545 
Constable (F. C), the Conduct and Song of Birds, 308 
Cook (Capt.), Memorial to, 114; Dr. A. C. Haddon, 

F.R.S.. 236 
Cooke (Dr. Theodore), Death of, 46 ; Obituary Notice of, 82 
Cooke (R.), Variation of the Depth of Water in a Well at 

Detling, near Maidstone, compared with the Rainfall, 

188:5-1909, 565 
Cooke (W. E.), Standard Astrometry, 523 
Cooke (W. W.), Distribution and Migration of North 

American Shore-birds, 116 
Coon (J. M.), Alteration of the Felspar of Granite to 

China-clay, 127 
Copeman (Dr. S. Monckton, F.R.S.), Flies as Carriers of 

Infection, t;2^ 
Copernicus (Nicol.aus), Several Entirely Unknown Auto- 
graphs of. Dr. L. Birkenmajer, 217 
Cori (Prof. Carl I.), der Naturfreund am Strande der 

Adria und des Mittelmeergebictes, 369 
Cbrin (James), Mating, Marriage, and the Status of 

W^omen, 334 
Corner (Engineer Rear-.Admira! J. T.), Some Practical 

Experience with Corrosion of Metals, 428 
Cornish (Dr. Vaughan), the Panama Canal in 19 10, Paper 

at Royal Society of Arts, 420 
Corsica, the Ice Age in, 456 

Cosmogonia di Bhrgu, la, A. M. Pizzagalli, 452 
Cotton Growing within the British Empire, J. H. Reed at 

Royal Geographical Society, 184 
Cotton (A.), Absolute Measurement of the Magnetic Double 

Refraction of Nitrobenzene, 129 : Delicacy Interference 

Measurements and the Means of Increasing Them, 429 
Coulten (Prof. J. M.), a Text-book of Botany for Colleges 

and Universities, -loo 
Courthope (G. L.), Sugar-beet Growing. 25 
Couturat (Dr. Louis), Internaciona Matematikal Lexiko en 

Ido, Germana, Angla, Franca e Italiana, 269 ; Inter- 
national Language and Science, 260 
Cowan (Tames), the Maoris of New Zealand, 109 
Cowles (Prof. H. C), a Text-book of Botany for Colleges 

and Universities, 309 
Cowper (H. S.), Exploration of a Flint Implement Factory, 

520 
Craig (J. 1.1, Report upon the Rains of the Nile Basin and 

the Nile Flood of 1009, 485 
Craniolog'y : Dioptrographic Tracings in Four Normal of 

Fifty-two Tasmanian Crania, Prof. R. J. A. Berry and 

A. W. D. Robertson, 366 
Crapper (E. H.), Electric Circuit Problems in Mines and 

F'actories, 503 
Crathorne (A. R.), College Algebra, 368 
Crawley (A. E.), First Annual Report of the Commission 

of Conservation, Canada, no: Mitteilun^en des Provin- 

zialkomitees fiir NaturdenkmnlpfleEre, no; Naturdenk- 

malpflege und Aquarrenkunde, R. Hermann and W. 

Wolterstorff, no: Naturdenkmalpflege, Prof. Giirich, 

no; Uber Zeil u. Methode der Naturdenkmalpflege, Prof. 

Dr. B. Schaefer-Cassel, no; Uber das Tierleben in dem 

von der Staatsforstverwaltung sfeschiitzten Zwergberken- 

Moor in Neulinum, Dr. Th. Kuhleatz, no; Neues aus 

der Naturdenkmalpflege, Dr. W. Giinther, no 
Creel, An Open, H. T. Sherinsjham, 102 
Cresswell (F.), Origin of the English Tria$sic Strata, with 

special Reference to the Keuper Marls, 247 
Cretaceous .Angiosperms, Lower, Dr. M. C. Stopes, 139 
Crete, Excavations on the Island of Pseira, Richard B. 

Seager, H. R. Hall, 272 
Crete, the Sea-Kings of. Rev. James Baikie, 2-?.^ 
Crick (G. C), New Genus and Species of Dibranchiate 
Cephalopod Bclemnocamnx hoiveri, from the Lower Chalk 
(Tottenhoe Stone) of Lincolnshire, 285 
Crook (T.). Submarine Geology of the West Coast of 

Ireland, 388 ; a Case of Electrostatic Separation, 496 



Crooke (W.), Origin of the Rajputs and Mahrattas, 177 

Crowther (Dr.), the Impurities of the Town Atmosphere, 
and their Effects on Vegetation, 24 

Crowthrr (J. A.), the Distribution of Secondary Rontgen 
Radiation round a Radiator, 261 ; Energy and Distribu- 
tion of Scattered Rontgen Radiation, 462 

Crustacea : Stalk-eyed Crustaceans from the Coast of Peru, 
Miss Rathbun, 84 ; Life-history of the Common Lobster, 
Dr. A. Appellof, 179 

Crystallography : the Differentiation and Specificity of Cor- 
responding Proteins and other Vital Substances in Relation 
to Biological Classification and Organic Evolution and 
the Crystallography of Haemoglobins, Prof. E. T. Reichert 
and Prof. A. P. Brown, 57; Crystal Structure and 
Chemical Composition, Prof. W. J. Pope, F.R.S., 551 

Cucchetti (Gino), Afforestation, a Remedy for the Disastrous 
Effects of Earthquake in Messina and Southern Italy, 149 

Curie (Madame), Royal Society of Arts' Albert Medal pre- 
sented to, 176 

Curves and Surfaces, Singularities of, A. B. Bassett, F.R.S., 
336, 440; T. J. I'a. B., 336, 440 

Cushing (Dr. Harvey), Present Status of Neurological 
Surgery, 147 

Cygni, a New Variable Star or a Nova 97, 1910, Mr. 
Hinks, 22 



Daday (Dr. E. von), Microfauna of the Nile, 549 

Dantony (E.), General Principles which ought to be fol- 
lowed in establishing Formula; for Insecticides, 262 

Darling (Chas. R.), the Formation of Spheres of Liquids, 
512 

Darwin (Dr. F.), New Method of Observing in Living 
Leaves, while still attached to the Plant, the Degree to 
which the Stomatal Apertures are Open or Closed, 58 

Darwin (Sir George), Tidal Observations made during Sir 
Ernest Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition of 1907, 281 

Darwin (Miss N.), Germination Conditions and the Vitality 
of .Seeds, 58 

Darwin, the Making of a, Dr. David Starr Jordan at 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, 354 

Darwin and the Transmission of Acquired Characters, E. A. 
Parkyn, 474; Prof. John W. Judd, C.B., F.R.S., 474 

Darwinism and Human Life, Prof. J. Arthur Thomson, 504 

Darwinism and the Humanities, Prof. James Mark Baldwin, 

504 

Darzens (G.), Synthesis of Ketones in the Tetrahydro- 
aromatic Series, 65 ; New Method for the Preparation of 
the Glycidic Esters, 129 

Davenport (C. B.), Eugenics, the Science of Human Im- 
provement by Better Breeding, 39 

David (M.), Method of Analysis of Fatty Bodies by the 
Separation of the Solid Fatty Acids from the Liquid 
Acids, 65 

Davidson (G. F.), Measurement of Boiler Deformations. 384 

Davis (Prof. Ellery W.), the Imaginary in Geometry, 383 

Davis (W. G.). Climate of the Argentine Republic, 250 

Davis (Prof. W. M.), "Empirical" Method of Description, 
178; Geographical Essavs, 364 

Dawkins (Prof. W. Boyd^ F.R.S.), the .Arrival of Man in 
Britain, Huxley Memorial Lecture at Royal Anthropolo- 
gical Institute, 122 

Dawson (Dr. H. M.), Theoretical Principles of the Methods 
of Analytical Chemistry based upon Chemical Reactions, 
330 

Daylight Saving Bill, 413 

Dean (Bashford), Fossil Fishes, 285 

Deeley (R. M.), Glacial Erosion, 475, 541 ; Colliery Warn- 
ings, 512 

Deinhardt-Schlomann Series of Technical Dictionaries in 
Six Languages, the, Alfred Schlomann, 99 

Delachanal (B.), Research on the Gases Occluded in the 
Copper Alloys, 129 

Dendv (Prof. Arthur, F.R.S.), the Subantarctic Islands of 
New Zealand, 43 

Denigfes (Georges), New Reaction of Morphine, 227 ; New 
Reaction for Cupreine, 328 

Denmark, Diptera Danica, Genera and Species of Flies 
hitherto found in, W. Lundbeck, 506 

Denning (W. F.), Fireball of October 23, 21; the January 



Nature, "I 

March 23, 1911 J 



Index 



XV 



Meteors, 348 ; Fireball of January 9, 372 ; Meteors in 
February, 417; Splendid Meteor on January 25, 453 

der Bilt (_Prof. van), Halley's Comet, 350 

der Waals (.Prof. J. D. Van), Nobel Prize Awarded to, 
46. 213 

Descent of Man, a New Theory of the, Richard N. \\ egner, 
119; Prof. A. Keith, 206, 509; Gerhardt v. Bonin, 50J8 

Desch (Dr» Cecil H.), Metallography, 301 ; the Origin of 
Man, 406 

Deslandres (Dr. H.), the Progressive Disclosure of the 
Entire Atmosphere of the Sun, Discourse at Royal Insti- 
tution of Great Britain, 422, 457 ; Researches on the 
Movements of the Solar Atmospheric Layers by the Dis- 
placement of the Lines of the Spectrum, 497 

Desor's Svnopsis des Echinides Fossiles, Index to. Dr. 
F. A. Bather. F.R.S., 404 

Dewar (G. A. B.), the Book of the Dry Fly, 39 

Diabetes Mellitus, Metabolism in, F. G. Benedict and E. P. 
Joslin, Prof. J. S. Macdonald, 455 

Dickson (J. D. Hamilton), Thermo-electric Diagram from 
— 200^ to -hioo° C, based on the Experiments of Sir 
James Dewar and Prof. Fleming, 193 

Dictionaries, the Deinhardt-Schlomann Series of Technical, 
in Six Languages, Alfred Schlomann, 99 

Dierckx (Henry), the Orbit of the Perseids, 218 

Digby (Miss), Behaviour of the Chromosomes during 
Mitosis, 58 

Dines (\\'. H.), Results obtained from the Registering 
Balloon Ascents carried out during the Two International 
Weeks, December 6-1 1, 1909, and August 8-13, 1910, 128 

Diplodocus, Die Rekonstruktion des, O. .Abel, no 

Diptera Danica : Genera and Species of Flies hitherto found 
in Denmark, W. Lundbeck, 506 

Diseases of the Skin, including Radiotherapy and Radium- 
therapy, Prof. E. Gaucher, Dr. A. C. Jordan, 363 

Disintegration Theory, the Density of Niton (Radium 
Emanation) and the, R. Whytlaw Gray and Sir William 
Ramsay, F.R.S., at Royal Society, 524 

Ditmars (R. L.), Reptiles of the World, Tortoises and 
Turtles, Crocodiles, Lizards and Snakes of the Eastern 
and Western Hemispheres, 196 

Dixon (Dr. Henr}- H.), the Thermo-electric Method of 
Crjoscopy, 531 

Dixon (Will. A.), Protection from "White Ants," and other 
Pests, 270 

Dixon (Dr. W. E.), Pharmacological Action of Goniotna 
Kamassi (South African Boxwood), 427 

Dixon (Mr.), the Geology of the South Wales Coalfield, 386 

Dobell (C. Clifford), Die Variabilitat niederer Organismen 
Hans Pringsheim. 501 

Doelter (Prof. Dr. C), Das Radium und die Farben, 470 

Dohrn (.Anton), Gedachtnisrede gehalten auf den Imer- 
nationalen Zoologen-Kongress in Graz am 18 August, 
1910, Prof. Th. Boveri, 334 

Doncaster (L.), Heredity in the Light of Recent Research, 

331 
Dorner (A.), Encyklopadie der Philosophie, 367 
Dorrien-Smith (Captain A.), Two Botanical Excursions in 

the South-west Region of West Australia, 451 
Doumer (E.), Epilepsy and Constipation, 328 
Douville (Henri), How Species have Varied, 33 ; Some Cases 

of Adaptation, the Origin of Man, 65 
Drainage and Malaria, Dr. Chas. A. Bentley, 471 ; Dr. 

Malcolm Watson, 471 
Drawing : the Brooks Patent T-square Lock, 5 ; a Course 

of Drawing for the Standards, J. W. T. Vinall, 268 ; 

Natural and Common Objects in Primary Drawing, 

J. W. T. Vinall, 268 
Dreaper (W. P.), Instruction in Methods of Research, 73 
Driencourt (L.), Observations of the Tides made at Sea in 

the Channel and the North Sea, 97 ; Telephonic and 

Radio-Telegraphic Comparisons of Chronometers by the 

Method of Coincidences between Paris and Brest, 161 
Drinkwater (Dr. H.), a Lecture on Mendelism, 436 
Drummond (Madge W.), the Cocos-Keeling Atoll, 107, 206 
Dry Fly, the Book of the, G. A. B. Devvar, 39 
Dublin: Royal Irish .Academy, 296; Dublin Roval Society, 

161, 327. 531 
Duckworth (Dr.), Head Form and Pigmentation of Cretan 

School Children, 24 
Duclaux (J.), Refrigerating Mixtures, 33 



Dudetzky (M.), Microstructure of Hailstones, 485 
Dudgeon (L. S.), Influence of Bacterial Endotoxins on 

Phagocytosis, 127 
Dumfriesshire, the Birds of, a Contribution to the Fauna 

of the Solway Area, Hugh S. Gladstone, 378 
Dun Coat Colour in the Horse, J. B. Robertson, 138 
Duncan (J. C), the Spectra of Some Wolf-Rayet Stars, 552 
Duncker (George), Pipe-fishes, Syngnathidae, from Rivers 

of Ceylon, 122 
Dunkelfeldbeleuchtung und Ultramikroskopie in der Biologie 

und in der Medizin, N. Gaidukov, 72 
Dunstan (Dr. Wyndham R., F.R.S.), Report on the Present 

Position of Cotton Cultivation, 520 
Duparc (Louis), Issite a New Rock in Dunite, 262 
Dupont (Georges), Acetylene Pinacone, 463 
Durand (Dr. Ernest), Bequest to Paris Museum of Natural 

History, 343 
Durand-Gr^ville (M.), .Aviators and Squalls, 322 
Dussaud (Madame M.), Discontinuous Sources of Light, 129 
Dyer (Dr. B.), the Manuring of Market-garden Crops, 505 
Dyke (G. B.j, Some Resonance Curves Taken with Impact 

and Spark-ball Discharges, 531 ; Measurements of Energy 

Losses in Condensers Traversed by High-frequency Electric 

Oscillations, 530 
Dynamics : the Dynamics of a Golf Ball, Sir J. J. Thomson, 

F.R.S., at Royal Institution, 251 ; Dr. C. G. Knott, 306 
Dzierzbicki (J. de). Progressive Phosphorescent Spectrum of 

Organic Compounds at Low Temperatures, 161 ; Influence 

of Functional Groups on the Spectrum of Progressive 

Phosphorescence, 395 



Earland (A.), the Foraminifera of the Shore-sands of Selsey 
Bill, 86 ; Some Varietal Forms of Massilina Secatis, 95 

Earp (Rowland A.), the Clarification of Liquids by the 
Process of Tanking, 308 

Earth's Action on Sunlight and Heat, the, James D. Roots, 
486 

Earth's Rotation, New Experimental Demonstration of the. 
Father Hagen, 248 ; B. Latour, 248 

Earthquakes : Earthquakes in the Pacific, J. J. Shaw, 
115; Prof. Milne, 115; Earthquake at Zanzibar, 244; 
Two Slight Earthquakes felt at Glasgow, 244 ; Earth- 
quake on the West Coast of .Africa, 244 : in Scotland. 244 ; 
in New Guinea, 244 ; in the West Indies, 244 ; Earth- 
quake Shocks at Elis, at San Francisco, and at Brusa, 314 ; 
the Recent Earthquakes in Asia, Dr. W. N. Shaw. 
F.R.S., 335; Dr. C. Chree, F.R.S., 335; Earthquake in 
Russian Turkestan, 342 ; the Turkestan Earthquake of 
January 3-4, Rev. Walter Sidgreaves, 372 ; F. Edward 
Norris, 372 ; \'yernyi Earthquake, 379 ; Earthquake Shock 
at Tiensin, 449 

Ebell (Dr.), Ephemeris for Halley's Comet, 51 ; Metcalf's 
Comet (1910b), 87, 319; Ceru'lli's Comet (igio^), 119; 
Cerulli's Comet (1910*) Identified with Faye's Short- 
period Comet, 151 ; Ephemeris for Faye's Comet (igioe), 
iSo, 523 

Echinides Fossiles, Index to Desor's Synopsis des. Dr. F. .A. 
Bather, F.R.S., 404 

Echinoderma of the Indian Museum, Prof. Rene Koehler, 

134 

Eckel (Edwin C), Origin of the Ores, 420 

Eclipses: the Total Eclipse of the Moon, November 16, 
E. A. Martin, 118; Madame de Robeck, 118; MM. 
Luizet. Guillaume, and Merlin, 180; M. Montangerand. 
iSo: M. Lebeuf, 180; M. Jonckheere, 180; Dr. Max 
Wolf, 319; Father Fenyi, 319 

Edinburgh, University of. Forestry Education : its Import- 
ance and Requirements, E. P. Stebbing at, 61 : the 
Reform of Mathematical and Science Teaching in 
Germany, -A. J. Pressland at Edinburgh Mathematical 
Societv, 125; Edinburgh Roval Society, 193, 261, 497, 

565 ' . . 

Education : the .Association of Teachers in Technical Insti- 
tutions, 55 ; Education in Technical Optics, 56 ; Forestr>- 
Education : its Importance and Requirements, E. P. 
Stebbing at the L'niversity of Edinburgh, 61 ; the Reform 
of Mathematical and Science Teaching in Germany, .A. J. 
Pressland at Edinburgh Mathematical Society, 125 ; the 
Work of Polytechnic Institutes, Lord Alverstone, 220 ; 
Chez les Fran^ais, 270 ; Technical Education Branch of 



XVI 



Index 



Nature, 
March 23, 191 1 



the Department of Public Instruction of New South | 
Wales, Annual Report for 1909, 280 ; Educational Aims 
and Efforts, 1880-1910, Sir Philip Magnus, 298 ; London 
County Council Conference of Teachers, 353 ; Specialisa- 
tion in Teaching, Mrs. Bryant, 353 ; the Relation of the 
Memory to the Will, Dr. C. Spearman, 353 ; the Teaching 
of Geography, B. C. Wallis, 354 ; Educational Experi- 
ments in Schools, B. Lewis, 354 ; Conferences of Mathe- 
matical Teachers and of Public School Science Masters, 
385 ; Recent Advance of " the Astronomical Regiment," 
Prof. H. H. Turner, 385 ; Teaching of Elementary 
Mechanics, G. Goodwill, 385 ; Two Fragments of Ancient 
Geometrical Treatises Found in the Worcester Cathedral 
Library, Canon J. M. Wilson, 385 ; Teaching of Algebra 
and Trigonometry, 385 ; Compulsory Science 'cersus 
Compulsory Greek, Sir E. Ray Lankester, 385 ; Experi- 
mental Determination of the Equivalent of Magnesium, 
W. M. Hooton, 386 ; Mentally Deficient Children, their 
Treatment and Training, Dr. G. E. Shuttleworth and 
Dr. W. A. Potts. 507 ; Association of Technical Institu- 
tions, Sir Henry Hibbert, 525 ; see also British Associa- 
tion 
Edwards (C. A.), New Critical Point in Copper-zinc Alloys, 

428 
Eei-Larvas (Leptocephalus hrevirostris) from the Central 

North Atlantic, Dr. Johan Hjort, 104 
Effront (J.), Action of the Bulgarian Ferment upon Proteid 

and Amido Substances, 194 
Egerton (Alfred C. G.), Tribo Luminescence of Uranium, 

^308 
Eginitis (Prof. Demetrius), the Latitude of Athens, 56 ; 

CometSry Theories, 486 
Egvptology : Earlv Burial Customs in Egypt, Prof. W. M. 
Flinders Petrie', F.R.S., 41 ; Prof. G. Elliot Smith, 
F.R.S., 41 ; Egyptological Researches, W. Max Miiller, 
165 ; the Tomb of 1 wo Brothers, Miss M. A. Murray, 332 
Ehrenhaft (Dr. F.), Measurement of Electricity less than 

the Electro or " Atom of Electricity," 383 
Eiffel (G.), the Resistance of Rectangular Planes Struck 

Obliquely by the Wind, 193 
Eisens und Stahls, Die Untersuchungs-Methoden des. Dr. 

A. Riidisiile, Prof. H. C. H. Carpenter, 233 
Elbert (Dr.), Expedition to Java in Search of the Predeces- 
sors of the Human Race, 285 . 
Elderton (Ethel M.), a Second Study of the Influence of 
Parental Alcoholism on the Physique and Ability of the 
Offspring, 479 
Electricity : Measurement of Very Small Displacements by 
Means of the Electrometer, Jean Villey, 34 ; Electrical 
Purification of Liquid Sulphur Dioxide and its Electrical 
Conductivity, J. Carvallo, 34 ; Influence of the Magnetic 
Field on Duration of the Lines of the Spectrum Emitted 
by Luminous Vapours in the Electric Spark, G. A. 
Hemsalech, 65 ; on the Electricity of Rain and its Origin 
in Thunderstorms, Dr. George C. Simpson, Dr. C. Chree, 
F.R.S., 81 ; the Production and Use of Electric Power, 
S. Z. de Ferranti at Institution of Electrical Engineers, 
90 ; a Spectroscopic Investigation of the Nature of the 
Carriers of Positive Electricity from Heated Aluminium 
Phosphate, Dr. F, Horton, 95 ; Action of a Magnetic 
Field on the Electric Discharge, Eugene Bloch, 97-8 ; a 
Treatise on Electrical Theory and the Problem of the 
Universe, Considered from the Physical Point of View, 
with Mathematical Appendices, G. W. de Tunzelmann, 
99 : Practical Electrical Engineering for Elementary 
Students, W. S. Ibbetson, 135 ; Practical Electricity and 
Magnetism, R. Elliott Steel, 135 ; Elementary Experi- 
mental Electricity and Magnetism, W. T. Clough, 135 ; 
Theory of the Chemical Action of the Electric Discharge 
in Electrolytic Gas and Other Gases, P. J. Kirby, 192 ; 
an Electrostatic Voltmeter for Photographic Recording 
of the Atmospheric Potential, G. W. Walker, 192 ; 
Efficiency of Metallic Filament Lamps, Dri R. A. 
Houston, 193 ; Magnetic Properties of Iron at High Fre- 
quencies, R. Jouaust, 193 ; the Electric Stress at which 
lonisation begins in Air, Dr. A. Russell, 225 ; Afterglow 
'^f Electric Discharge, Prof. R. J. Strutt, 226 ; Two 
Pieces of Metal Lightly Touching do not in general form 
an Electrical Contact when the Difference of Potential is 
Small, G. Lippmann, 227 ; Reception of the Hertzian 
Time Signal from the Eiffel Tower, Paul J^gou, 227 ; 



Discharge of Positive Electricity from Sodium Phosphate 
heated in Different Gases, F. Horton, 261; Atmospheric 
Electricity, Dr. G. A. Curse and D. MacOwan, 281 ; 
Darkening of the Glass Bulbs of Osram Lamps due to the 
use of Slight Amount of Copper in the Leading-in Wires, 
Prof. G. W. O. Howe, 281 ; Suggestion to Balance 
Residual Inductance and Capacity, Dr. E. Orlich, 282 ; 
Recent Progress in Electric Lighting, Prof. E. W. Mar- 
chant at Illuminating Engineering Society, 289 ; Appara- 
tus for the Rapid Electro-.Analvtical Determination of 
Metals, Dr. H. J. S. Sand and' W. M. Smalley, 360; 
Measurements of Electricity less than the Electro or 
"Atom of Electricity," Dr. F. Ehrenhaft, 383; Sub-marine 
Cables for Long-distance Telephone Circuits, Major 
O'Meara, 383 ; liistribution of Electric Force in the 
Crookes Dark Space, F. W. Aston, 394 ; Electrical Pro- 
perties of the Aluminium-Magnesium Alloys, Witold 
Broniewski, 395 ; the Theory of lonisation of Gases by 
Collision, Prof. John S. Townsend, F.R.S., 400; 
Solenoids Electromagnets and Electromagnetic Windings, 
Charles R. Underbill, Prof. Gisbert Kapp, 432 ; the 
Afterglow of Electric Discharge in Nitrogen, Hon. R. J. 
Strutt, . F.R.S., 439 ; Atmospheric Electricity over the 
Ocean, Dr. G. C. .Simpson and C. S. Wright, 462 ; 
Electric Motors, Henry M. Hobart, Stanley P. Smith, 
468 ; Arc Lamp having a Mercury Kathode and Giving 
White Light, E. Urbain, CI. Seal, and A. Feige, 497 ; 
Electric Circuit Problems in Mines and Factories, E. H. 
Crapper, Prof. Gisbert Kapp, 503 ; Exercises in Electrical 
Engineering for the Use of Second-year Students in Uni- 
versities and Technical Colleges, Prof. T. Mather, 
F.R.S., and Prof. G. W. O. Howe, Prof. Gisbert Kapp, 
503 ; the Electromotive Force of Standard Cells, Dr. 
R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S., 508 ; Report of the Berlin 
Meeting of the Commission on Terrestrial Magnetism and 
Atmospheric Electricity, 522 ; the International Volt, 522 ; 
Experimental Measurement of the High-frequency Resist- 
ance of Wires, Prof. J. A. Fleming, 530 ; Measurements 
of Energy Losses in Condensers traversed by High- 
frequency Electric Oscillations, Prof. J. A. Fleming and 
G. B. Dyke, 530 ; Some Resonance Curves Taken with 
Impact and .Spark-ball Dischargers, Prof. J. A. Fleming 
and G. B. Dyke, 531 

Electro-Metallurgy, a Treatise on, W. G. McMillan, A. 
Mc William, 506 

Electro-physiology : Das Elektrokardigramm des gesunden 
und kranken Menschen, Prof. Friedrich Kraus and Prof. 
Georg Nicolai, Prof. John G. McKendrick, F.R.S., 265 

Elgie (Joseph H.), a \Iorning Meteor, 475 

Eliot (Sir Charles, K.C.M.G.), a Monograph of the British 
Nudibranchiate Mollusca, with Figures of the Species, 

133 

Elizabethan Age, Heroes of the, E. Gilliat, 269 

Elsden (Dr. J. V.), Principles of Chemical Geology : a 
Review of the Applications of the Equilibrium Theory to 
Geological Problems, 100 

Ely (Eugene), Flight in a Curtis Biplane from Selfridge 
Field, 415 

Embrvologv : Earlv Development of the Marsupialia, Prof. 
J. P. Hill, 345 ■ 

Emmons (W. H.), a Reconnaisance of Some Mining Camps 
in Elko, Lander, and Eureka Counties, Nevada, 420 

Empire, the Broad Stone of. Problems of Crown Colony 
Administration, with Records of Personal Experience, Sir 
Charles Bruce, G.C.M.G., 229 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, the, 431 

Encyclopaedia of Sport and Games, the, 274 

Encyclopddie agricole. Pisciculture, Georges Gu^naux, Dr. 
William Wallace, 163 

Energetics : Die Forderung des Tages, Wilhelm Ostwald, 
298 

Engineering : Progress in the Construction of the Panama 
Canal, Fullerton L. Waldo, 21 ; Engineering and Civilisa- 
tion, Alexander Siemens at Institution of Civil Engineers, 
59 ; Proposed Battery of Humphrey Gas Pumps for 
Reservoir in the Lea Valley, 86 ; the Deinhardt-Schlomann 
Series of Technical Dictionaries in Six Languages, Alfred 
Schlomann, 99 ; Removing Wreck of the Quebec Bridge, 
118; Science and Engineering, Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., 
at Junior Institution of Engineers, 122 ; Practical Elec- 
trical Engineering for Elementary Students, W. S. Ibbet- 



Nature, 
March 23, 191 1 



Index 



XVI! 



son, 135; the New Tokyo, Benjiro Kusakabe, 185; 
Hydroelectric Developments and Engineering, F. Koester, 
Stanley P. Smith, 198 ; Critical Speeds for Torsional 
and Longitudinal Vibrations, Prof. Arthur Morley, 217; 
the Transandine Railway, Dr. John \V. Evans, 219; 
the Reduction of Rolling in Ships, H. Frahm, 250; 
Winning of Coastal Lands in Holland, A. E. Carey, 282 ; 
Recent Progress in Electric Lighting, Prof. E. W. 
Marchant at Illuminating Engineering Society, 289 ; 
Method of Raising Bore-casings from a Pontoon, R. W. 
Hannam, 295 ; Question of Safeguards against Fire in 
Trains after Collision, 318; Suggested Improvement in 
Epicyclic Variable Gears, Rev. H. C. Browne, 327 ; 
Death of Sir John Aird, 343 ; Submarine Cables for 
Long-distance Telephone Circuits, Major O'Meara, 383 ; 
Measurement of Boiler Deformations, G. F. Davidson, 
383-4 ; Engine Trials at National Physical Laboratory, 
384 : the Panama Canal in 1910, Dr. Vaughan Cornish 
at Royal Society of Arts, 420 ; the Structural Design of 
Aeroplanes, Prof. Herbert Chatley, 4^2 ; Electric Motors, 
Henry M. Hobart, Stanley P. Smith, 468 ; Reorganisa- 
tion of the Irrigation of Mesopotamia, 483 ; the Launch 
of the Thunderer, 484 ; Scheme for the Improvement of 
the Port of London, F. Palmer, 484 ; Method of 
Strengthening a Bridge by Means of Sheathing the Steel 
Trestles with Reinforced Concrete, 485 ; Electric Circuit 
Problems in Mines and Factories, E. H. Crapper, Prof. 
Gisbert Kapp, 501; : Exercises in Electrical Engineering 
for the Use of Second-vear Students in Universities and 
Technical Colleges, Prof. T. Mather, F.R.S., and Prof. 
G. \V. O. Howe. Prof. Gisbert Kapp, 503 ; Petrol-engine 
Ratings, 522 ; Experiments on Freight-train Resistance 
and its Relation to Average Car Weight, Prof. E. C. 
Schmidt, ^51 ; the Airship for the British Navy, 555 
English (D.), a Book of Nimble Beasts, 478 
English Association : Science and Literature, Lord Morley 

of Blackburn at, 446 
English Ceramic Society, Transactions of the, 411 
Englishwoman's Year Book and Directory, the, 304 
Enteric Fever Carriers, Dr. J. C. G. Ledingham, 145 
Entomology : the Apterygota of Hertfordshire, 48 : Method 
by which the Presence of the Drug-room Beetle (Sito- 
drepa panicea) mav be Readilv Detected in Powdered 
Drugs, Prof. H.' G. Greenish and Miss D. M. 
Braithwaite, 85 ; the Anatomy of the Honey Bee, R. E. 
Snodgrass, 169 ; Habits of Glossina morsitans. Sir Alfred 
Sharpe, 176; Movements of G. morsitans in N.E. 
Rhodesia, P. E. Hall, 176 ; Morphological Characters of 
the Genus Glossina, R. Newstead. 270 ; Preser\-ation of 
Bamboos from the Attacks of the Bamboo Beetle or 
" Shot-borer." E. P. Stebbing. 178; the Damage Done to 
Fruit Trees by Thrips, F. V. Theobald, 184 ; Experiments 
with Dragon-fly Larvx, R. J. Tillyard. 228 ; New Species 
of Small Hairy Flies of the Genus Limosina taken from 
a Coprophagous Beetle in Ceylon, J. E. Collin, 246; the 
Thorax of the Hymenoptera, R. E. Snodgrass, 246 ; 
Fossorial Hymenoptera, R. E. Turner, 496 ; a Biological 
Inquiry into the Nature of Melanism in Amphidasis 
bettilaria, Linn.. H. S. Leigh, 270: a Monograph of the 
Culicidae or Mosquitoes, Fred V. Theobald, 330 ; Death 
of J. W. Tutt. 3.1^ ; on the Origin of Slavery and 
Parasitism in .^nts, Henri Pi^ron, 3^1 ; Different Species 
of Tsetses, 381 ; Annual Meeting of the Entomological 
Society, 416: Death of E. A. L^veill^, 448; the Fauna 
of British India, including Ceylon and Burma : Coleoptera 
Lamellicornia (Cetoniinae and Dynastinae), G. J. Arrow, 
4.67 : Two Families of Diptera, the Cecidomyiidae (Gall- 
flies) and the Chironomidre. Prof. J. J. Kieffer, 406; 
Report on a Family of Diptera, the Stratiomyiidae, Dr. 
K. Kert^sz, 496 : Microlepidoptera of the Groups 
Tortricina and Tineina, E. Meyrick, 496 ; Diptera 
Danica, Genera and Species of Flies hitherto Found in 
Denmark, W. Lundbeck, :;o6 : Flies as Carriers of Infec- 
tion. Dr. G. S. Graham-Smith. 525 ; Dr. S. Monckton 
Copeman, F.R.S., 52,^; Catalogue of the Lepidoptera 
Phalaenae in the British Museum, ^30 
Environment versus Heredity, Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S., 

II 
Eoliths, 147 

Eredia (Dr.), the Cold Period of June in Italy. 281 
Erkenntnistheoretische Grundzuge der Naturwissenschaften 



und ihre Beziehungen zum Geistesleben der Gegenwart, 
Paul Volkmann, 233 

Ernst (E.), a New Variable or Nova (134, 1910 Piscium), 
4«7 

Esclangon (Ernest), System of Fi.xed or Differential 
Synchronisation, 463 

Espin (Mr.), Discovery of an Eighth-magnitude Nova, 319; 
Nova Lacertae, 348, 384 

Ethnography : the Yellow and Dark-skinned People of 
Africa South of the Zambezi, Dr. G. McCall Theal, 
Sir H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 542 

Ethnology : Ethnological and .Art Collections of the Indian 
Museum, 47 ; the Maoris of New Zealand, James Cowan, 
109 ; the Auin, a Bushman Tribe of the Middle Kalahari 
Desert, 148 ; Early Population-groups of Ireland, their 
Nomenclature and Chronology, John MacNeill, 531 ; Race 
Known as the Ishmaelites, Leo Wiener, 549 

Eugenics : the Science of Human Improvement by Better 
Breeding, C. B. Davenport, 39 ; Case of Spanish Eugenic 
PoUcy, G. M. Meyer, 47; "Poor Law Number" 
Eugenics Review, 115; Death of Sir Francis Galton, 
412; Obituary Notice of, 440; a Second Study of the 
Influence of Parental Alcoholism on the Physique and 
Ability of the Offspring, Karl Pearson, F'R.S., and 
Ethel M. Elderton, 479 ; Preliminary Study of Extreme 
Alcoholism in Adults, Amy Banington, Karl Pearson, 
F.R.S., and Dr. David Heron, 479 

Eustice (Prof. J.), Experiments on Stream-line Motion in 
Curved Pipes, 564 

Evans (Sir John), Memorial to, 448 

Evans (Dr. John W.). the Transandine Railway, 219 

Evans (T. J.), Partial Sterilisation of Soils, 25 

Everdingen (Dr. E. van), the Third Dimension in 
Meteorology, 117 

Everman (Mr.), List of the Fishes of the Lake of the 
Woods, 177 

Evolution: How Species have Varied, Henri Douvill^, 33; 
Super-organic Evolution, Dr. E. Lluria, 71 ; Some Cases 
of Adaptation, the Origin of Man, Henri Douvill^, 65 ; 
the Triumph of Evolution, Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S.. 
148; Evolution, Darwinian and Spencerian, Herbert 
Spencer Lecture at Oxford. Prof. Meldola, F.R.S., 220; 
the Coming of Evolution, Prof. J. W. Judd C.B.. 
F.R.S., Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S., 297; Origin of 
Species, Prof. Max Kassowitz, 382 ; Darwinism and 
Human Life, Prof. J. Arthur Thomson, 504 : Darwinism 
and the Humanities, Prof. James Mark Baldwin, 504 : 
Life and Habit, Samuel Butler, 505 ; Sudden Origin of 
New Types, Dr. F. Oswald, 520 

Ewart (Dr. A. J.), Botanical Expedition in the Victorian 
Alps, Plants Recorded in the District by. 177 

Ewart (Prof. J. C. F.R.S.). Origin of Dun Horses, 40; 
Are Mules Fertile ? 106 ; Mendelian Expectations, 205 

Ewart (Dr. R. J.), Sex Relationship, 322, 406 

Fabre-Domergue (P.), Storage of Oysters in Filtered 
Water, 34 ; Search for Bacterium coli in Sea Water by 
the Methods Employed for Fresh Water, 162 

Fabry (Louis), the Registration of Small Artificial Earth- 
quakes at a Distance of 17 Kilometres, 498 

Failyer (Mr.), Constituents of the Soil, 49 

Fantham (Dr. H. B.), Peculiar Morphology of a Trypano- 
some from a Case of Sleeping Sickness and the 
Possibility of its being a New Species {Trypanosoma 
rhodesiense), 64 : Possible Cause of Pneumo-enteritis in 
the Red Grouse (Lagopus scoticus), 226 ; Enumerative 
Studies on Trypanosoma gambiense and Trvpanosoma 
rhodesiense in Rats, Guinea Pigs, and Rabbits, 260 : 
Life-history of Trypanosoma gambiense and Try par.: 
soma rhodesiense as Seen in Rats and Guinea Pigs, 260 

Faraday Society, 360 

Farmer (Prof.), Behaviour of the Chromosomes during 
Mitosis, ,8 

Farmery (J. R.). the Zones of the Lower Chalk of 
Lincolnshire, 387 

Farren (G. P.), the Breeding Seasons of Calanus fin- 
tnarchius, 565 

Fave (L.). Observations of the Tides made at Sea in the 
Channel and the North Sea. 97 

Fawcett (Major P. H.), Exploration in Bolivia, 521 



XVlll 



Index 



Nature, 
Marih 23, 191 1 



Faye's Comet, igioe, Ephemeris for, Dr. Ebell, 180, 523 ; 
G. Fayet, 248 ; Elements for, Prof. Ristenpart and Dr. 
Prager, 319; Mr. Meyer and Miss Levy, 319 

Fayet (G.), Identity of the Cerulli Comet with the Faye 
Comet, 193 ; Faye's Comet, 248 

Fedde (Friedrich), das Pflanzenreich, Papaveraceae- 
Hypecoideae et Papaveracefe-Papaveroidea% 302 

Feige (A.), Sterilisation of Water on the Large Scale by 
Ultra-violet Light, 6; ; Arc Lamp having a Mercury 
Kathode and giving White Light, 497 

Fenyi (Father), the Total Eclipse of the Moon, November 
16, 1910, 319 

Fermor (Dr. L. Leigh), Quinquennial Review of the 
Mineral Production of India during the Years 1904 to 
1908, 121 

Fernbach (A.), Action of Nitrates in Alcoholic Fermenta- 
tion, 34 ; Influence Exerted by the Reaction upon certain 
Properties of Malt Extracts, 129 ; Biological Degradation 
of the Carbohydrates, 194 

Ferranti (S. Z. de), the Production and Use of Electric 
Power, Address at Institution of Electrical Engineers, 90 

Ferris (^L), Telephonic and Radio-telegraphic Comparisons 
of Chronometers by the Method of Coincidences between 
Paris and Brest, i6i 

Fichte, Schleiermacher, Stcffens iiber das Wesen der 
UniversitJit, Eduard Spranger, 367 

Field and Colliery Surveying, T. A. O 'Donahue, 405 

Filippi (Dr. F. de), the Duke of the Abruzzi's Expedition 
to the Karakoram Himalayas, Lecture at Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, 124 ; Expedition of the Duke of the 
Abruzzi to the Karakoram Himalayas, 4^0 

Findlay (Prof.), Report of the Section L Research Com- 
mittee on Mental and Physical Factors involved in 
Education, 89 

Finlayson (A. Moncrieff), Secondary Enrichment in the 
Copper Deposits of Huelva, Spain, 128 

Fireball of October 23, W. F. Denning, 21 

Fireball on November 2, 51 

Fireball of January 9, W. F. Denning, 372 

Fireballs, Recent, 87 ; Mr. and Mrs. Wilson, 150 ; C. B. 
Pennington, 150; J. Hicks, 150 

Fire-damp, Safety Lamps and the Detection of, 524 

Fischer (Prof. Emil), Recent Advances and Problems in 
Chemistry, 558 

Fisher (C. A.), Depth and Minimum Thickness of Beds as 
Limiting Factors in \'aluation, 420 

Fisher (Dr. Hugo), Can Acquired Characters be Inherited ? 
280 

Fisher (W. R.), Death of, 82; Obituary Notice of, 113 

Fisheries : Salmon-disease on the Continent, Messrs. De 
Drorein de Bouville and Mercier, 416 

Fishing: Fly-leaves from a Fisherman's Diary, Captain 
G. E. Sharp, 334; the Book of the Dry Fly, G. A. B. 
Dewar, 39 ; an Open Creel, H. T. Sheringham, 102 

Fitting (Dr. H.), Flowers which Undergo Marked Changes 
after Fertilisation, 20 

Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen, Prof. J. Zenneck, 556 

Flashes from the Orient, or a Thousand and One Mornings 
with Poesy, John Hazelhurst, 371 

Fleig (C), Experimental and Chemical Ocular Action of 
Bitumen Dust and Vapour, 65 

Fleming (Prof. J. A., F.R.S.), Some Improvements in 
Transmitters and Receivers for Wireless Telegraphy, 248 ; 
Experimental Measurement of the High-frequency Resist- 
ance of Wires, 530 ; Measurements of Energy Losses in 
Condensers Traversed by High-frequency Electric Oscil- 
lations, 530 ; Some Resonance Curves Taken with Impact 
and Spark-ball Discharges, 531 

Fletcher (Miss), the Exogamic Character of the Omaha 
Social Organisation, 24 

Fieure (Prof. H. J.), the People of Cardiganshire, 24 

Flies as Carriers of Infection, Dr. G. S. Graham-Smith, 
525 ; Dr. S. Monckton Copeman, F.R.S., 525 

Flight of Birds, the, Lucien Fournier, A. Mallock, F.R.S., 

445 
Flight of Birds against the Wind, the. Dr. W. Ainslie 

Hollis, 107 
Flower (Captain Stanley), Animals for the Zoological 

Gardens at Giza, 381 
Flower Anthology, a, 335 
Flower Book, the, Constance S. Armfield, 507 



Flynn (T. T.), Anatomy and Development of the Marsupialia, 
362 

Foaden (Mr.), Cotton Cultivation in Egypt, 85 

Folk Lore : the Luck of the Horse-slioe, Dr. A. Smythe 
Palmer, 19 ; Folk-tales dealing with the Relations of 
Hausa Parents and Children, Capt. A. J. N. Tremearne, 
146 

Fomin (W.), Action of Hydrogen to the Isomeric Thujenes 
and Sabinene, 227 

Food : Food and Nutrition, 148 ; Reports on Imperial Food- 
stuffs, 157 ; the Microscopical Examination of Food and 
Drugs, Prof. H. G. Greenish, 538 

Forbidden Seas, in, H. J. Snow, 408; Prof. John Milne, 
F.R.S., 510; Prof. D'Arcy W. Thompson, 510 

Forcrand (M. de), Thermochemical Study of Some Binary 
Compounds of the Metals of the Alkalies and the Alkaline 
Earths, 361 ; Probable Chemical Properties of Radium 
and its Combinations, 395 

Forderung des Tages, Die, Wilhelm Ostwald, 298 

Foreman (F. W.), Protein Hydrolysis, 161 

Forestry : Death of W. R. Fisher, 82 ; Obituary Notice of, 
113; Forestry Education: its Importance and Require- 
ments, E. P. Stebbing at the University of Edinburgh, 
61 ; Extension of Forestry Areas and Improved Methods 
of Cultivation in the British Isles, J. C. Medd, 415 ; Early 
Tree Planting in Scotland, H. B. Watt, 550 

Foster (Nevin H.), the Woodlice of Ireland, their Distribu- 
tion and Classification, 531 

Fournier (L.), by Passing a Rapid Current of Hydrogen 
Bromide over Amorphous Silicon at a Red Heat a Liquid 
is obtained which, on Submitting to Fractional Distilla- 
tion, gives as the Main Product of the Reaction Silicon 
Tetrabromide, 227 ; Reduction of Phosphoryl Chloride by 
Hydrogen under the Influence of the Silent Dischargfr» 
129 

Fournier (Lucien), the Fight of Birds, 44:; 

Fowler (G. J.), Oxidation of Phenol by Certain Bacteria in 
Pure Culture, 127 

Frahm (H.), the Reduction of Rolling in Ships, 250 

Frangais, Chez les, 270 

Eraser (Dr.), Behaviour of the Chromosomes during 
Mitosis, 58 

Free (Edward E.), Pwdre Ser, 6 

French Academies, the Admission of Women to the, 342,. 

372 
French Antarctic Expedition, the Second, Dr. J. B. Charcot 

at Royal Geographical Society, 257 
Freundlich (Dr. Herbert), Kapillarchemie, 534 
Frever (J. C. F.), Structure and Formation of Aldabra and 

Neighbouring Islands, ^6 
Friedel (G.), Liquids wUh Focal Conies, 65 ; Anisotropic 

Liquids, 194 
Friederici (Dr.). Distribution of the Sling in America, 147 
Frink (F. G.), Trigonometry, 368 
Fruit Tree Pruning, George Quinn, 2 
Fruit Trees, Pests of, 184 
Fry (W. B.), Further Results of Experimental Treatment 

of Trypanosomiasis, 64 
Fur Trade, Permissible Description of Furs, E. M. Kirwany 

381 

Gaidukov (N.), Dunkelfeldbeleuchtung und Ultramikro- 
skopie in der Biologic und in der Medizin, 72 

Gaillard (Gaston), Researches on the Influence of Velocity 
on the Compass. 531 

Gaillot (A.), Analytical Theory and Tables of Motion of 
Jupiter by Le Verrier, 327 

Gallatly (W.), Geometry of the- Triangle, 50 ; the Modernr 
Geometry of the Triangle, 335 

Galle, Leverrier's Letter to, the Discovery of Neptune, 184 

Galliot (M.), Preparation of Crystallised Strontium, 98 

Galloway (Prof. W.), Records of the First Series of the 
British Coal Dust Experiments, conducted by the Com- 
mittee Appointed by the Mining Association of Great 
Britain, 487 

Gallon (Sir Francis), Death of, 412; Obituary Notice of, 
440 

Galton (Sir F.), and Composite Photography, Lady Welby,. 

474 
Gamble (Prof. F. W., F.R.S.), a Text-book of Zoology, 



Mature, T 

/; 23, 191 1 J 



Index 



XIX 



Prof. T. J. Farker, F.R.S., and Prof. \V. A. Haswell, 

533 

Gangopddhy^ya (S.), the Student's Matriculation Geometry, 
167 ; Conic Sections, 167 

Ganong (Prof. \V. F.), the Teaching Botanist, 36 

Gardening : Hardy Plants for Cottage Gardens, Helen R. 
Albee, loi ; Manual of Gardening, L. H. Bailey, 132 ; 
the " Code " School Garden and Nature Note-book, 234 

Gas : " Instructions of the Metropolitan Gas Referees," 417 

Gases : Radiation from Heated Gases, Report of British 
Association Committee, 186 ; the Theory of lonisation of 
Gases b}" Collision, Prof. John S. Townsend, F.R.S., 400 

Gaskell (J. F.}, Action of X-rays on the Developing Chick, 
428 

Gates (W. E.). the Maya Hieroglyphs, 549 

Gaucher (Prof. E.), Diseases of the Skin, including Radio- 
therapy and Radiumtherapy, 363 

Gaudechon (Henry), Principal Types of Photolysis of 
Organic Compounds by the Ultra-violet Rays, 327 ; 
Photolysis of Complex Acids by the Ultra-violet Rays, 
498 ; Comparative .Action of the Ultra-violet Rays on 
Organic Compounds Possessing Linear and Cyclic Struc- 
ture, 565 ^ 

Gaumont (M.), Kinematograph Synchronised with Phono- 
graph or Gramaphone, 449 

Geigel (Robert), Licht und Farbe, 539 

Geistes, Die Entwicklung des menschlichen, Max V'ervvorn, 

39 

Gemmill (Dr. J. F.), the Development of Solaster endeca, 
Forbes, 226 

Geodesy : the Latitude of Athens, Demetrius Eginitis, 56 

Geography : Teobert Maler's Journeys from North of 
Yucatan and extending to the G^eat Lake of Peten-itza in 
Guatemala, 19 ; the British Empire in Pictures, H. Clive 
Barnard, 39 ; North-eastern Persia, the .\ncient Parthia, and 
Hvrcania, Major Svkes, 84 ; Memorial to Captain Cook, 
114; Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S., 236; the Duke of the 
Abruzzi's Expedition to the Karakoram Himalayas, Dr. 
F. De Filippi at Royal Geographical Society, 124; Ex- 
pedition of the Duke of the Abruzzi to the Karakoram 
Himalayas, Dr. Filippo de Filippi, 450 ; " Empirical " 
Method of Description, Prof. W. M. Davis, 178 ; the 
Transandine Railway, Dr. John W. Evans, 219; the 
Problem of the Decadence of Greek Civilisation, Prof. 
Ellsworth Huntington, 247 ; the Second French .Antarctic 
Expedition, Dr. J. B. Charcot at Royal Geographical 
Society, 257 ; Gleanings from Fifty Years in China, A. 
Little, 275 ; Exploring Upper Part of the Basin of the 
Yenesei and the Western Frontier of Mongolia, Dr. Car- 
ruthers, J. H. Miller, and M. P. Price, 315; Expedition 
of British Ornithologists' Union to Netherlands, New 
Guinea, 315 ; Changes made in the Map of the Coast 
between the Rivers Khatanga and .\nabar, M. L P. 
Tolmachef, 317 ; Towns and \'illages of Russia and their 
Distribution in Relation to Physical Conditions and His- 
torical Events, ^L Semionof-of-Tian Shan, 317; Oases 
In the Libyan Desert, H. E. Hurst, 317; Saline Water 
of Norfolk Broads, Miss M. Pallis and R. Gurney, 318; 
Geographical Essays, Prof. W. M. Davis, 364 ; ' the 
Michael Sars North Atlantic Deep-sea Expedition, 1910, 
Dr. Johan Hjort at Royal Geographical Society, 388 ; 
Physiography of the Yarra River and Dandenong Creek 
Basins, Victoria. J. T. Jutson, 430 ; Distribution of Early 
Civilisation in Northern Greece in relation to its Geo- 
graphical Features, A. J. B. Wace and M. S. Thompson, 
450 ; Death of George Grey, 482 ; .Area affected by the 
Tarawera Eruption in New Zealand in 1886, Prof. T. 
Park, 485 ; Explorations in New Guinea, Dr. H. A. 
Lorentz at Royal Geographical Society, 490 : the Face of 
Manchuria, Korea, and Russian Turkestan, E. G. Kemp, 
500; E.xploration in Bolivia, Major P. H. Fawcett, 521; 
Island in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, Reise-Erinne- 
rungen, Paul Herrmann, 535 ; Character of the Tuantepec 
Isthmus, its People, and Resources, Miss H. Olsson- 
Seffer, 549 

Geology : Helium and Geological Time, Hon. R. J. Strutt, 
F.R.S., 6, 43 ; Die kllmatischen Verhaltnisse der geolo- 
gischen Vorzeit vom Praecambrium an bis zur Jetztzeit 
und ihr Einfluss auf die Entwickelung der Haupttypen 
des Tier- und PP.anzenreiches, Dr. Emil Carthaus, Ivor 
Thomas, ^i*^ ; Volcano in a Branch of Wood Bay, 



Charles Rabot, 49; .Structure and Formation of 
Aldabra and Neighbouring Islands, J. C. F. 
Freyer, 96 ; Principles of Chemical Geology : a 
Review of the Applications of the Equilibrium Theory 
to Geological Problems, Dr. J. V. Elsden, 100 ; 
an Excursion to the Yosemite, E. C. Andrews, 130; 
Stockholm to Spitzbergpn : the Geologists' Pilgrimage, 
G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S., 152 ; Rhaetic and Contiguous 
Deposits of West, Mid, and part of East Somerset, L. 
Richardson, isq ; Geological Society, 159, 225, 261, 360, 
462, 530 ; Medal Awards, 414 ; a Preliminary Study of 
Chemical Denudation, F. W. Clarke, 173 ; the Age of 
the Earth, G. F. Becker, 173 ; the Tierras cocidas of the 
Pampas Beds of Argentina, Messrs. Outes and Bucking, 
178: the E.xtensive Beds of Lignite in the United States, 
Guy E. Mitchell, 179 ; die Entstehung der Steinkohle und • 
der Kaustobiolithe iiberhaupt, Prof. H. Potonie, 199; 
Effects of Secular Oscillation in Egypt during the Eocene 
and Cretaceous Periods, Dr. W. F. Hume, 225 ; Origin 
of the British Trias, A. R. Horwood, 22;; Origin of the 
English Triassic Strata, with Special Reference to the 
Keuper Marls, F. Cresswell, 247 ; Keuper Marls around 
Cham wood Forest, T. O. Bosworth, 360 ; Relationship 
of the Permian to the Trias in Nottinghamshire, R. L. 
Sherlock, 360 ; the Fluvio-Glacial Terraces of Bifevre and 
Basse-Is^re. W. Kilian and M. Gignoux, 261 ; Excava- 
tion in the Cavern of La Cotte, St. Brelade's Bay 
(Jersey), made during Present Year by the Jersey 
Society of Antiquaries, Dr. A. S. Woodward, 261 ; 
Triassic Masses above the Grodental, Mrs. M. Ogilvie- 
Gordon, 280 ; Geology of the British Isles, 386 ; the 
Geology of the Melton Mowbray District and South-east 
Nottinghamshire, Messrs. Lamplugh, Gibson, Wedd, 
Sherlock, and Smith, 386 ; the Geology of the South 
Wales Coalfield, Messrs. Strahan, Cantrill, Dixon, and 
Thomas, 386 ; the Geology of the Country around 
Nottingham, Messrs. Lamplugh and Gibson, 386: the 
Geology of the Country around Alresford, H. J. Osborne 
White, 386 ; Correlation of the Bovey Beds with the 
Lignites of the Rhine, Clement Reid, 387 ; the Inferior 
Oolite and Contiguous Deposits of the South Cottes- 
wolds, L. Richardson, 387 ; the Zones of the Lower 
Chalk of Lincolnshire. C. R. Bower and J. R. Farmery, 
387 ; British Fossil Voles and Lemmings, M. A. C. 
Hinton, 387 : Evidences of a Former Land-bridge between 
Northern Europe and North America, Dr. R. F. Scharff, 
^87 : Bronerniart's Genus Palaeoxyris, L. Moysey, 387 ; 
Metamorphism round the Ross of Mull Granite, T. O. 
Bosworth, 387 : Characters of Igneous Rocks in Southern 
Scotland, G. W. Tyrrell, 387; Submarine Geology of the 
West Coast of Ireland. G. A. J. Cole and T. Crook, 
388 : Weathering on the Surface of a Sheet of Fine- 
grained Diorite near Rathmullan, Prof. Cole, 388; 
Geologische Charakterbilder, ii., Grosse erratische Blocke 
im nord-deutschen Flachlande, F. Wannschaffe, iii.. das 
Karstphanomen, .A. Grund, 402 ; Curious Explanation of 
Glacial Periods of Geology, Askin Nicholas, 417 ; Mineral 
Deposits of the Cerbat Range, Black Mountains, and 
Grand Wash Cliffs, Mohave County, .Arizona, F. C. 
Schrader, 420 ; Iron Ores, Fuels, and Fluxes of the 
Birmingham District. .Alabama. E. F. Burchard and C. 
Butts. 420; Origin of the Ores, Edwin C. Eckel. 420 • 
the Mercury Minerals from Terlingua. Texas. W. F. 
Hillebrand and W. T. Schaller. 420 ; a Reconnaissance 
of some Mining Camps in Elko. Lander, and Eureka 
Counties. Nevada. W. H. Emmons, 420; the Innoko 
Gold-placer District, Alaska, with .Accounts of the Central 
Kuskokwim Valley and the Ruby Creek and Gold Hill 
Placers, A. G. Maddren. 42Q ; a Reconnaissance of the 
Gypsum Deposits of California, F. L. Hess, 420 ; Errors 
in the Chemical Analysis of Gyosum, George Steiger. 
jl20 ; Notes on some Mining Districts in Humboldt 
County. Nevada, F. L. Ransome. 420 : the Value of Coal 
Land, G. H. Ashlev, -120 ; Depth and Minimum Thick- 
ness of Beds as Limiting Factors in Valuation. C. A. 
Fisher. 420 ; Volcanic Region of Forez and its Rocks, 
Ph. Glangeaud, 420 : Revision of the Species of Limoosis 
in the Tertiary Beds of Southern Australia. F. Chapman, 
430 ; die Eiszeit auf Korsika und das Verhalten der 
exogenen Naturkriifte seit d^m Ende der Diluvialzeit. 
Dr. Roman Lucerna. 456 ; Zonal Classification of the 



XX 



Index 



Nature, 
March 23, 1911 



Salopian Rocks of Cautley and Ravenstonedale, Miss 
G. R. Watney and Miss E. G. Welch, 462 ; Lehrbuch 
der Geologic von Deutschland, Prof. J. Walther, Prof. 
Grenville A. J. Cole, 468; Geologic von Deutschland und 
den angrenzenden Gebieten, Prof. R. Lepsius, Prof. 
Grenville A. J. Cole, 468; Geologie von Ostpreussen, 
Prof. A. Tornquist, Prof. Gj-enville A. J. Cole, 468; 
Glacial Erosion, R. M. Deeley, 475, 541 ; J. W. G., 475, 
•;4i ; Geological Nomenclature, Prof. J. W. Gregory, 
F.R.S., 521; the Skomer Volcanic Series (Pembroke- 
shire), H. H. Thomas, 530 ; Geologie Nouvelle, H. 
Lenicque, 536; Geological Work in British Lands, ci;3 ; 
Visit to the Aden Hinterland, Captain R. E. Lloyd, e,e,T, ; 
Distribution of Life in Pre-carboniferous Life-provinces, 
F. R. Cowper Reed, 553 ; Recent Beds of Silt, Laid 
Down in some Cases in Old Channels of Overflow, have 
been Tilted by Earth-movements in the Lake-district of 
the Punjab Salt Range, Mr. La Touche, 553 ; Certain 
Glaciers in Sikkim, Mr. La Touche, t;53 ; Correlation of 
the Tertiary Fresh-water Deposits of India, G. E. 
Pilgrim, 553 ; Relations of the Igneous Rocks of Islands 
between Johore and Singapore, J. B. Scrivenor, c;:;4 ; 
Rocks from the Kinta Valley of Perak, J. B. Scrivenor, 
i;i;4; Origin of the Nile Valley in Egypt, Dr. Hume, 554; 
the Origin of Petroleum, Dr. Hume, 1554 ; Large Part 
Played by Contact-metamorphism in the Rocks of the 
Pretoria Series of the Transvaal System, Messrs. Hall 
and Humphreys, .=;,';4 ; Pilgrims' Rest Gold Mining Dis- 
trict, A. L. Hall, 554 ; Occurrence of High Senonian or 
Danian Beds on the South Coast of Africa, Prof. 
Schwarz, 554 ; Some Mineral Deposits in the Rooiberg 
District, Mr. Recknagel, i;:;4 ; Gold of the Banket Con- 
glomerate of the Rand Imported with the Pyrite, after 
the Deposition of the Beds, Prof. R. B. Young, 51^5 ; 
Occurrence of Diamonds in Dwyka Conglomerate and 
Amygdaloidal Lavas and the Origin of the Vaal River 
Diamonds, H. S. Harger, 555 ; Composite Gneisses, 
F. P. Mennell, 1;:;; 

Geometry : the Public School Geometry, F. J. W. Whipple, 
167 ; the Student's Matriculation Geometry, S. Gango- 
pddhydya, 167 ; Second Stage Mathematics (with Modern 
Geometry), 167 ; a Treatise on the Geometry of Surfaces, 
A. B. Basset, F.R.S., 231 ; the Modern Geometry of the 
Triangle, W. Gallatly, 33,15 ; Practical Mathematics and 
Geometry, E. L. Bates and F. Charlesworth, 470 ; the 
Principles and Methods of Geometrical Optics, especially 
as Applied to the Theory of Optical Instruments, Prof. 
J. P. C. Southall, 409 

George (Dr. T.), Results of the X-rays in Therapeutic 
Doses on the Growing Brains of Rabbits, 27 

German Excavations at Babylon, the, H. R. Hall, 312 

Germany, the Geology of. Prof. Grenville A. J. Cole, 468 

Germany, the Reform of Mathematical and Science Teach- 
ing in, A. J. Pressland at Edinburgh Mathematical 
Society, 121; 

Gerney (Dr. b. J. B.), Death of, 18 

Gerrard (H.), Measurements of the Magnetic Properties of 
Iron, Steel, Nickel, and Cobalt at the Temperature of 
Liquid Air, 347 

Ghose (A.), Manganese-ore Deposits of the Sandur State, 
a correction, 179 

Gibson (Prof. A. H.), Behaviour of Bodies Floating in a 
Free or a Forced Vortex, 531 

Gibson (Mr.), the Geology of the Melton Mowbray District 
and South-east Nottinghamshire, 386 ; the Geology of the 
Country around Nottingham, 386 

Gignoux (M.), the Fluvio-glacial Terraces of Bi^vre and 
Basse-Is6re, 261 

GUbev (Sir Walter), Effect of the Rapid Increase of Motor 
Vehicles on the Prices of Horses, 279 

Gilliat (E.), Heroes of the Elizabethan Age, 269 

Gillman (F.), Malaga Magnetites, 2Qt; 

Gilmore (C. W.), Crocodilian Skull from the Ceratops Beds 
of Wyoming, 288 

Gimingham (C. T.), the " Teart " Land of Somerset, 21; 

Ginneken (P. J. H. van). Properties of Zinc Amalgam as 
Affecting the Clark Cell, 248 

Girardville (M.), Increasing the Stability of Aeroplanes by 
Means of Gyroscopes, 429 

Glacial Erosion, R. M. Deeley, 475, 541 ; J. W. G., 475, 
541 



Gladstone (Hugh S.), the Birds of Dumfriesshire — a Con- 
tribution to the Fauna of the Sohvay .Area, 378 
Glangeaud (Ph.), X'olcanic Region of Forez and its Rocks, 

429 
Glatzel (Br.), New Experiment in Stimulation by Shocks 

in Wireless Telegraphy, 227 
Glazebrook (Dr. R. T., F.R.S.), the Electromotive Force of 

Standard Cells, 508 
Godchot (Marcel), Hexahydroacetophenone and Hexahydro- 

benzoylacetone, 262 
Godfroy (M.), Study of the Antarctic Observed in the 

course of the French Expedition to the South Pole, 

328 
Godman (F. Du Cane, F.R.S.), a Monograph of the Petrels 

(Order Turbinares), 38 
Goebel (Prof. K.), Sexual Dimorphism in Plants, 85, 450 
Goerens (Prof. P.), Introduction a la M^tallographie Micro- 

scopique, 470 
Goetz (Father), Halley's Comet, 350 
Golding (Mr.), Nitrogen Fixation, 25 
Golf Ball, the Dynamics of a. Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., 

at Royal Institution, 251 ; Dr. C. G. Knott, 306 
Goodacre (Mr.), a New Map of the Moon, 319 
Goodenough (Prof. G. A.), First Course in Calculus, 368 
Goodrich (E. S.), Segmentation of the Occipital Region of 

the Head in the Batrachia Urodela, 291; 
Goodwill (G.), Teaching of Elementary Mechanics, 385 
Goodyear (Wm. H.), Measurements of Spiral Stairway of 

the Leaning Tower of Pisa, 347 
Gorgas (Col. W. G.), Panama Canal Zone Death-rates, 17 
Gottingen : Royal Society of Sciences, 464 
Gould (Sir Arthur Pearce), Lecture on Cancer at the Royal 

College of Surgeons, 214 
Gouy (Nl.), Existence of a Periodic Element in the Magneto- 

kathodic Radiation, 497 ; Periodic Structure of the 

Magneto-kathode Rays, 565 
Grabham (G. W.), Native Pottery Methods in the Anglo- 
Egyptian Sudan, 23 
Graff (Dr.), Nova Lacertae, 417 
Graham (Dr.), Method for Destroying Typhoid and 

Dysentery Bacilli in Water, 245 
Graham (John), Applied Mechanics, including Hydraulics 

and the Theory of the Steam-engine, 537 
Graham (Mr.), Cometary Theories, 486 
Graham-Smith (Dr. G. S.), Flies as Carriers of Infection, 

525 
Grandjean (F.), Liquids with Focal Conies, 65 ; Anisotropic 

Liquids, 194 
Grant (Claude), a Tribe of Pygmies on the Kapare River, 

413 

Gravier (Ch.), Battle for Existence in the Madrepores 0* 
Coral Reefs, 161— 2 

Gray (J.), Measurement of Preseveration and its Value as an 
Index of Mental Character, 278 

Gray (J. G.), Value of Preseveration as an Index of the 
Quality of Intelligence, 89 

Gray (R. Whytlaw), the Density of Niton (Radium Emana- 
tion) and the Disintegration Theory, Paper at Royal 
Society, 524 

Great Britain, the Future of Agricultural Research in, 13 ; 
see British 

Green (Dr. George), the Modus operandi of the Prism, 497 

Green (Prof.), Report of the Section L Research Committee 
on Mental and Physical Factors involved in Education, 89 

Greenish (Prof. Henry G.), Method by which the Presence 
of the Drug-room Beetle (Sitodrepa panicea) may be 
Readily Detected in Powdered Drugs, 85 ; Chronicles of 
Pharmacy, A. C. Wootton,. 398 ; Vergiftungen durch 
Pflanzen und Pflanzenstoffe, ein Grundriss der vegetalen 
Toxikologie fiir praktische Aerzte, Apotheker, und 
Botaniker, Dr. F. Kanngiesser, 436 ; the Microscopical 
Examination of Food and Drugs, 1538 

Greenwood (M.), Science from the Non-professional Stand- 
point, 449 

Gregory (Prof. J. W., F.R.S.), Geological Nomenclature, 

521 

Greig-Smith (Dr. R.), Permanency of the Characters of 
the Bacteria of the Bacillus coli Group, 362 ; Soil Fer- 
tility, ^62 

Grenet (Francisque), Study of the Porosity of Chamberland 
Filters, i6i 



Nature, 
Harch 23; 






Index 



XXI 



Grenville (L. W.), Key to Hall and Stevens's School 
Arithmetic, 405 

Grey (George), Death of, 482 

Grieve (J.), Pansies and Violas, 550 

Grieve (Symington), Animals in the Glen Garry Forest, 279 

Griffen (ll. E.), Pearl-fishery off Bantayan, 246 

Griffith (Rev. John), British Place-names in their Historical 
Setting, Edmund McClure, 131 

Griffiths (Principal E. H.), Relations of Science with Com- 
mercial Life, 90 

Griffon (Ed.), Influence of the Tarring of Roads on the 
Adjacent Vegetation, 227 

Grignard (M.), New Methods for the Svnthesis of Nitriles, 

56s 
Gron (Dr. F.), Prehistoric Operation, " T. sincipital,* J50 
Gronvold (Mr.), Egrgs of certain South African Birds, 557 
Grosclaude (M.), Proposed Calendar Reform, 454 
Group-theory, the Neglect of, Prof. Burnside, 313 
Grund (A.), Geologische Charakterbilder, iii., das Karst- 

phanomen, 402 
Gueguen (Fernand), Cladosporian Mycosis in Man, 566 
Guenaux (Georges), Encyclopedic agricole. Pisciculture, 163 
Guillaume (J.), Observations of CeruUi's Comet made at 

the Observatory of Lyons, 161 ; the Total Eclipse of the 

Moon on November 16, 180 ; Observations of the Sun 

made at the Observatory of Lyons during the Third 

Quarter of 1910, 327 
Guillemin (G.), Research on the Gases Occluded in the 

Copper .Alloys. 129 
GiJnther (Dr. W.), Neues aus der Naturdenkmalpflege, no 
Guntz (.A.), Preparation of Crystallised Strontium, 98 
Giirich (Prof.), Naturdenkmalpflege, no 
Gurney (R.), Saline Water of Norfolk Broads, 318 
Gwynne-Vaughan (Prof.), Structure of the " False Stems " 

of the Fossil Genus Tempskya, 59 

Hackspill (Louis), the Density, Coefficient of Expansion, 
and Change of Volume on Fusion of the Alkaline Metals, 

407 
Hadamard (Prof. J.), Lecons sur le Calcul des Variations, 

107 

Haddon (Dr. A. C, F.R.S.), Changes in Bodily Form of 
Descendants of Immigrants, 11 ; Captain Cook Memorial, 
236 

Hadfield (Sir Robert), Magnetic Properties of Iron and its 
Alloys, 217 

Hadley (Dr.), Blackhead in Turkeys, 8^-d.. 

Haemoglobins, the Differentiation and Specificity of Corre- 
sponding Proteins and other Vital Substances in Relation 
to Biological Classification and Organic Evolution and 
the Crystallography of. Prof. E. T. Reichert and Prof. 
\. P. Brown, 57 

Hagen (Father), New Experimental Demonstration of the 
Earth's Rotation, 248 

Hailstones, Microstructure of, MM. Dudetzkv and Wein- 
berg, 485 

Hall (Prof. A. G.), Trigonometry, 368 

Hall (k. L.), Large Part Played by Contact-metamorphism 
in the Rocks of the Pretoria Series of the Transvaal 
System, ^:;4 ; Pilgrims' Rest Gold Mining District, 5^4 

Hall (H. R.), New Discoveries at Knossos, 4'? ; Excavations 
on the Island of Pseira, Crete, Richard B. Seager, 272 : 
the German Excavations at Babylon, 312 ; the Annual of 
the British School at Athens, 339 

Hall (H. S.), a School Algebra. 167 

Hall (P. E.), Movements of G. Morsitans in N.E. 
Rhodesia, 176 

Hall (T. S.), Svstematic Position of the Species of 
Squalodon and Zeuglodon described from Australia and 
New Zealand, 160 

Hall (Mr.), Cost of a Day's Horse Labour on the Farm, 
25 ; Objects and Methods of .Agricultural Soil Surveys, 25 

Hall and Stevens's School Arithmetic, Key to, L. W. Gren- 
ville, 405 

Hallberg (Dr. Carl S. N.), Death of, 47 

Haller (.A.), Two Active .Alcohols and a Third Ketone 
contained in Cocoanut Oil, 33 

Halley (J.), Observations of Planets, 319 

Halley's Comet, 21; H. E. Wood, 349; Messrs. Innes and 
Worssell. ^50; Father Goetz, 3:50; Profs. Nijland pnd 
van der Bilt, 350; F. Sy, 351 ; Dr. J. Mascart, 351 ; M. 



Janiain, 351; the Motion of Molecules in the Tail of,. 
Prof. Lowell, 21; Ephemeris for, Dr. Ebell, 51 j Selenium 
Photometer Sleasures of the Brightness of, Joel Stebbin, 
51 ; Recent Helwan Photographs of. Prof. Barnard, 180 

Halliday (W.), the Book of Migratory Birds, met with on. 
Holy Island and the Northumbrian Coast, to which is 
added Descriptive Accounts of Wild Fowling on the Mud 
Flats, with Notes on the General Natural History of 
this District, 329 

Halliger (G. H.), Influence of Ocean Currents along a 
Coast-line on the Movement of Sand, 519 

Hamburg Observatory, the New, 309 

Hamerton (Captain A. E.), Experiments to ascertain if 
Antelope may act as a Reservoir of the V'irus of Sleeping 
Sickness {Trypanosoma gambiense), 428 ; Experiments to 
ascertain if the Domestic Fowl of Uganda may act as a 
Reser\'oir of the Virus of Sleeping Sickness {Trypanosoma 
gambiense), 428 

Hannam (R. W.), Method of Raising Bore-casings from a 
Pontoon, 295 

Hanriot (.A.), Brown Gold, 328, 429; Adhesivitv, ^65 

Ha^den (Dr. Arthur, F.R.S.), the Elements, Sir William A. 
Tilden, F.R.S., 69 ; the Relations between Chemical Con- 
stitution and Some Physical Properties, Prof. Samuel 
Smiles, 69 ; Physical Chemistry, its Bearing on Biology 
and Medicine, Prof. James Philip, 69 

Hardinge (H. G. .A.), Condition of the Atmosphere during 
the recent proximity of Halley's Comet, 130 

Harger (H. S.), Occurrence of Diamonds in Dwyka Con- 
glomerate and Amygdaloidal Lavas, and the Origin of 
the Vaal River Diamonds, 555 

Harker (.Alfred, F.R.S.), Tables for Calculation of Rock- 
analyses, 540 

Hartert (Mr.), the Irish Jay, 381 

Hartland (E. S.), the Origin of Mourning Dress, 24 

Hartog (Prof. Marcus), the New Force, Mitokinetism, 58 

Hartwig (Prof.), Cerulli's Comet 19106, 119 

Harvard Slap No. 52, New Variable Stars in, Miss Cannon, 

Has well (Prof. W. A.. F.R.S.), a Text-book of Zoology, 533 
Hatfield (W. H.), Chemical Physics involved in the Pre- 
cipitation of Free Carbon from the Alloys of the Iron- 
carbon System, 95 
Hauser (O ), Homo aurfgnacensis Hauseri, ein palaeo- 
lithischer Skelettfund aus dem unteren Aurignacien der 
Station Combecapelle bei Montferrand (Perigord), 119 
Hausliche Blumenpflege, Paul F. F. Schulz, 370 
Havelock (Dr. T. H.), Optical Dispersion, 192 
Hawk (Philip B.), Practical Physiological Chemistry : a 
Book designed for Use in Courses in Practical Physio- 
logical Chemistry in Schools of Medicine and of Science, 
169 
Hawkins (H. Periam), the Stars from Year to Year, with 
Charts for Every Month, 304 ; the Star Calendar for 
1911, 304; the Star Almanac for 1911, 304 
Hawks (Ellison), Stars Shown to the Children, 506 
Hazelhurst (John), Flashes from the Orient, or a Thousand 

and One Slornings with Poesy, 371 
Hazell's .Annual for 1911, 335 
Headden (Dr.), Determinations of the .Amount of .Arsenic 

present in Soil, Plants, Fruits, and Animals, 148 
Headley (F. W.), the Sailing-flight of Birds, 511 
Health : .American Meat and its Influence upon the Public 
Health, Dr. Albert Leffingwell, 232 ; Desirability of the 
Systematic Destruction of Rats and other Vermin, 483 
Hearn (Edward D.), the Sailing-flight of Birds, 511 
Heat : Variation of Resistance of Steels to Crushing as a 
Function of the Temperature, F. Robin, 33 ; a School 
C'ourse of Heat, R. H. Scarlett, 303 ; the Thermo-electric 
Method of Cryoscopy, Prof. Henry H. Dixon, 531 
Heath (S.), the Heart of Wessex, 202 
Heavens, a Popular Guide to the. Sir Robert S. Ball, 136 
Helium and Geological Time, Hon. R. J. Strutt, F.R.S., 

(J. 43 

Hemsalech (G. A.), Influence of the Magnetic Field on 
duration of the Lines of the Spectrum Emitted by Lumin- 
ous Vapours in the Electric Spark, 65 ; Modifications 
Undergone by the Lines of the Spark Spectrum in a 
Magnetic Field. 161 

Henri (\'ictor), .Action of the Ultra-violet Rays upon the 
Tubercle Bacillus and upon Tuberculin, 34 



XXll 



Index 



L M 



Sat-Hrc 
March 33, 191 1 



Henri-Cernovodeanu (Madame V.), Action of the Ultra- 
violet Rays upon the Tubercle Bacillus and upon Tuber- 
culin, 34 

Henry (Dr. A.), the Chinese Tree, Cupressus Hodgiusii, 484 

Henry (John R.), November Meteors, 40; January Meteors, 
271 

Henslow (Prof. G.), Theoretical Origin of Plantago Mari- 
tima, L., and P. Alpina, L., from P. Coronopus, L. Vars, 
160 ; Theoretical Origin of Monocotyledons from .Aquatic 
Dicotyledons through Self-adaptation to an Aquatic Habit, 
160 

Hepworth (Conunander Campbell), Remarkable Displays of 
Phosphorescence in the Sea, 564 

Herdman (Prof. \V. A.), Comparison of the Summer 
Plankton on the West Coast of Scotland with that in the 
Irish Sea, 96 

Heredity : Environment versus Heredity, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 
F.R.S., II ; Experimental Study of Heredity in Tuber- 
culosis, MM. Landouzv and L. Loederich, 33 ; Origin of 
Dun Horses, Prof. J. C. Evvart, F.R.S., 40; Prof. James 
Wilson, 106; Dun Coat Colour in the Horse, J. B. 
Robertson, 138 ; Inheritance of the Yellow Tinge in 
Sweet-pea Colouring, Mrs. D. Thoday and D. Thoday, 
160 ; Experiments on the Occurrence of the Web-foot 
Character in Pigeons, J. Lewis Bonhote, 160 ; Mendelian 
Expectations, Prof. J. C. Ewart, F.R.S., 205 ; Can Ac- 
quired Characters be Inherited? Dr. Hugo Fischer, 280; 
the Inheritance of Acquired Characters, Sir W. T. 
Thiselton-Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., 371 ; Prof. John W. 
Judd, C.B., F.R.S., 405; Darwin and the Transmission 
of Acquired Characters, E. A. Parkyn, 474 ; Prof. John 
W. Judd, C.B., F.R.S., 474; Heredity in the Light of 
Recent Research. L. Doncaster, 331 ; Death of Sir Francis 
Galton, 412; Obituary Notice of, 440; a Lecture on 
Mendelism, Dr. H. Drinkwater, 436 ; Hereditary Char- 
acters and their Modes of Transmission, C. E. Walker, 
536 ; Problem of Sex-determination, 550 

Hermann (R.), Naturdenkmalpflege und Aquarienkunde, no 

Heroes of the Elizabethan Age, E. Gilliat, 269 

Heron (Dr. David), a Preliminary Study of Extreme Alco- 
holism in Adults, 479 

Heron-.AUen (E.), the Foraminifera of the Shore-sands of 
Selsey Bill, 86 ; Some Varied Forms of Massilina secans, 

95 

Herrmann (Paul), Island in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, 

Reise-Erinnerungen, 535 
Herter (Dr. Charles .Archibald), Death of, 244 
Hertzsprung (E.), the Photographic Magnitudes of Stars, 

181 
Hertzsprung (Prof.), Nova Lacerta;, 453 
Hess (F. L.), a Reconnaissance of the Gypsum Deposits of 

California, 420 
Hetzer (Otto), Novel Type of Timber Construction, 86 
Hewitt (Dr. C. Gordon), Simulium Flies and Pellagra, 169 
Hewlett (Prof. R. T.), Oriental or Bubonic Plague, 237; 

Soured Milk and its Preparation, Lactic Cheeses, 338 
Heyse (Herr Paul), Nobel Prize Awarded to, 213 
Hibbert (Sir Henry), Association of Technical Institutions, 

525 
Hicks (J.), Recent Fireballs, 150 
Hickson (Prof.), Place of Economic Zoology in a Modern 

University, 48 
Hildebrandsson (Prof. H. Hildebrand), Meteorological Rela- 
tionships, 55 
Hill (Prof. J. P.), Early Development of the Marsupialia, 

345 
Hill (Dr. Leonard, F.R.S.), Prevention of Compressed Air 

Illness, 26 
Hillebrand (W. F.), the Mercury Minerals from Terlingua, 

Texas, 420 
Hindle (Dr. E.), .Artificial Parthenogenesis in the Eggs of a 

Sea-urchin (Strongylocentroius purpuratus), 58 
Hinks (Mf-). a New Variable Star or a Nova 97-1910 Cygni, 

22 ; Nova Lacertse, 348 
Hinton (M. .A. C), British Fossil Voles and Lemmings, 

387 
Hise (Charles R. Van), the Conservation of Natural Re- 
sources in the United States, 545 
Hissey (James J.), the Charm oK.the Road, 137 
Histology: the Essentials of, Prof. E. A. Schiifer, F.R.S., 
137 



Hitchcock Lectures for 1909, delivered at the University of 
California, Berkeley, Cal., Physiology the Servant of 
Medicine, being the. Dr. Augustus D. Waller, F.R.S., 
Sir T. Clifford AUbutt, K.C.B., F.R.S., 465 
Hjort (Dr. Johan), the Michael Sars North Atlantic Deep- 
sea E.xpedition, 19 10, 52 ; Eel-larvae (Leptocephalus 
brevirostris) from the Central North Atlantic, 104 ; the 
Michael Sars North .Atlantic Deep-sea Expedition, 1910, 
Lecture at Royal Geographical Society, 388 
Hnatek (.Adolf), Photographic Magnitudes of Seventy-one 

Pleiades .Stars, 119 
Hobart (Henry M.), Electric Motors, 468 
Hogarth (D. G.), .Accidents of an .Antiquary's Life, 238 
Holden (H. S.), Abnormal Fertile Spike of Ophioglossum 

]'uls;atutn, 429 
Holland (Sir Thomas H., K.C.I.E., F.R.S.), Quinquennial 
Review of the Mineral Production of India during the 
Years 1904 to 1908, 121 
Holleman (Prof. .A. F.), a Text-book of Organic Chem- 
istry, 136 
Hollis (Dr. W. .Ainslie), the Flight of Birds against the 

Wind, 107 
Hooton (W. M.), Experimental Determination of the Equi- 
valent of Magnesium, 386 
Hopkinson (Prof. B.), Magnetic Properties of Iron and its 

Alloys, 217 
Home (.A. S.), a Bacterial Disease of Potatoes, 25 
Horner (D. W.), Weather Instruments and How to Use 

Them, 405 
Horse, Dun Coat Colour in the, J. B. Robertson, 138 
Horses, Origin of Dun, Prof. J. C. Ewart, F.R.S., 40; 

Prof. James Wilson, 106 
Horses, Effect of the Rapid Increase of Motor Vehicles 

on the Prices of. Sir Walter Gilbey, 279 
Horst (Dr. R.), New Species of Peripatus, 177 
Horticulture : Fruit Tree Pruning, George Quinn, 2 ; 
Twelfth Report of the Woburn Experimental Fruit Farm, 
Duke of Bedford, K.G., F.R.S., and S. U. Pickering, 
F.R.S., 71 ; .Manual of Gardening, L. H. Bailey, 132 ; 
Pests of Fruit Trees, 184 ; the Damage done to Fruit 
Trees by Thrips, F. V. Theobald, 184; Epidemic Out- 
break of Eutypella prunastri, E. S. Salmon, 184 ; Life- 
historv of the Apple "Scab" Fungus (Venturia inaequalis), 
E. S.' Salmon, 184; a Species of Leptothyrium, E._ S. 
Salmon, 184 ; International Horticultural Exhibition, 
1912, 278 ; Pansies and Violas, J. Grieve, 550 
Horton (Dr. F.), a Spectroscopic Investigation of the Nature 
of the Carriers of Positive Electricity from Heated .Alu- 
minium, 95 ; Discharge of Positive Electricity from 
Sodium Phosphate heated in Different Gases, 261 
Horwood (-A. R.), Extinction of Cryptogamic Plants, 177 ; 

Origin of the British Trias, 225 
Hough (S. S., F.R.S.), Aims of Astronomy of Precision, 

Address at Royal Society of South Africa, 323 
Household Foes, Alice Ravenhill, 5 
Houston (Dr. R. A.), EfTiciency of Metallic Filament 

Lamps, 193 
Howard (.Albert and Gabrielle L. C), the Milling and 
Baking Qualities of Indian Wheat, ^49 ; the Influence 
of Environment on the Milling and Baking Qualities of 
Wheat in India, 249; Wheat in India, its Production, 
Varieties, and Improvements, 249 
Howe (Prof. G. W. O.), Darkening of the Glass Bulbs of 
Osram Lamps due to the Use of Slight Amount of 
Copper in the Leading-in Wires, 281 ; Exercises in Elec- 
trical Engineering for the Use of Second-year Students in 
Universities and Technical Colleges, 503 
Hoyle (Dr. W. E.), Report of the International Commission 

on Zoological Nomenclature, 29/; 
Hudson's Bay, Schooner Jeanie Wrecked on September 9, 

379 
Hull (A. F. Basset), Birds of Lord Howe and Norfolk 

Islands, with the Description of a New Species of Petrel, 

22S 
Human Palaeontology, an Institute of, 412 
Humboldt's (Wilhelm von) ausgewahlte philosophische 

Schriften, 3^7 
Hume (Dr. W. F.), Effects of Secular Oscillation in Egypt 
I during the Eocene and Cretaceous Periods, 22;; ; Origin 

of the Nile Valley in Egypt, 554 ; the Origin of Petroleum, 
' 554 



Saturt, "I 

xrch 23, 191 1 J 



Index 



xxin 



Humphreys (W. J.), Solar Activity and Terrestrial Tem- 
peratures, 87 

Humphreys (Mr.), Large Part Played by Contact- 
metainorphism in the Rocks of the Pretoria Series of the 
Transvaal System, ^^54 

Hunt (A. R.), the Limiting Line of Sedimentation in Wave- 
stirred Areas, 72 

Huntington (Prof. Ellsworth), Libyan Oasis of Kharga, 
148 ; the Problem of the Decadence of Greek Civilisation, 

247 

Hurst (H. E.), Oases in the Libyan Desert, 317 

Hutchinson (A.), an Improved Form of Total Reflectometer, 
496 

Hutchinson (Dr.), Partial Sterilisation of Soils, 25 

Huxley Memorial Lecture at Royal Anthropological Insti- 
tute, the Arrival of Man in Britain, Prof. W. Boyd 
Dawkins, F.R.S., 122 

Hydroelectric Developments and Engineering, F. Koester, 
Stanley P. Smith, 198 

Hydrogen in Iron, on, John Parry, 6 

Hydrography : Curious Phenomenon, Ou^m^ River, Aug. 
Chevalier, 49 ; the Michael Sars North Atlantic Deep-sea 
Expedition, 1910, Dr. Johan Hjort, ;^2 ; the Michael 
Sars North Atlantic Deep-sea Expedition, 1910, Dr. 
Johan Hjort at Royal Geographical Society, 388 ; Ob- 
servations of the Tides made at Sea in the Channel and 
the North Sea, L. Fav^e, L. Driencourt, 97 ; Marine 
Microthermograms and Influence of Icebergs on the 
Temperature of the Sea, Prof. H. T. Barnes, 137 ; Tide 
Tables for the Pacific and the Eastern Coasts of Canada 
for the Year 191 1, 280; Tidal Observations made during 
Sir Ernest Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition of 1907, Sir 
George Darwin, 281 ; Surface Water Supply of the United 
States, iqo7-8, 283 ; the Influence of River Systems in the 
East, Ewald Banse, 288 ; Study of the .'\ntarctic observed 
in the Course of the French Expedition to the South 
Pole, M. Godfroy, 328 ; Influence of Ocean Currents 
along a Coast-line on the Movement of Sand, G. H. 
Halliger, 519 

Hydrologv : Studv of the Seepage and Evaporation Less 
from the Ibrahimia Canal, J. Murray, 317; Surface 
Waters of the Missouri and Lower Mississippi Basin, the 
Great Basin, and California, 281 

Hygiene : Household Foes, .Alice Ravenhill. k, ; Method for 
Destroying Tvphoid and Dysentery Bacilli in Water, Drs. 
Nasmith and Graham, 24^ ; Lessons on Elementary 
Hygiene and Sanitation, with Special Reference to the 
Tropics, W. T. Prout, 270 ; Hygiene and Public Health, 
L. C. Parkes and H. R. Kenwood, 507 

Ibbetson (W. S.). Practical Electrical Engineering for 
Elementary Students, 135 

Ice .\ge in Corsica, the. 456 

Ichthvology : Venomous Toad-fishes of the Genera Thalasso- 
phryne and Thalassothia, Messrs. Bean and Weed, 84 ; 
Eff'ect of Light on the Ova of Trout, Prof. Felice Supino, 
I4Q : the Pharyngeal Teeth of Fishes, Col. C. E. Shep- 
herd, 177 : List of the Fishes of the Lake of the Woods, 
Messrs. Everman and Latimer, 177 

Idrac (P.), First Observations on the New Star in Lacerta, 
461 ■ Nova Lacertae, 486, ';23 

Illuminating Engineering Societv : Recent Progress in 
Electric Lighting, Prof. E. W. Marchant at, 289 

Imperial Foodstuffs, Reports on, I^7 

Incense. Origin of. Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dver, K.C.M.G., 
F.R.S.. 507 

Incense-altar of Aphrodite at Paphos, Dr. Max Ohnefalsch- 
Richter, -;23 

Incubated Chicken, Factors Influencing the Vigour of. 382 

Index to Desor's Synopsis des Echinides Fossiles, Dr. F. A. 
Bather, F.R.S., 404 

India : Two Notes from India, Capt. J. H. Barbour, 77, : 
Water Requirements of Crops in India, J. W. Leather, 
Dr. E. J. Russell, iii ; Quinquennial Review of the 
Mineral Production of India during the Years 1904 to 
T908, Sir Thomas H. Holland, K.C.I. E., F.R.S., and 
Dr. L. Leigh Fermor, Prof. H. Louis. 121 ; Zoology in 
the Indian Empire, 122 ; Echinoderma of the Indian 
Museum, Prof! Ren^ Koehler. 134 ; Anti-malarial 
Measures in India. Col. W. G. King, 240 ; la Cosmo- 
gonia di Bhrgu, A. M. Pizzagalli, 4^2 ; the Fauna of 



British India, including Ceylon and Burma : Coleoptera 
Lamellicornia (Cetoniinae and Dynastin^e), G. J. Arrow, 
467 ; Memorandum on Indian Wheat for the British 
Market, Sir James Wilson, K.C.I.E., S47 

Industrial England in the Middle of the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury, Sir H. Trueman Wood, 299 

Infant and Child Mortality, Dr. Arthur Newsholme, 556 

Inheritance of Acquired Characters, the. Sir W. T. 
Thiselton-Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., 371 ; Prof. John W, 
Judd, C.B., F.R.S., 405 

Innes (Mr.), Halley's Comet, 350; Star Colours, 418; 
-Absorbing Matter in Space, 453 ; Mars and its Atmo- 
sphere, 486 ; Observations of Jupiter's Galilean Satellites, 
524 ; Southern Nebulae, 552 

Instinktes, der Begriff des, einst und jetzt. Prof. Heinrich 
Ernst Ziegler, 539 

Institute of Metals, 428 

Institution of Civil Engineers : Engineering and Civilisa- 
tion. Alexander Siemens, 59 

Institution of Electrical Engineers : the Production and 
Use of Electric Power, S. Z. de Ferranti, 90 

Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 33. 128, 295, 497 

Instruction in Methods of Research, W. P. Dreaper, 73 

Internaciona Matematikal Lexiko en Ido, Germana, Angla, 
Franca e Italiana, Dr. Louis Couturat, 269 

International .\grogeological Congress at Stockholm, the, 88 

International Congresses, Conflicting Dates of, Dr. F. A. 
Bather, 139 

International Language and Science, Profs. L. Couturat, 
O. Jespersen, R. Lorenz, W. Ostwald, and L. Pfaundler, 
269 

Invicta Table Book, the. J. W. Ladner, 103 

lonisation of Gases by Collision, the Theory of, Prof. John 
S. Townsend, F.R.S., 400 

Iredale (T.), Birds of Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands, 228 

Iron, on Hydrogen in, John Parry, 6 

Iron and Steel Analysis, A. Campion, 268 

Irving (H.), How to Know the Trees, 43;; 

Irving (Rev. Dr.), the Prehistoric Horse Found at Bishop's 
Stortford, 22 

Island in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, Reise-Erinner- 
ungen, Paul Herrmann, 535 

Italian Observatories, the, 282 



Jackson (A. B.), Catalogue of Hardy Trees and Shrubs 

Growing in the Grounds of Syon House, Brentford, 136 
Jackson (S. W.), the Tooth-billed Bower-bird (Scenopaeefes 

dcntirostris), 84 
Jakob (Miss C), the Laws of Friction of Solids on Each 

Other, 217 
Jamain (M.), Hallev's Comet, 351 
James (T. C), the People of Cardiganshire, 24 
Janeway (Dr. Edward G.). Death of, ^^47 
Jannettaz (Ed.), les Roches et leurs Elements min^ralo- 

giques. 166 
January Meteors, John R. Henry, 271 ; W. F. Denning, 34S 
Japan, Agricultural Research in, 151 
Japan Magazine, the, 185 
Javelle (M.), Observations of Halley's Comet made at the 

Nice Observatory w^ith the Gautier Equatorial of 76 cm. 

Aperture, 129 
Javillier (M.). Influence of Manganese on the Development 

of Aspergillus nigcr, 464 
J^gou (Paul), Reception of the Hertzian Time Signal from 

the Eiffel Tower, 227 
Jentzsch (Dr. F.), Appliances for Improving the Ultra- 
microscope, ^22 
Jerrold (W.), Norwich and the Broads, 202 
Jespersen (O.). International Language and Science, 269 
Joanin (A.), Contribution to the Study of the Physiological 

Action of the Organic Bases, 262 
Jodrell Laboratory at Kew, the, Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dver, 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S., 103 
Johnson (Dr. Geo. L.), Photography in Colours. 5^0 
Johnson (Katharine L.). Application of Binet's Tests to 

200 Schoolgirls in Sheffield, 90 
Johnson (Prof. T.), a Seed-bearing Irish Pteridosperm, 161 
Johnson (W.), Battersea Park as a Centre for Nature 

Studv, A'X'i 
Johnston (Sir H. H., G.C.M.G., K.C.B.), African G.ime 



XXIV 



Index 



[ 



Na. u re, 
March 23, 1911 



Trails, Theodore Roosevelt, 77 ; the Negro in the New 
World, 172 ; a Monograph of the Okapi, Sir E. Ray 
Lankester, K.C.B., F.R.S., and Dr. W. G. Ridewood, 
209; Sir Ray Lankester's Book on the Okapi, 306; 
Living Okapies, 483 ; the Yellow and Dark-skinned 
People of Africa, South of the Zambezi, Dr. G. McCall 
Theal, 542 

Johnston (T. Harvey), the Haematozoa of Australian 
Batrachians, 130 ; Occurrence of Pentastomes in 
Australian Cattle, 130 

Jonckheere (M.), Saturn's Rings, 150; the Total Eclipse of 
the Moon on November 16, 180 ; a Projection on Saturn's 
Outer Ring, 248 

Jones (Prof. H. C), Introduction to Physical Chemistry, 
103 

Jones (O.), Woodcraft for Scouts and Others, 303 

Jordan (Dr. A. C), Diseases of the Skin, including Radio- 
therapy and Radiumtherapy, Prof. E. Gaucher, 363 

Jordan (Dr. David Starr), the Making of a Darwin, 
Address at American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, 31^4 

Jordan (F. C), the Orbits of Several Spectroscopic Binaries, 

385 
Joslin (E. P.), Metabolism in Diabetes Mellitus, 4-;^ 
Jouaust (R.), Magnetic Properties of Iron at High Fre- 
quencies, 193 
Joule, an Unconscious Forecast by, B. A. Keen, 475 
Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, 1910, 455 
Judd (Prof. J. W.', C.B., F.R.S.), the Triumph of Evolu- 
tion. 148; the Coming of Evolution, 297; the Inheritance 
of Acquired Characters, 405 ; Darwin and the Transmis- 
sion of Acquired Characters, 474 
Junior Institution of Engineers : Science and Engineering, 

Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., at, 122 
Jupiter, the Apparent Diameter of. Father Chevalier, 51 
Jupiter's Galilean Satellites, Observations of, Mr. Innes, 524 
Jurassic Floras, Comparison of, Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S., 

258 
Jutson (J. T.), Physiography of the Yarra River and Dan- 
denong Creek Basins, Victoria, 430 



Kahlenberg (Prof. Louis), Outlines of Chemistry, 70 
Kamensky (M.), Investigation of the Orbit of Wolf's Comet, 

1898-191 1, 248 
Kanngiesser (Dr. F.), Vergiftungen durch Pflanzen und 
Pflanzenstoffe, ein Grundriss der vegetalen Toxikologie 
fijr praktische Aerzte, Apotheker, und Botaniker, 436 
Kant and his Philosophical Revolution, Prof. R. M. 

Wenley, 404 
Kapillarchemie, Dr. Herbert Freundlich, 534 
Kapp (Prof. Gisbert), Solenoids, Electromagnets, and Elec- 
tromagnetic Windings, Charles R. Underbill, 432 ; 
Electric Circuit Problems in Mines and Factories, E. H. 
Crapper, 503 ; Exercises in Electrical Engineering for the 
Use of Second-year Students in Universities and Techni- 
cal Colleges, Prof. T. Mather, F.R.S., and Prof. G. W. O. 
Howe, 503 
Karakoram Himalayas, the Duke of the Abruzzi's Expedi- 
tion to the. Dr. F. De Filippi at Royal Geographical 
Society, 124 
Kassowitz (Prof. Max), Origin of Species, 382 
Kayser (E.), Influence of Nitrates on .'\lcoholic Ferments, 98 
Kayser (Prof.), a System of Standard Wave-lengths, 151 
Keatinge (Mr.), Rural Economy of the Bombay Deccan, 382 
Keen (B. A.), an Unconscious Forecast by Joule, 475 
Keith (Dr. Arthur), Series of Specimens illustrating Irregu- 
larities in the Differentiation of Sexual Characters, 19 ; 
a New Theory of the Descent of Man, 206, 509 ; Certain 
Physical Characters of the Negroes of the Congo Free 
State and Nigeria, Lecture at Royal Anthropological 
Institute, 221 
Kellas (Dr. A. M.), a Manual of Practical Inorganic Chem- 
istry, 466 
Kelsch (Dr. Achille), Death of, 481 
Kemp (E. G.), the Face of Manchuria, Korea, and Russian 

Turkestan, 500 
Kemp (Philip), Some Physical Properties of Rubber, 296 
Kendall (R. H.), Treatment of Refractory Low-grade Gold 

Ores at the Ouro Preto Gold Mine, Brazil, 33 
Kent (H. A.), the Tribo Luminescence of Uranium, 244 



Kenwood (H. R.), Hygiene and Public Heath, 507 
Kepler's Laws, the Discovery of, M. Bigourdan, 385 
Kerr (Prof. J. Graham, F.R.S.), Morphological Method 

and the .Ancestry of Vertebrates, 203 
Kersey (A. T. J.), Exercises in Metal Work, 436 
Kertesz (Dr. K.), Report on a Family of Dipttra, the 

Stratiomyiidaj, 496 
Kew, the j'odrell Laboratory at. Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 

K.C.M.G.. F.R.S., 103 
Kew (H. Wallis), a Synopsis of the False Scorpions of 

Britain and Ireland, 296 
Kidston (Dr.), Structure of the " False Stems " of the Fossil 

Genus Tempskya, 59 
Kieffer (Prof. J. J.), Two Families cf Diptera, the Cecido- 

myiidae (Gall-flies) and the ChironomidiE, 496 
Kilian (W.), the Fluvio-glacial Terraces of Bi^vre and 

Basse-Is6re, 261 
Kinematograph Synchronised with Phonograph or Grama- 
phone, M. Gaumont, 449 
King (Col. W. G.), Anti-Malarial Measures in India, 240 
Kinnicutt (Dr. Leonard Parker), Death of, 547 
Kirby (P. J.), Theory of the Chemical Action of the Electric 

Discharge in Electrolytic Gas and Other Gases, 192 
Kirkpatrick (Dr. R.), Murrayona phenolepis, a New Type 

of Sponge from Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, 345 
Kirwan (E. M.), Permissible Description of Furs, 381 
Klaatsch (H.), Homo aurignacensis Hauseri, ein pala;o- 

lithischer Skelettfund aus dem unteren Aurignacien der 

Station Combecapelle bei Montferrand (P6rigord), 119; 

Die Aurignac-Rasse und ihre Stellung im Stammbaum der 

Menschheit, 119 
Klaatsch 's Theory of the Descent of Man, Gerhardt v. 

Bonin, 508 ; Dr. A. Keith, 509 
Knauth (M.), the Settlement in Strassburg Cathedral, 384 
Knossos, New Discoveries at, H. R. Hall, 45 
Knott (Dr. C. G.), the Dynamics of a Golf Ball, 306 
Koehler (Prof. Ren6), Echinoderma of the Indian Museum, 

»34 
Koester (F.), Hydroelectric Developments and Engmeermg, 

198 

Komppa (Prof.), Synthesis of Camphoric Acid, 522 

Kcinig (Prof. Franz), Death of, 215 

Korean Meteorological Observatory, Scientific Memoirs of 
the, 341 

Korostelef (N. A.), Meteorological Observations Recorded 
by Various Expeditions to Nova Zemlia, 521 

Kos'sel (Prof.), Nobel Prize .Awarded to, 213 

Kowalski (J. de). Progressive Phosphorescent Spectrum of 
Organic Compounds at Low Temperatures, 161 ; Influ- 
ence of Functional Groups on the Spectrum of Progressive 
Phosphorescence, 395 

Kraus (Prof. Friedrich), Das Elektrokardigramm des 
gesunden und kranken Menschen, 265 

Krogness (O.), on the Simultaneity of "Abruptly-begin- 
ning" Magnetic Storms, 170 

Kriiger 60 and Castor, Mass-ratios of the Components of. 
Dr. H. N. Russell, 418 

KiJhl (Dr.), Nova Lacertse, 523 

Kuhlgatz (Dr. Th.), Uber'das Tierleben in dem von der 
btaatsforstverwaltung geschiitzten Zwergbirken-Moor in 
Neulinum, no 

Kiikenthal (Prof. Willy), Leitfaden fiir das zoologische 
Praktikum, 400 

Kusakabe (Benjiro), the New Tokyo, 185 

Kusano (S.), Chemotactic and Similar Reactions of the 
Swarm Spores of Myxomycetes, 151 

La Touche (Mr.), Recent Beds of Silt, laid down in Some 
Cases in Old Channels of Overflow, have been Tilted by 
Earth-movements in the Lake-district of the Punjab Salt 
Range, 553 ; Certain Glaciers in Sikkim, 553 

Laboratories : the Jedrell Laboratory at Kew, Sir W. T. 
Thiselton-Dyer, K.C.M.G.. F.R.S'., 103; the Cavendish 
Laboratory, 112; a History of the Cavendish Laboratory, 
1871-1910, 195 

Labre (Henri), the Ingestion of Mineral Acids in the Dog, 
498 

Ladner (J. W.), the Invicta Table Book, 103 

Lafay (A.), Method of Observation of the Trajectories, 
followed by the Elements of an Air Current deflected by 
Obstacles of Variable Forms, 532 



Nature, "1 

March 23, X911 J 



Index 



XXV 



Lain^ (E.), the Nitrates in the Atmosphere of the Antarctic 

Regions, 463 
La!ou (S.), Variations in the Quantity and Composition of 

the Pancreatic Juice during Secretions brought about by 

Secretin, 98 
Lamb (Horace), Atmospheric Oscillations, 192 
Lamplugh (G. W., F.R.S.), Stockholm to Spitsbergen, the 

Geologists' Pilgrimage, 152 ; the Geology of the Melton 

Mowbray District and South-east Nottinghamshire, 386 ; 

the Geology of the Country around Nottingham, 386 
Landowzy (M.), Experimental Study in Tuberculosis, 33 
Lane (Rev. G. L.), Jurassic Plants from the Marske 

Quarry, 159 
Lanfry (M.), New Thiophene Compound, C,gH,S„ and 

Some of its Derivatives, 396 
Lang (Prof. W. H.), Morphology of the Stock of Isoetes, 59 
^^angevin (Prof.), Liquid Rendered Double Refracting by 

die Action of a Magnetic Field, 118 
Language and Science, International, Profs. L. Couturat, 

O. Jespersen, R. Lorenz, W. Ostwald, and L. Pfaundler, 

269 
Lankester (Sir E. Ray, K.C.B., F.R.S.), a Monograph of 

the Okapi, 209 ; Sir Ray Lankester's Book on the Okapi, 

305 ; Compulsory Science versus Compulsory Greek, 385 
Lantz (D. E.), Practicability and Possibilities of Breeding 

Deer and Other Big Game in Confinement in the United 

States, 549 
Lanzenberg (A.), Action of Nitrates in Alcoholic Fermenta- 
tion, 34 
Laslett (Dr. E. E.), Results of Some Experiments indicating 

the Existence of Afferent Nerves in the Eye Muscles, 27 
Latimer (Mr.), List of the Fishes of the Lake of the Woods. 

177 
Latitude of Athens, the, Demetrius Eginitis, 56 
Latour (B.), New Experimental Demonstration of the 

ySarth's Rotation, 248 
I^ubert (Dr. K.), Rosenkrankheiten und Rosenfeinde, 435 
yXaurie (Dr. A. P.), the Materials of the Painter's Craft in 
"^ Europe and Egypt from Earliest Times to the End of 

the Seventeenth Century, with Some Account of their 

Preparation and Use, 533 
Laveran (.A.), Resistance of Goats and Sheep to Trypano- 
somiasis, 395 
Lawson (H. S.), Series of Tests to which the Candidates 

for Scholarships at a Midland Secondary School were 

Submitted, 89 
Le Chatelier (H.), Centenary of the Birth of Regnault, 383 
Leach (J. A.), .Australian Birds, 557 
Lead Glaze Question, the, 273 

Leake (H. ^L), the Influence of Environment on the Mill- 
ing and Baking Qualities of Wheat in India, 2^9 
I>ather Q. W.), Water Requirements of Crops in India, 
/"I 

/Leathes (Prof. J. B.), Monographs on Biochemistry, the 
f Fats, 502 
/ Lebeuf (M.), the Total Eclipse of the Moon on November 

16, 180 
Lebon (Ernest), Paul Appell, Biographic, Bibliographic 

analytique des Ecrits, 335 
Lechmere (.A. E.), the Methods of Asexual Reproduction in 

a Species of Saprolegnia, 59 
Ledingham (Dr. J. C. G.), Enteric Fever Carriers, 145 
Lee (Prof. F. S.), the Cause of the Treppe, 27 ; Summa- 
tion of Stimuli, 27 
Lee (O. J.), Nineteen Stars with Newly-discovered Variable 

Radial Velocities, 319 
Leffingwell (Dr. Albert), American Meat and its Influence 

upon Public Health, 232 
Legendre (R.), Search for Bacterium coli in Sea Water by 

the Methods Employed for Fresh Water, 162 
L^ger (E.), .Action of Nitric .Acid upon the .Aloins, 262 
Legge (J. G.), Practical Work in Schools, 90 
Legros (L. A.), Development of Road Locomotion, 118 
Leick (Dr. W.), Die praktischen Schulerarbeiten in der 

Physik, 304 
Leigh (H. S.), a Biological Inquiry into the Nature of 

Melanism in Amphidasis betularia, Linn., 270 
Lenicque (H.), G^ologie Nouvelle, ^^6 
Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum, Catalogue of 

the, 539 
Leppig (F. W. Hermann), Death of, 414 



Lepsius (Prof. R.), Geologie von Deutschland und den 

angrenzenden Gebieten, 468 
Lespieau (M.), Condensation of Acrolein Bromide with 

Malonic .Acid, 328 
Leveau (Gustave), Death and Obituarv Notice of, 414 
L^veill^ (E. A.). Death of, 448 

I..everrier's Letter to Galle, the Discovery of Neptune, 184 
Levy (D. M.), the Successive Stages in the Bessemerising 

of Copper Mattes as Indicated bv the Converter Flame, 

128 
Levy (Miss), Elements for Faye's Comet, 1910^, 319 
Lewes (Prof. Vivian B.), Smoke and its Prevention, Lecture 

at London Institution, 290 
Lewin (K. R.), Nuclear Relations of Paramecium caudatum 

during the .Asexual Period, 161 
Lewis (B.), Educational Experiments in Schools, 3,4 
Lewis (Prof. W. J.), Wiltshireite, a New Mineral from the 

Binnenthal, 128 
Ley (Captain C. H.), Balloon Experiments carried out at 

Blackpool, 29:; ; Meteorological Significance of Small 

Wind and Pressure Variations, 295 
Leyst (Prof. Ernst). Russian Magnetic Observations, 388 
Licht und Farbe, Robert Geigel, 539 
Life and Habit, Samuel Butler, 505 
Lighting : Discontinuous Sources of Light, Madame M. 

Dussaud, 129; Arc Lamp having a Mercury Kathode and 

giving White Light, E. Urbain, CI. Seal, and .A. Feige, 

4Q7 
Lignier (O.), .Are the Gnetales Apetalous Angiosperms? 

463-4 
Linnean Society, 96, 160, 226, 395, 496 
Linnean Society. New South Wales, 228, 362 
Linossier (G.), Influence of Iron on the Formation of the 

Spores of Aspergillus niger, 227 
Lipmann (Dr. Otto), Methods of Binet and Simon. 89 
Lippmann (G.), Two Pieces of Metal Lightly Touching do 

not in General Form an Electrical Contact when the 

Difference of Potential is Small, 227 ; .Action of External 

Forces on Pressure of Saturated Vapours and the Gases 

Dissolved in a Liquid, 497 
Liquids, the Clarification of, by the Process of Tanking. 

Rowland A. Earp. 308 
Lister (J. J.). Partial Sterilisation of Soils, 25 
Literature, Science and, Lord Morley of Blackburn at 

English Association, 446 
Little (.A.), Gleanings from Fifty Years in China, 275 
Littlewood (E. T.), Graphical Representation of some of 

the Simpler Analytic Functions of a Complex Variable, 

162 
Livini (Prof.), Development of the Trachea in the Chick, 

270 
Lloyd (Prof. R. E.). an Introduction to Biology for Students 

in India, 370 
Lloyd (Captain R. E.). Visit to the .Aden Hinterland, 553 
Lluria (Dr. E.), Super-organic Evolution, 71 
Local Government Board. Supplement to the Thirty-ninth 

.Annual Report of the. Dr. Arthur Newsholme. 556 
Lockett (W. T.), Oxidation of Phenol by certain Bacteria 

in Pure Culture. 127 
Lockver (Dr. William J. S.). the Photography of Nebulae, 

140 
Locomotion, Development of Road, L. A. Legros. iiS 
Lodere (Sir Oliver). Reason and Belief, 201 
Loederich (L.), Experimental Study in Tuberculosis, -^^ 
Logan (Thomas), Biological Physics, Physic, and Meta- 

physic, 35 
Loggin (N. .A.). Notes on Placer Mining with Special Refer- 
ence to Hydraulic Sluicing, 497 
Logic, the Application of. Alfred Sidgwick. 436 
London County Council Conference of Teachers. 3^3 
London Institution : Smoke and its Prevention, Prof. Vivian 

B. Lewes, 290 
Long (H. C). Destruction of Agricultural Plant Pests by 

Chemical Means. 117 
Longley fW. R.). Theoretical Mechanics, 169 
Lorentz (Dr. H. A.). Explorations in New Guinea, Address 

at Royal Geographical Society, 400 
Lorenz (R.). International Language and Science, 260 
Louis (Prof. Henry). Quinquennial Review^ of the Mineral 

Production of India during" the Year? 1Q04 to 1008, Sir 
Thomas H. Holland, K.C.I.E., F.R.S.. and Dr. L. 



XXVI 



Index 



Nature, 
March 23, 191 1 



Leigh Fermor, 121 ; International Mineral Statistics, 211 ; 
Colliery Warnings, 336, 438 
Lovell (J. H.), Are Bees Capable of Distinguishing Dif- 
ferent Colours, 147 
Lowell (Prof.), the Motion of Molecules in the Tail of 
Halley's Comet, 21; the Dark Band Surrounding the 
Polar Caps of Mars, 22 ; the Satellites of Mars, 552 
Lubimenko (W. N.), Relationship that Exists between the 
Amount of Chlorophyll present in a Leaf and the Energy 
of Photosynthesis, 48 
I Lucas (Dr. F. A.), the Armour of Stegosaurus, 73 ; Fur- 
I seals of the Pribilows, 278 ; Bones from the Alabama 
I Eocene, the Pelvis of a Zeuglodon, 278 
] Lucerna (Dr. Roman), die Eiszeit auf Korsika und das 
I Verhalten der exogenen Naturkrafte seit dem Ende der 
! .Diluvialzeit, 4i:;6 

! Luizet (M..), the Total Eclipse of the Moon on November 
I 16, 180 

j Lull (R. S.), Distribution of the Deinosauria in Time and 
through Geographical Areas, 285 
•Luminescence of Uranium, Tribo, Prof. W. A. Douglas 
\ Rudge, 207: Alfred C. G. Egerton, 308 
I Lunar Observations, Tracing the Solar Corona in, Em. 
Touchet, 283 
Lundbeck (W.), Diptera danica, Genera and Species of Flies 

hitherto Found in Denmark, 506 
Lusbv (S. G.), ]\robility of the Positive Ion in Flames, 128 
Lydekker (Mr.), New Antelope, Tragelaphiis hiixtoni, 19 
Lynn (Mr.), Comets Due to Return in 1911, 348 

Macallum (Prof. A. B., F.R.S.), the Microchemistry of the 
Spermatic Elements in Vertebrates, 27 ; Origin of the 
Inorganic Composition of the Blood Plasma, 27 ; the 
Inorganic Composition of the Blood Plasma in the Frog 
after a Long Period of Inanition, 27 

Mac.Auliffe (M.), Comparative Measurements of Individuals 
of Both Sexes from Lunatic Asylums with Normal Men 
and Women, 532 

McClure (Edmund), British Place-names in their Historical 
Setting, 131 

McCollum (B.), Theory of a New Form of Dynamometer 
for the Measurement of the Quantity of Electricity which 
Flows through the Instrument, 551 

McCurdy (^Ir.), Oversea Flight by, 448 

Macdonald (Prof. J. S.), the Metabolism and Energy Trans- 
formations of Healthy Man during Rest, F. G. Benedict 
and T. M. Carpenter, 276 ; Metabolism in Diabetes 
Mellitus, 4i;i; 

MacDonald (Mr.), Advantages of Maize as a Crop for 
Export, 178 

Macdougal (Dr. D. T.), Organic Response. 4:50 

MacGillivray (William, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.E., Ornith- 
ologist, Professor of Natural History. Marischal College 
and University, Aberdeen), Life of, William MacGillivray, 
107 

MacGillivray (William). Life of William MacGillivrav, 
M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.E., Ornithologist. Professor of 
Natural History, Marischal College and University, Aber- 
deen, 107 

M'llroy (Dr. Janie Hamilton), the Independence of the 
Peripheral Neurons of the Retina, ^65 

McKendrick (Prof. John G., F.R.S.)^ the Brain and the 
Voice in Speech and Song, Prof. F. W. Mott, F.R.S., 
iQO ; the Abuse of the Singing and Speaking Voice. 
Causes. Effects, and Treatment. Prof. E. G. Moure and 
A. Bowyer, iqq ; the Voice, Dr. W. A. Aitken, iqq ; 
das Elektrokardigramm des gesunden und kranken 
Menschen, Prof. Friedrich Kraus and Prof. Georg 
Nicolai, 26s 

Mackenzie (Dr.), Megalithic Monuments and Prehistoric 
Culture in the Western Mediterranean, 44^ 

MacKenzie (K. J. J.), an Account of the " Points " Prized 
by the Breeder of High-class Stock, 2-^ ; Caponising, 161 
McMillan (W. G.), a Treatise on Electro-metallurgy, 506 
MacMunn (Dr. C. Alexander), Death of, ^48 
MacNeill (John), Earlv Population-groups of Ireland, their 

Nomenclature and Chronology, 531 
MacOwan (D.). .Atmosnheric Electricitv, 281 
Macohcrson CHertor, jun.'l, the Romance of Modern As- 
tronomy, describing in Simple but Exact Language the 
Wonders of the Heavens, 71 



McWilliam (Prof. A.), Metallography, Dr. Cecil H. Desch, 
301 ; Adhesion of Electro-deposited Silver in Relation to 
the Nature of the German Silver Basis Metal, 428 ; a 
Treatise on Electro-metallurgy, W. G. McMillan, 506 

Maddren (A. G.), the Innoko Gold-placer District Alaska, 
with Accounts of the Central Kuskokwim Valley and the 
Ruby Creek and Gold Hill Placers, 420 

Magnetism : Magnetic Survey Yacht Carnegie, 18 ; Mag- 
netic Data Recorded during 1905 and 1906 at the 
Observatories of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
SO ; Influence of the Magnetic Field on Duration of the 
Lines of the Spectrum Emitted by Luminous Vapours in 
the Electric Spark, G. A. Hemsalech, 65 ; Practical 
Electricity and Magnetism, R. Elliott Steel, 135 ;. Ele- 
mentary Experimental Electricity and Magnetism, W. T. 
Clough, 135 ; Observations of Magnetic Declination and 
Dissipation of Electric Charge which they made at Padua 
on May 14-21, Drs. R. Alpago and G. Silva, 150; 
Supposed Propagation of Equatorial Magnetic Disturb- 
ances with Velocities of the Order of 100 Miles per 
Second, Dr. C. Chree, 160 ; Mechanical Stress and 
Magnetisation of Nickel, Prof. W. Brown, 161 ; on 
the Simultaneity of " Abruptly-beginning " Magnetic 
Storms, O. Krogness, 170 ; Dr. L. A. Bauer, 306 ; 
Origin of Magnetic Storms, Arthur Schuster, 461 ; 
Magnetic Properties of Iron at High Frequencies, R. 
Jouaust, 193 ; Russian Magnetic Observations. Prof. 
Ernst Leyst, Dr. C. Chree, F.R.S., 388; New Property 
of the Magnetic Molecule, Pierre Weiss, 395 ; Solenoids, 
Electromagnets, and Electromagnetic Windings. Charles 
R. Underbill, Prof. Gisbert Kapp, 432 ; the Discharge 
Potential in the Magnetic Field, Eugene Bloch, 463 ; 
Studies of Magnetic Disturbances, L. Vegard, 473 ; 
Observations of the Value of the Gravitational Accelera- 
tion on Board the American Magnetic Ship Carnegie, 
Dr. L. A. Bauer, 485 ; the Probable Ionising Action of 
the Magnetic Field, Auguste Righi, 497; Historical 
Account of the Growth of our Knowledge of Terrestrial 
Magnetism, Prof. J. C. Beattie, 522 ; Report of the 
Berlin Meeting of the Commission on Terrestrial Mag- 
netism and Atmospheric Electricity, 522 ; Some Problems 
of Terrestrial Magnetism, Dr. L. A. Bauer, t^^i 

Magnetograms, Accuracy of Time on, G. W. Walker. 236 

Magneto-optics : Liquid Rendered Double Refracting by the 
Action of a Magnet Field, Prof. Voigt, 118; Prof. 
Langevin, 118 

Magnus (Sir Philip), Practical Work in Schools, 90 ; 
Educational Aims and Efforts, 1880-1910, 298 

Mailhe (A.). Direct Esterification by Catalysis, i;6^ 

Maire (Gilbert), Medico-psychological Study of Prof. Henri 
Poincar^ undertaken by Dr. Toulouse, 4-;2 

Makower (Dr. W.), Note on Scattering during Radio- 
active Recoil, 296 

Malaria : Anti-malarial Measures in India, Col. W. G. 
King, 240 ; the Prevention of Malaria, Major Ronald 
Ross, C.B., F.R.S., 263 ; Drainage and Malaria, Dr. 
Chas. A. Bentley, 471 ; Dr. Malcolm Watson, 471 

Maler's (Teobert), Journeys from North of Yucatan and 
Extending to the Great Lake of Peten-itza in Guatemala, 
iq 

Malfitano (G.), Purification of Starch, q8 

Mallock (.'\., F.R.S.), Influence of Viscosity on the Stability 
of the Flow of Fluids, 192 ; the Flieht of Birds, Lucien 
Fournier, 445; the Sailing-flight of Birds, i^ii 

Mammalia : Faune des Mammif^res d'Europe. Prof. E. L. 
Trouessart, 7. ; British Mammals, Major G. E. H. 
Barrett-Hamilton, 6 ; Notes on Winter Whitening in 
Mammals, Major G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton, 42 

Man, the Origin of, Charles E. Benham, 336; Dr. Cecil 
H. Desch, 406 

Man's Redemption of Man, Prof. W. Osier, 404 

Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, 97, 296, 361, 
429. 531 

Manchuria, Korea, and Russian Turkestan, the Face of, 

E. G. Kemp, 500 

Mangham (S.), Paths of Translocation of Sugars from 
Green Leaves, 58 ; Translocation of Carbohydrates in 
Plants, 485 

Mangold (Dr. G. B.), Child Problems, 538 

Manuring of Market-garden Crops, the, Dr. B. Dver and 

F. W. E. Shrivell, 505 



H*tur€, 
March 23, 191 1 



Judex 



xxvii 



Maoris of New Zealand, the, James Cowan, 109 

Maplestone (C. M.), Descriptions of the Tertiary Polyzoa of 
Victoria, 160 

March (Margaret C), Preliminary Note on Unio pictorum, 
U. tumidus, and D. cygnea, 361 ; L'nio pictorum, U. 
tumidus, and Onodonta cygnea, 429 

Marchal (Paul), Parasites of the Olive-fly in Tunis, 464 

Marchant (Prof. E. \V.), Recent Progress in Electric Light- 
ing, Lecture at Illuminating Engineering Society, 289 

Marie (A.), Comparative Measurements of Individuals of 
both Sexes from Lunatic Asylums with Normal Men and 
Women, 532 

Marine Biology : the Michael Sars North Atlantic Deep-sea 
Expedition, 1910, Dr. Johan Hjort, 52 ; the Michael Sars 
North Atlantic Deep-sea Expedition, 1910, Dr. Johan 
Hjort at Royal Geographical Society, 388 ; Work of the 
Port Erin Biological Station, 83 ; the Ova and Lar\'ae 
of Teleostean Fishes taken at Plymouth in the Spring and 
Summer of 1909. 85 : the Siphonophora of the Research 
Biscayan Plankton, H. B. Bigelow, 96 ; Comparison of 
the Summer Plankton on the West Coast of Scotland 
with that in the Irish Sea, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 96 ; 
Eel-larvae {Leptocephaltis brevirostris) from the Central 
North Atlantic, Dr. Johan Hjort, 104 ; the Megalospheric 
Form of Ammodiscus incertus, F. Chapman, 139 ; the 
Southern Division of the Mannar Pearl-oyster Fisher)", 
Dr. A. Willey, 148 ; Pearl and Pearl-shell Fishery, A. 
Scale, 177; Pearl-fishery off Bantayan, L. E. Griffen, 246; 
the Breeding Seasons of Colonus finmarchius, G. P. 
Farren, 565 

Marinesco (Prof.), Summary of Recent Investigations upon 
the Anatomical Localisation of the Human Cerebral 
Cortex, 278 

Market-garden Crops, the Manuring of, Dr. B. Dver and 
F. W. E. Shrivell, 505 

Marriott (L. M.), Mother and Child, 334 

Mars : the Dark Band Surrounding the Polar Caps of. 
Prof. Lowell, 22 ; Markings of Mars, James H. Worthing- 
ton, 40; Prof. A. M. Worthington, C.B., F.R.S., 372; 
Obser\-ations of Mars, E. M. Antoniadi, 305 ; Mars and 
its Atmosphere, Mr. Innes and Mrs. H. E. Wood. 486 ; 
Prof. Campbell and Dr. Albrecht, 486 ; the Satellites of 
Mars, Prof. Lowell, 552 

Marshall (F. H. A.), Some Causes of Sterility in Cattle, 
161 ; Caponising, 161 

Martin (E. A.), the Total Eclipse of the Moon, November 
16, 118 

Martin (Lawrence), the Remarkable Series of Earthquakes 
in Alaska in September, 1899, 179 

Martindale (Dr. W. Harrison), the Extra Pharmacopoeia of 
Martindale and Westcott, loi ; Suggested Adoption of 
Rounded-off Atomic Weights, 522 

Maryland, Report of the Conservation Commission of, for 
1908-9, 545 

Mascart (Dr. J.), on Actinometry and on Meteorology at 
TeneriflFe, 281 : Halley's Comet, 351 

Mas6 (Rev. M. Saderra), Subterranean Noises, 451 

Massol (G.), Chemical Composition of the Gases Spontane- 
ously given ofif by the Thermal-mineral Spring of L'riage 
Is^re, 262 

Matavanu : a New Volcano in Savaii (German Samoa), Dr. 
Tempest Anderson at Royal Institution, 92 

Mathematics : Geometry' of the Triangle, W. Gallatly and 
W. H. Salmon, 50 ; the Modern Geometry of the Tri- 
angle, W. Gallatly, 33 q ; Theory' of Numbers, Dr. Vacca. 
86; Mathematical Society, qj, 226, ^95, 531; Death of 
Prof. Jules Tannery, 114; Obituarj- Notice of, 175; the 
Reform of Mathematical and Science Teaching in Ger- 
many, A. J. Pressland at Edinburgh Mathematical 
Society, 125 ; the Calculus for Beginners, J. W. Mercer, 
136 ; Graphical Representation of Some of the Simpler 
Analvtic Functions of a Complex Variable, E. T. Little- 
wood, 162 ; the Public School Geometry, F. J. W. Whipple, 
167 ; the Student's Matriculation Geometry, S. Gango- 
pidhydya, 167 ; First Stage Mathematics, 167 ; Second 
Stage Mathematics (with Modern Geometry), 167 ; Conic 
Sections, S. Gangopddhy^ya, 167 : Public Schools Arith- 
metic, W. M. Baker and A. A. Bourne, 167 ; a School 
Algebra, H. S. Hall, 167 ; Elements of Algebra, A. 
Schultze, 167 ; the Theory of Elementary Trigonometry', 
Prof. D. K. Picken, 167 ; Legons sur le Calcul des 



Variations, Prof. J. Hadamard, 197 ; Practical Measure- 
ments, A. W. .Siddons and A. Vassall, 202 ; a Treatise 
on the Geometry of Surfaces, A. B. Basset, F.R.S., 231 ; 
Internaciona Matematikal Lexiko en Ido, Germana, 
Angia, Franca, e Italiana, Dr. Louis Couturat, 269 : 
the Neglect of Group-theor)', Prof. Burnside, 313; Paul 
Appell : Biographie, Bibliographic analytique des Ecrits, 
Ernest Lebon, 335 ; Singularities of Cur\es and Surfaces, 
A. B. Bassett, F.R.S., 336, 440; T. J. I'a, B., 336, 440: 
the Bolyai-Lobatschewskv Svstem, Prof. H. S. Carslaw, 
346; College Algebra, Prof. H. L. Reitz and A. R. 
Crathorne, 368 ; Trigonometry, Prof. A. G. Hall and 
F. G. Frink, 368 ; First Course in Calculus, Prof. E. J. 
Townsend and Prof. G. A. Goodenough, 368 ; the Ima- 
ginary in Geometry, Prof. Ellerj- W. Davis, 383 ; Con- 
ferences of Mathematical Teachers and of Public School 
Science Masters, 38-; ; Two Fragments of Ancient Geo- 
metrical Treatises Found in the Worcester Cathedral 
Library, Canon J. M. Wilson, 385 ; Teaching of Algebra 
and Trigonometry, 385 ; Solutions of the Examples in an 
Elementary* Treatise on Conic Sections by the Methods 
of Coordinate Geometrj-, Charles Smith, 405 ; the Col- 
lected Mathematical Papers of James Joseph Sylvester, 
F.R.S., 434 ; the Fourier Constants of a Function, Dr. 
W\ H. Young, 462 ; Practical Mathematics and Geo- 
metry. E. L. Bates and F. Charlesworth, 4^0 

Mather (Prof. T., F.R.S.), Exercises in Electrical Engin- 
eering for the Use of Second-year Students in Universi- 
ties and Technical Colleges, 503 

Mathew (J.), Two Representative Tribes of Queensland, 
with an Inquiry Concerning the Origin of the Australian 
Race, 267 

Mating, Marriage, and the Status of Women, James Conn, 
334 

Matouia sarmentosa in Sarawak, Occurrence of, Cecil J. 
Brooks, 541 

Matruchot (Louis), New Fungus Pathogenic to Man, 532 

Matthew (Dr. W. D.), Phylogeny of the Felidae, 287 ; Pose 
of the Sauropod Dinosaurs, 288 

Maybee (J. E.», Stellar Magnitudes, 348 

Mayer (Alfred Goldsborough), Medusae of the World, 285 

Measurements, Practical, A. W. Siddons and A. Vassall, 202 

Mechanics : Cours de M^canique Rationelle et Experiment- 
elle, sp^cialement ^crit pour les physiciens et les 
ing^nieurs, conforme an programme du certificat de 
mecanique rationelle. Prof. H. Bouasse, i ; Theoretical 
Mechanics, P. F. Smith and W. R. Longley, 169 ; Notes 
on Applied Mechanics, R. H. Whapham and G. Preece. 
^^7 ; Applied Mechanics, including Hydraulics and the 
Theor\' of the Steam-engine, John Graham, 537 

Mecklenberg (W.). Die esperi men telle Grundlegung der 
Atomistik, 403 

Medd (J. C), Extension of Forestr>- Areas and Improved 
Methods of Cultivation in the British Isles, 415 

Medicine: Death of Dr. J. F. Payne, 115; Rockefeller 
Institute for Medical Research, 146; Beit Memorial 
Fellowships for Medical Research, 216; the Killing of 
Rats and Rat-fleas by Hydrocyanic Acid, Capt. W. D. H. 
Stevenson, 246; the Medical Directory, 1911, 304; .Appeal 
for the Adequate Endowment of Medical Education and 
Research, Dr. Bulloch, 316; Epilepsy and Constipation, 
E. Doumer, 32S ; Mother and Child, L. M. Marrion, 334 : 
Death of Dr. .Achille Kelsch, 481 ; the Fothergillian Gold 
Medal of the Medical Society awarded to Dr. F. W. Mott, 
F.R.S., 547: Death of Dr. Edward G. Janewav, 547 

Medusae of the World, Alfred Goldsborough Mayer, 285 

Megalithic Monuments and Prehistoric Culture in the 
Western Mediterranean, Dr. Mackenzie, 445 ; Mr. Peet, 

445 

Megalospheric Form of Ammodiscus incertus, the, F. Chap- 
man, 139 

Melanism in Atnphidasis betularia, Linn., a Biological 
Inquiry- into the Nature of, H. S. Leigh, 270 

Meldola (Prof. R., F.R.S.), Evolution, Darwinian and 
Spencerian, Herbert Spencer Lecture at Oxford, 220 ; the 
Coming of Evolution, Prof. J. W. Judd, C.B., F.R.S.. 
297 

Meldrum (Dr. A. N.), Development of the Atomic Theorv, 

97. 4^9. .S3I . 
Memor)-, Unconscious, Sam.uel Butler, 3 
MendeUan Expectations, Prof. J. C. Ewart, F.R.S., 205 



XXVlll 



Index 



[ 



Nature, 
March 23, 191 1 



Mendelism, a Lecture on, Dr. H. Drinkwater, 436 

Mennell (F. P.), Composite Gneisses, 555 

Mensclien, Der Stand unserer Kenntnisse vom fossilen, Prof. 
W. Branca, Prof. G. Elliot Smith, 402 

Mentally Deficient Children, their Treatment and Training, 
Dr. G. E. Shuttlevvorth and Dr. W. A. Potts, 507 

Menzies (A. W. C), Dynamic Method for Measuring Vapour 
Pressures with its Application to Benzene and Ammonium 
Chloride, 103 ; Quantitative Study of the Constitution of 
Calomel Vapour, 193 ; Method for Determining the 
Molecular Weights of Dissolved Substances by Measure- 
ment of Lowering Vapour Pressure, 497 

Mercer (J. W.), the Calculus for Beginners, 136 

Mercier (Mr.), Salmon-disease on the Continent, 416 

Merlin (A. A. C. E.), Measurement of Grayson's New Ten- 
band Plate, 361 

Merlin (M.), the Total Eclipse of the Moon on November 
16, 180 

Merrill (E. D.), New Philippine Plants, 20 ; Flora of Mt. 
Pulog, 217 

Merritt (M. L.), Flora of Mt. Pulog, 217 

Messerschmitt (Prof. J. D.), Der Sternenhimmel, 102 

Messina, the Observatory at. Prof. J. Milne, F.R.S., 515 

Metabolism and Energy Transformations of Healthy Man 
during Rest, the, F. G. Benedict and T. M. Carpenter, 
Prof. J. S. Macdonald, 276 

Metabolism in Diabetes Mellitus, F. G. Benedict and E. P. 
Joslin, Prof. J. S. Macdonald, 455 

Metal Work, Exercises in, A. T. J. Kersey, 436 

Metallography Applied to Siderugic Products, Humbert 
Savoia, 202 ; Metallography, Dr. Cecil H. Desch, Prof. 
A. McWilliam, 301 ; La M6tallographie appliqu6e aux 
produits Siderurgiques, U. Savoia, 405 ; Introduction k la 
M^tallographie INIicroscopique, Prof. P. Goerens, 470 

Metallurgy : on Hydrogen in Iron, John Parry, 6 ; Notes 
on Passagem Mine and Works, A. J. Bensusan, 33 ; 
Treatment of Refractory Low-grade Gold Ores at the 
Ouro Preto Gold Mine, Brazil, R. H. Kendall, 33 ; Varia- 
tion of Resistance of Steels to Crushing as a Function 
of the Temperature, F. Robin, 33 ; Secondary Enrichment 
in the Copper Deposits of Huelva, Spain, A. Moncrieff 
Finlayson, 128 ; the Mount Morgan Ore Deposits, Queens- 
land, J. Bowie Wilson, 128; Successive Stages in the 
Bessemerising of Copper Mattes as indicated by the Con- 
verter Flame, D. M. Lew, 128 ; a Fourth Recalescence 
in Steel. Prof. J. O. Arnold, 157; Prof. W. F. Barrett, 
F.R.S., 235 ; Magnetic Properties of Iron and its Alloys, 
Sir Robert Hadfield and Prof. B. Hopkinson, 217; Die 
Untersuchungs-Methoden des Eisens und Stahls, Dr. A. 
Riidisule, Prof. H. C. H. Carpenter, 233 ; Iron and Steel 
Analysis, A. Campion, 268 ; Malaga Magnetites, F. 
Gillman, 295 ; Report to the Corrosion Committee on 
the Present State of our Knowledge of the Corrosion of 
Non-ferrous Metals and Alloys, with Suggestions for a 
Research into the Causes " of the Corrosion of Brass 
Condenser Tubes by Sea Water, G. D. Bengough, 428 ; 
Some Practical Experience with Corrosion of Metals, 
Engineer Rear-Admiral J. T. Corner, 428 ; New Critical 
Point in Copper-zinc Alloys, Prof. H. C. H. Carpenter 
and C. A. Edwards, 428 ; Adhesion of Electro-deposited 
Silver in Relation to the Nature of the German Silver 
Basis Metal, Prof. A. McWilliam and W. R. Barclay, 
428 ; a Treatise on Electro-metallurgy, W. G. McMillan, 
A. McWilliam, 506 ; Constitution of the Alloys of Alumin- 
ium and Zinc, W. Rosenhain and S. L. Archbutt, 564 

Metcalf's Comet (1910b), Dr. Ebell, 87, 319 

Meteorology : Autumn Weather .'\ggregate Rainfall Defi- 
cient, 20; Report upon the Investigations of the Upper 
Air, Dr. W. van Bemmelem and Dr. C. Braak, 20 ; Study 
of the North-east and South-east Trade Winds of the 
Atlantic- Ocean, 40 : Misure Magnetiche fatte in Sar- 
degna nel 1892, Prof. L. Palazzo, 50 ; Meteorological Rela- 
tionships, Prof. H. Hildebrand Hildebrandsson, 55 ; E. T. 
Quayle, 55 ; Descriptive Meteorology, Prof. Willis L. 
Moore, 68 ; Two Notes from India, Capt. J. H. Barbour, 
73 ; on the Electricity of Rain and its Origin in Thunder- 
storms, Dr. George C. Simpson, Dr. C. Chree, F.R.S., 
81 ; Meteorological Charts of the North Atlantic and 
North Pacific Oceans for December, and of the South 
Atlantic and South Pacific for the Season December, 1910, 
to February, 191 1, 86; Meteorological Chart of the North 



Atlantic for December, 179 ; Meteorological Chart of North 
Atlantic Ocean for January, 346, 382 ; the Third Dimen- 
sion in Meteorology, Dr. E. van Everdingen, 117; Results 
of the Hourly Balloon .^scents made from the Meteoro- 
logical Department of the Manchester University, March 
18-19, J910, Miss M. White, 128; Results obtained from 
the Registering Balloon Ascents carried out during the 
Two International Weeks, December 6-1 1, 1909, and 
August 8-13, 1910, W. H. Dines, 128; Pilot Balloon 
Observations made in Barbados during the International 
Week, December 6-1 1, 1909, C. J. P. Cave, 128; Royal 
Meteorological Society, 128, 295, 565 ; Annual General 
Meeting of the, 415; Results of the Magnetic Observa- 
tions at Central Meteorological Observatory of Japan, 
148 ; Libyan Oasis of Kharga, Ellsworth Huntington, 
148 ; Introduction to the Meteorology of the Future : the 
Sun and the Prediction of Weather, Abb^ T. More.ux, 179 ; 
the Meteorologv of the Future, Prof. C. .Abbe, 5^0; the 
New Meteorological Office, Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S., 
181 ; Observations of the Lower Strata of Air by Kites and 
Captive Balloons, 217; Aurora Borealis Witnessed at 
Hampstead, 243 ; the Rainy Season in Japan, T. Okada, 
247; Anales de ia Oficina Meteorol6gica Argentina, 250; 
Climate of the Argentine Republic, W. G. Davis, 250 ; 
Temperature Observations in the Madiisee (Pomerania), 
with Mathematical Discussion of Temperature Oscilla- 
tions, E. M. Wedderburn, 261 ; Report of the Council of 
the Scottish Meteorological Society, 214; Atmospheric 
Electricity, Dr. G. A. Carse and D. MacOwan, 281 ; the 
Cold Period of June in Italy, Dr. Eredia, 281 ; on Actino- 
metry and on Meteorology at Teneriffe, Dr. J. Mascart, 
281 ; Atmospheric Conditions under which Explosions 
Generally Occur, 277 ; Colliery Warnings, Prof. Henry 
Louis, 336, 43S ; the Author of the \A'arnings, 437 ; 
R. M. Deeley, 512 ; Balloon Experiments Carried Out at 
Blackpool, Capt. C. H. Ley, 293 ; Meteorological Signi- 
ficance of Small .Wind and Pressure Variations, Capt. 
C. H. Ley, 293 ; Meteorological Office Daily Weather 
Report, 314; Summary of the Weather for the Year, 314; 
Decrease in Frequency and Intensity of London Fog, 318; 
Present Position of Antarctic Meteorology, R. C. Moss- 
man, 318; Aviators and Squalls, M. Durand-Gr^ville, 322; 
Temperature of the Upper -Air, M. Rykachef, 323 ; Scien- 
tific Memoirs of the Korean Meteorological Observatory, 
341 ; Temperature Changes and Solar Activity, Prof. 
F. H. Bigelow, 332 ; Weather Instruments and How to 
Use Them, D. W. Horner, 403; "Black" Snow in the 
Lower Emmen Valley, 431 ; General Character of the 
Rainfall of 1910, Dr. H. R. Mill, 451 ; Subterranean 
Noises, Rev. M. Saderra Mas6, 431 ; Atmospheric Elec- 
tricity over the Ocean, Dr. G. C. Simpson and C. S. 
Wright, 462 ; Report upon the Rains of the Nile Basin 
and the Nile Flood of 1909, J. I. Craig, 485 ; Micro- 
structure of Hailstones, MM. Dudetzky and Weinberg, 
485 ; Meteorological Observations in Africa, 321 ; Meteoro- 
logical Observations Recorded by Various Expeditions to 
Novaia Zemlia, N. A. Koroste'ef, 321 ; Reports of 
Meteorological Observatories, 325 ; Madrid Observatory, 
1902-3, 323 ; Royal Magnetical and Meteorological Ob- 
servatory, Batavia, 1907, 523 ; Odessa Observatory, 1908, 
Prof. B. V. Stankevitsch, 323 ; Mysore, Rainfall Regis- 
tration (1909), 323 ; Variation of the Depth of Water in 
a Well at Detling, near Maidstone, compared with the 
Rainfall, 1883-1909, R. Cooke and S. C. Russell, 565 

Meteors : November Meteors, John R. Henry, 40 ; Recent 
Fireballs, 87; Mr. and Mrs. Wilson, 150; C. B. Pen- 
nington, 130; J. Hicks, 130; the Orbits of the Perseids, 
Henry Dierckx, 218; the Ouadrantid Meteor Shower, 
T. W. Backhouse, 236 ; January Meteors, John R. Henry, 
271 ; W. F. Denning, 348 ; Fireball of January q, W. F. 
Denning, 372 ; Meteors in February, W. F. Denning, 
417; Splendid Meteor on January 23, W. F. Denning, 
433 ; a Morning Meteor, Joseph H. Elgie, 475 ; a Slowly 
Moving Meteor, F. E. Baxandall, 532 

Metrology : the Invicta Table Book, j. W. Ladner, 103 ; 
the Volume of the Kilogramme of Water, Sir T. Edward 
Thorpe, C.B., F.R.S. , 242 ; Travaux et M6moires du 
Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Sir T. 
Edward Thorpe, C.B., F.R.S., 242; Measurement of End- 
standards of Length, Dr. P. E. Shaw, 394 

Mewes (Herr), Nova Lacertae, 453 



Man 



Nature, l 

k 23, 191 1 J 



Index 



XXIX 



Meyer (G. M.), Case of Spanish Eugenic Policy, 47 

Meyer (Dr. M. Wilhelm), Death and Obituary Notice of, 
313 

Meyer (Mr.), Elements for Faye's Comet, igioe, 319 

Meyricic (E.), Microlepidoptera of the Groups Tortricina 
and Tineina, 496 

Michael Sars North Atlantic Deep-sea Expedition, 1910, 
the, Dr. Johan Hjort, 52 

Michael Sars North Atlantic Deep-sea Expedition, 1910, the, 
Dr. Johan Hjort at Royal Geographical .Society, 388 

Michaud (F.), C.apillarimeter for the Measurement of the 
Surface Tension of Viscous Liquids, 129 

Mickle (K. A.), Flotation of Minerals, 430 

Microscopy : Dunkelfeldbeleuchtung und Ultramikroskopie 
in der Biologie und in der Medizin, N. Gaidukov, 72 ; 
Royal Microscopical Society, 95, 361, 463; Resolution of 
New Detail in a Coscinodiscus asteromphalus, E. M. 
Nelson, 06 ; Microscopy, the Construction, Theory, and 
Use of the Microscope,' E. J. Spitta, 230 ; Small Micro- 
scope Lamp particularly Suited for Opaque Objects and 
Dark-ground Illumination with High Powers, W. R. 
Traviss, 361 ; Measurement of Grayson's New Ten-band 
Plate, A. A. C. E. Merlin, 361 ; Appliances for Improving 
the Ultra-microscope, Dr. F. Jentzsch, 522 ; the Micro- 
scopical Examination of Food and Drugs, Prof. H. G. 
Greenish, 538 

Migration, Ornithological Notes from a South London 
Suburb, 1874-1909, a Summary of Thirty-five Years' 
Observations, with Some Facts and Fancies concerning, 
F. D. Power, Sir T. Digby Pigott, C.B., 44 

Migratory Birds, the Book of, met with on Holy Island 
and the Northumbrian Coast, to which is added Descrip- 
tive Accounts of Wild Fowling on the Mud Flats, with 
Notes on the General Natural History of this District, 
W. Ilalliday, 329 

Milch und ^iolkereiprodukte, ihre Eigenschaften, Zusam- 
mensetzung und Gewinnung, Dr. Paul Sommerfeld, 168 

Milk, Soured, and its Preparation, Lactic Cheeses, Prof. 
R. T. Hewlett, 33S 

Mill (Dr. H. R.), General Character of the Rainfall of 1910, 

451 

Miller (J. H.), Exploring Upper Part of the Basin of the 
Yenesei and the Western Frontier of Mongolia, 315 

Millosevich (Prof.), the Spectrum of Nova Sagittarii No. 2, 
22 ; Nova Lacertje, 453 

Mills (J. Saxon), Production of Sugar from Sugar Beet, 85 

Milne (Prof. John, F.R.S.), Earthquakes in the Pacific, 115; 
in Forbidden Seas, 510; the Observatory at Messina, 515 

Minchen (Prof. E. A.), Division of the Collar-cells of Cal- 
careous Sponge, Clathrina Coriacea, 117 

Mineralogy: Mineralogical Society, 127, 496; Wood-tin, 
J. H. Collins, 127; Alteration of the Felspar of Granites 
to China-Clay, J. M. Coon, 127; Wiltshireite, New 
Mineral from the Binnenthal, Prof. W. J. Lewis, 128; 
New Locality of Phenakite in Cornwall, Arthur Russell, 
128; Issite, a New Rock in Dunite, Louis Duparc and 
Georges Pamphil, 262 ; Flotation of Minerals, K. A. 
Mickle, 430; Kaolin, F. H. Butler, 496; Schwartzem- 
bergite. Dr. G. T. Prior and Dr. G. F. H. Smith, 496 

Minerals : Mineral Resources of the Philippine Islands, 49 ; 
Quinquennial Review of the Mineral Production of India 
during the Years 1904 to 1908, Sir Thomas H. Hollard, 
K.C.I.E., F.R.S., and Dr. L. Leigh Fermor, Prof. H. 
Louis, 121 ; International Mineral Statistics, Prof. Henry 
Louis, 211 

Mining : Notes on Passagem Mine and Works, .'\. J. Ben- 
susan, 33 ; Treatment of Refractory Low-grade Gold 
Ores at the Ouro Preto Gold Mine, Brazil, R. H. Kendall, 
33 ; Report of the Chief Inspector of Mines of the Native 
State of Mysore for 1908, 117; Safety Explosives Em- 
ployed in Mines, J. Taffanel, 129 ; Manganese-ore Deposits 
of the Sandur State, A. Ghose, a Correction, 179; Inter- 
national Mineral Statistics, Prof. Henry Louis, 211 ; 
Progress and Prospects of Mining in Western Australia, 
A. ^lontgomery, 247 ; Native Working of Coal and Iron 
in China, 251 ; 1200 Mining Examination Questions, 270; 
Atmospheric Conditions under which Explosions Generally 
Occur, 277 ; Notes on Chilian Mills in Russia, H. C. 
Bayldon, 295, 497 ; Low-grade Iron Ore in Raasay, 315 ; 
Colliery Warnings, Prof. Henry Louis, 336, 438 ; the 
Author of the Warnings, 437; R. M. Deeley, 512; Death 



of George Grey, 482 ; Record of the First Series of the 
British Coal Dust Experiments, conducted by the Com- 
mittee Appointed by the Mining Association of Great 
Britain, Prof. W. Galloway, 487 ; Notes on Placer Mining, 
with Special Reference to Hydraulic Sluicing, N. A. 
Loggin, 497 ; Organisation and Work of the Department 
of .Mines of Canada, Alfred W. G. Wilson, 521 ; Safety 
Lamps and the Detection of Fire-damp, 524 

Minneapolis Meeting of the American Association, the, 410 

Minot (Prof. C. S.), the Morphology and Nomenclature of 
Blood Corpuscles, 27 

Mirande (Marcel), Effects of Tarred Roads on Vegetation, 
161 ; Action upon Green Plants of some Substances 
Extracted from Coal-tar and Employed in Agriculture, 
464 

Mitchell (Guy E.), the Extensive Beds of Lignite in the 
United States, 179 

Mitchell (Mr.), Southern Nebulae, 552 

Mockler-Ferryman (Lt.-Col. A. F.), the Life Story of a 
Tiger, 333 

Mollusca, a Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate, with 
Figures of the Species, Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.M.G., 133 

Monaco, the Oceanographical Museum at, J. Y. Buchanan, 
F.R.S., 7 

Montangerand (M.), the Total Eclipse of the Moon on 
November 16, 180 

Montgomery (A.), Progress and Prospects of Mining in 
Western Australia, 247 

Moon : Rotation of the, .<;i ; the Total Eclipse of the Moon, 
November 16, E. A. Martin, 118; Madame de Robeck, 
118; MM. Luizet, Guillaume, and Merlin, 180; M. 
Montangerand, 180 ; M. Lebeuf, 180 ; M. Jonckheere, 
180; Dr. Max Wolf, 319; Father Fenyi, 319; the Secular 
Acceleration of the Moon's Mean Motion, Dr. Robert 
Bryant, 119 ; a New Map of the Moon, Mr. Goodacre, 319 

Moore (J. H.), New Spectroscopic Binaries, 523 

Moore (T. V.), Influence of Temperature and the Electric 
Current on the Sensibility of the Skin, 316 

Moore (Prof. Willis L.), Descriptive Meteorology, 68 

Morbology : Research Defence Society, Stephen Paget, 6 ; 
Rats and Plague, G. F. Petrie, i:; ; Prevention of Plague, 
17 ; Deaths due to Plague in Suffolk, 17 ; the Prevention 
of Plague, Dr. Newsholme, Dr. G. F. Petrie, 81 ; 
Oriental or Bubonic Plague, Prof. R. T. Hewlett, 237 ; 
Outbreak of Plague in East Anglia, 277 ; Plague-infected 
Rats in Suffolk, 416 ; Desirability of the Systematic 
Destruction of Rats and other Vermin, 483 ; Investiga- 
tions of Plague, 476 ; Panama Canal Zone Death-rates, 
Col. W. G. Gorgas, 17 ; a Suggested Research Fund for 
Tropical Diseases, 28 ; Experimental Study in Tubercu- 
losis, M. M. Landowzy and L. Loederich, 33 ; Latent 
Mesenteric Tuberculosis produced Experimentally in the 
Dog, P. Chauss^, 98 ; Production of Primitive Thoracic 
Tuberculosis in Cattle by the Inhalation of Infinitesimal 
Amounts of Bovine Tuberculous Material, P. Chauss^e, 
194 ; Simulium and Pellagra, R. Shelford, 41 ; Dr. C. 
Gordon Hewitt. i6q ; Further Results of the Experimental 
Treatment of Trypanosomiasis, H. G. Plimmer, W. B. 
Fry, and H. S. Ranken, 64 ; Note on the Examination of 
the Central Nervous System in a Case of Cured Human 
Trypanosomiasis, Dr. F. W. Mott, 6'^ ; Life-history of 
Trypanosoma gatnbiense and Trypanosoma rhodesiense 
as Seen in Rats and Guinea Pigs, Dr. H. B. Fantham, 
260 ; Experiments on the Treatment of .Animals Infected 
with Trypanosomes by Means of Atoxyl Vaccines, Cold, 
X-rays, and Leucocytic Extract, Major R. Ross and J. G. 
Thomson, 260 ; Enumerative Studies on Trypanosoma 
gambiense and Trypanosoma rhodesiense in Rats, Guinea 
Pigs, and Rabbits, Dr. H. B. Fantham and J. G. 
Thomson, 260 ; Resistance of Goats and Sheep to 
Trypanosomiasis, A. Laveran, 39; ; Autoaggluti nation of 
Red Blood Cells in Trypanosomiasis, Dr. W. Yorke, 
427 ; Peculiar Morphology of a Trypanosome from a 
Case of Sleeping Sickness and the Possibility of its being 
a new Species (Trypanosoma rhodesiense). Dr. J. W. W. 
Stephens and Dr. H. B. Fantham, 64 ; Sleeping Sickness 
and Tsetse-flies, 147 ; Case of Sleeping Sickness Studied 
bv Precise Enumerative Methods, Major Ronald Ross 
and D. Thomson, 260 ; Conference on Sleeping Sickness, 
414 ; Experiments to Ascertain if Antelope may Act as a 
Reservoir of the Virus of Sleeping Sickness (Trypano- 



XXX 



Index 



Afature, 
March 23, igii 



soma gatnbiense), Colonel Sir David Bruce and Captains 
A. E. Hamerton and H. R. Bateman, 428 ; Experiments 
to Ascertain if the Domestic Fowl of Uganda may Act as 
a Reservoir of the \'irus of Sleeping Sickness {Trypano- 
soma gambietise), Colonel Sir David Bruce and Captains 
A. E. Hamerlon and H. R. Bateman, 428 ; Commission 
to Investigate .Sleeping Sickness in Rhodesia, 448; Black- 
head in Turkeys, Drs. Cole and Hadlcy, S5-6 ; Influence 
•of Bacterial Endotoxins on Phagocytosis, L. S. Dudgeon, 
P. N. Panton, and H. A. F. Wilson, 127; Enteric Fever 
Carriers, Dr. J. C. G. Ledingham, 145; Cancer, Sir 
Arthur Pcarcc Gould at the Royal College of Surgeons, 
.214; Possible Cause of Pneumo-enteritis in the Red 
Grouse (Lagopus scoticus), Dr. H. B. Fantham and Dr. 
H. Hammond Smith, 226; the Broad Stone of Empire, 
Problems of Crown Colony Administration, with Records 
of Personal Experience, Sir Charles Bruce, G.C.M.G., 
.229 ; Anti-malarial Measures in India, Col. W. G. King, 
240 ; Some Enumerative Studies on Malarial Fever, 
Major Ronald Ross and D. Thomson, 260 ; Haemoglobin 
Metabolism in Malarial Fevgr, G. C. E. Simpson, 260 ; 
the Prevention of Malaria, Major Ronald Ross, C.B., 
F.R.S., 263 ; Drainage and Malaria, Dr. Chas. A. 
Bentley, 471 ; Dr. Malcolm Watson, 471 ; Salmon-disease 
on the Continent, Messrs. De Drorein de Bouville and 
Mercier, 416 ; Metabolism in Diabetes Mellitus, F. G. 
Benedict and E. P. Joslin, Prof. J. S. Macdonald, 45; ; 
Complement Deviation in Mouse Carcinoma, Dr. J. O. 
Wakelin Barratt, 496 ; Relation of the Mono-molecular 
Reaction of Life Processes to Immunity, Dr. John 
Brownlee, 497 ; the Form of Sporotrichum beurtnanni in 
Human Lesions, E. Pinoy, 498 ; Flies as Carriers cf 
Infection, Dr. G. S. Graham-Smith, 1^25 ; Dr. S. 
Monckton Copeman, F.R.S., '^21; ; New Fungus Patho- 
erenic to Man, Louis Matruchot, 1^32 ; an Account of 
Pott's Disease of the Spine in an Egyptian Mummy 
belonging to the Time of the Twenty-first Dynasty, about 
1000 B.C., Prof. G. Elliot Smith and Dr. M. Armand 
Ruffer, 54q ; Cladosporian Mycosis in Man, Fernand 
Gu^guen, 566 

"Moreau (L.), Lead Arsenate in Viticulture, 262 

^loreux (Abb6 T.), Introduction to the Meteorology of the 
Future : the Sun and the Prediction of the Weather, 179 

Morley (Prof. Arthur), Critical Speeds for Torsional and 
Longitudinal Vibrations, 217 

"Morlev (Lord, of Blackburn), Science and Literature, 
Address at English Association, 446 

Morphology : the Convolutions of the Brain, Prof. G. 
Elliot Smith, q? ; Morphological Method and the Ancestry 
of Vertebrates, Prof. J. Graham Kerr, F.R.S.. 203 

"Morris (Sir Daniel, K.C.M.G.), the Imperial Department 
of Agriculture in the West Indies, Paper at Royal 
Colonial Institute, 418 

Morse (Dr. M.), Summation of Stimuli, 27 

Mortality. Infant and Child, Dr. Arthur Newsliolme, C5;6' 

Morton (Prof. W. B.), Cusped Waves of Light and the 
Theory of the Rainbow. 160 

TVIoschkoff (Mile. A. N.), Purification of Starch, 98 

Mosquitoes, a Monograph of the Culicidae or, Fred V. 
Theobald, 330 

Mossman (R. C), Present Position of Antarctic Meteoro- 
logy, 318 

Mosso (Prof. Angelo), Death of, 146 ; Obituary Notice of, 

174 

Mother and Child, L. M. Marriott, -^34 

Mott (Dr. F. W., F.R.S.), Note on the Examination of the 
Central Nervous System in a Case of Cured Human 
Trypanosomiasis, 61; ; the Brain and the Voice in Soeech 
and Song, iqq ; the Fothergillian Gold Medal of the 
Medical Society Awarded to, 547 

"Moulin (Marcel), the Blue Colour of the Sky and the Con- 
stant of Avogadro, 129 

Moure (Prof. E. J.), the Abuse of the Singing and Speaking 
Voice, Causes, Effects, and Treatment, iq9 

"Moureu (Charles). Propiolic Compounds, 161 

Moureux (Th.), Photograph of " Spectre of the Brocken," 

417 
Mouton (H.), Absolute Measurement of the Magnetic 

Double Refraction of Nitrobenzene, 129 
IVIovsev (L.), Brongniart's Genus Palaeoxvris, -;87 
"Muir (Dr. T., C.M.G., F.R.S.), the State's Duty to 



Science, 213; Science and the State, Address at South 
African Association for the Advancement of Science, 221 

Mules, are. Fertile? Prof. J. C. Ewart, F.R.S., 106 

Miiller (W. Max), Egyptological Researches, 165 

Munch (Dr. W.), the Radial Velocity of Sirius, 151; Nova 
Lacertae, 4^3 

Muntz (A.), Struggle for Water between the Soil and the 
Seed, 97 

Miintz (A.), the Nitrates in the Atmosphere of the Antarctic 
Regions, 463 

Murphy (Paul A.), Bacterial Disease of the Potato Plant in 
Ireland and the Organism Causing it, 296 

Murray (J.), Study of the Seepage and Evaporation Loss 
from the Ibrahimia Canal, 317 

Murray (Jas.), Some African Rotifers— Bdelloida of Tropical 
Africa, 361 

Murray (Miss M. A.), the Tomb of Two Brothers, 332 

Museums : the Oceanographical Museum at Monaco, J. Y. 
Buchanan, F. R.S., 7; Guide to the British Vertebrates 
Exhibited in the Department of Zoology, British Museum 
(Natural History), 234 ; a Descriptive Catalogue of the 
Marine Reptiles of the Oxford Clay, based on the Leeds 
Collection in the British Museum (Natural History), 
London, Dr. C. W. Andrews, F.R.S., 264; a Guide to 
the Fossil Reptiles, Amphibians and Fishes in the De- 
partment of Geology and Paljeontology in the British 
Museum (Natural History), 264 ; Guide to the Crustacea, 
Arachnida, Onychophora and Myriopoda Exhibited in the 
Department of Zoology, British Museum (Natural 
History), 501; ; Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in 
the British Museum, 1^39 

Mycology : Fungal Disease of the Blue Pine, Pinus excelsa, 
48 ; Epidemic Outbreak of Eiitypella prunastri, E. S. 
Salmon, 184 ; Life-history of the Apple " Scab " Fungus 
(Venturia inaequalis), E. S. Salmon, 184; a Species of 
Leptothyrium, E. S. Salmon, 184; " Koleroga," a Palm 
Disease, Dr. L. C. Coleman, 217; Influence of Iron on 
the Formation of the Spores of Aspergillus niger, G. 
Linossier, 227 ; Infection of Potato Plants with the 
Blight-fungus (Phytophthora infestatis) by Means of 
Mycelium derived Direct from the Planted Tubers, Dr. 
G. H. Pethvbridge, 327 ; Cytological Investigation of 
Corn Rust, Dr. F. Zach, 34'^ ; Influence of Manganese 
on the Development of Aspergillus niger, Gabriel Ber- 
trand and M. Javillier, 464 

Mvers (Dr. C. S.), Collection of Masses of Psychological 
Data bv Untrained Observers, qo 

Nadson (Prof. G. A.), Effect of Coloured Light on the 
Development of Pure Cultures of the Green Alga, 
Stichococcus hacillaris. 520 

Narramore (W.), Preliminary Physiology, 103 

Nasmith (Dr.), Method for Destroying Typhoid and Dysen- 
tery Bacilli in Water, 245 

Natural History : Pwdre Ser, Edward E. Free, 6 ; Present 
Condition of American Bison and Seal Herds, 12 ; Varia- 
tion in the Oyster-boring Whelk, Dr. H. E. Walter, 20 ; 
Flowering Plants and Ferns Growing in Farringdon 
Street, J.' C. Shenstone, 20; the Subantarctic Islands of 
New Zealand, Prof. Arthur Dendy, F.R.S., 43 ; African 
Game Trails, Theodore Roosevelt, Sir H. H. Johnston, 
G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 77; Linnean Society, 96, 160, 226. 
395, 496 ; First Annual Report of the Commission of 
Conservation, Canada, A. E. Crawley, no; Mitteilungen 
des Provinzialkomitees fiir Naturdenkmalpflege, A. E. 
Crawley, no; Naturdenkmalpflege und Aquarienkunde, 
R. Hermann and W. Wolterstorff, A. E. Crawley, iio; 
Naturdenkmalpflege, Prof. Giirich, A. E. Crawley, no; 
Uber Zeil u. Methode der Naturdenkmalpflege, Prof. Dr. 
B. Schaefer-Cassel, A. E. Crawley, no; Uber dos Tier- 
leben in dem von der Staatsforstverwaltung geschiitzten 
Zwergbirken-Moor in Neulinum, Dr. Th. Kuhls^atz, A. E. 
Crawley, no; Neues aus der Naturdenkmalpflege, Dr. 
W. Giinther, A. E. Crawley, no; Whale-fishery at 
Inishkea and Ely Point, Dr. Scharff, 116; Distribution 
and Migration of North American Shore-birds, W. W. 
Cooke. n6; Presence of Sanderlings on the Shores of 
Dublin Bav throughout July, A. Williams, n6 ; Bird- 
marking in the United States, L. J. Cole, 147 ; Are Bees 
Capable of Distinguishing different Colours? J. H. Lovell, 
147 ; Position of Birds' Nests in Hedges, Lt.-Col. J. H. 
Tull Walsh, 207 ; New South Wales Linnean Society, 228, 



ynture. 

Miirch 23, 191 



,] 



Index 



XXXI 



362 ; Teachers' Notes on Nature-study : Plants and 
Anima'.s, 235 ; Stray Leaves on Travel, Sport, Animals, 
and Kindred Subjects, J. C. Walter, 270; Protection 
from "White Ants" and Other Pests, Will A. Dixon, 
270 : Fur-seals of the Pribilows, Dr. F. A. Lucas, 278 ; 
Animals in Glen Garry Forest, Symington Grieve, 279 ; 
List of the Land and Fresh-water Mollusca of Ireland, 
A. W- Stelfox and Robert Welch, 296 ; a Synopsis of the 
False Scorpions of Britain and Ireland, H. Wallis Kew, 
296 ; Woodcraft for Scouts and Others, O. Jones and 
M. Woodward, 303; Philips' Nature Calendar, 1911, 304; 
the Conduct and Song of Birds, F. C. Constable, 308 ; 
Expedition to the Southern District of the Bahr-el-Ghazel 
for the Purpose of Securing the Head and Skin of 
Eland, F. C. Selous, 314; the Birds of Our Colonies 
and their Protection, James Buckland at the Royal 
Colonial Institute, 315 ; Aigrettes and Bird Skins, Hamel 
Smith, 316; Fragments of the Egg of an Ostrich 
obtained in a Nalla on the Kain River, E. Bidwell, 316; 
Scottish Natural History, T. A. Har\-ie Brown, 336 ; 
Camacinia othello, R. J. Tillyard, 362 ; Der Naturfreund 
am Strande der Adria und des Mittelmeergebietes, Prof. 
Carl I. Cori, 369 ; the Aims and Methods of Nature- 
study, Dr. John Rennie, 369 ; Life-work of the late 
Samuel Alexander Stewart, 415 ; Battersea Park as a 
Centre for Nature Study, W. Johnson, 435 ; How to Know 
the Trees, H. Irving, 435 ; Rosenkrankheiten und Rosen- 
feinde, Dr. K. Laubert and Dr. M. Schwartz, 435 ; 
Organic Response, Dr. D. T. Macdougal, 450 ; a Book 
of Nimble Beasts, D. English, 47S ; Reported Discovery 
in the Congo of a New Mammal, Dr. E. Trouessart, 481 ; 
Living Okapies, Sir Harry Johnston, 4S3 ; in Forbidden 
Seas, H. J. Snow. 408; Prof. John Milne, F.R.S., 510; 
Prof. D'.Arcy W. Thompson, 510; Habits of the Common 
American Mole, F. E. Wood and J. .A. West, 520 ; 
Practicability and Possibilities of Breeding Deer and Other 
Big Game in Confinement in the United States, D. E. 
Lantz, 549 

Natural Resources, Conservation of, in the United States, 
Charles R. Van Hise, 545 

Natural Selection, an Apparently hitherto Unnoticed Anti- 
cipation of the Theory of, H. M. Vickers, 510 

Nature, the Protection of, .\. E. Crawley, 110 

Naval Architecture : the John Fritz Medal awarded to Sir 
William H. White, K.C.B., F.R.S., 548 

Navigation : Marine Microthermograms and Influence of 
Icebergs on the Temperature of the Sea, Prof. H. T. 
Barnes, 137 ; Altitude Tables, Computed for Intervals of 
Four Minutes between the Parallels of Latitude 0° and 
30° and Parallels of Declination 0° and 24°, designed for 
the Determination of the Position-line at all Hour .Angles 
without Logarithmic Computation, F. Ball, 201 ; Re- 
searches on the Influence of Velocity on the Compass, 
Gaston Gaillard, 531 

Nebula, the Spectrum of the .American, Dr. Max Wolf, 
282 

Nebula;, Lines in the Spectra of, Dr. W. H. Wright, 454 

Nebulae, the Photography of. Dr. William J. .S. Lockyer, 
140 

Nebul.-c, Southern, Mr. Innes, 552 ; Mr. Woods, 552 ; Mr. 
Mitchell, 552 

Negro in the New World, the. Sir Harrv H. Johnston, 
G.C.M.G., K.C.B., Pro;. G. Elliot Smith.' F.R.S., 172 

Negroes of the Congo Free State and Nigeria, Certain 
Physical Characters of the, Dr. Arthur Keith at Royal 
-Anthropological Institute, 221 

Neilson (Robert M.), .Aeroplane Patents, 270 

Nelson (E. M.), a Micrometric Difficulty, 95 ; Resolution of 
New Detail in a Coscinodiscus asteroinphalus, 96 

Neogi (Panchanan), Reactions in Presence of Nickel, 130 

Neptune, the Discovery of, 87 

Neptune, the Discovery of, Leverrier's Letter to Galle, 184 

Neugebauer (Prof.), Elements and Numbers of Recently 
Discovered Minor Planets, 119 

Neumann (Prof. B.), Traits complet d 'analyse Chimique, 
appliquee aux essais industriels, 433 

New Guinea, Explorations in. Dr. H. .A. Lorentz at Royal 
Geographical Society, 490 

New South Wales Linnean Society, 22S, 362 

New^ South Wales Royal Society, 129 

New Zealand, the Maoris of, James Cowan, 109 



New Zealand, the Subantarctic Islands of, Prof. Arthur 

Dendy, F.R.S., 43 
New Zealand Survey, the, 185 
Newall (Prof. H. F., F.R.S.j, the Spectroscope and its 

Work, 300 
Newsholme (Dr. .Arthur), the Prevention of Plague, 81 ; 

Infant and Child Mortality, 556 ; Supplement to the 

Thirty-ninth Annual Report of the Local Government 

Board, 556 
Newstead (R.), Morphological Characters of the Genus 

Glossina, 279 
Nicholas (.Askin), Curious Explanation of Glacial Periods- 

of Geology, 417 
Nicholle (E. T.), Exploration of a Palseolithic Cave-dwelling, 

known as La Cotte, at St. Brelade, Jersev, 344 
Nicholls (Prof. A. G., F.R.S.), the Principles of Path- 
ology, 4 
Nicolai (Prof. Georg), Das Elektrokardigramm des gesun- 

den und kranken Menschen, 265 
Nicolardot (Paul), the Nitrous Esters of Cellulose, 34 
Nierenstein (M.), Transformation of Proteids into Fats, 427 
Nijland (Prof.), Halley's Comet, 350; Nova Lacertae, 523 
Nimble Beasts, a Book of, D. English, 478 
Nitrogen, the Afterglow of Electric Discharge in, Hon. 

R. J. Strutt, F.R.S., 439 
Nobel Prizes awarded to Paul Heyer, Profs. Van der 

Waals, Wallack and Kossel, 213 
Nordmann (Charles), Means of Determining by Colour 

Photometry the Parallaxes of a Certain Class of Stars, 

97 ; Effective Diameters of the Stars, 395 
Norris (F. Edward), the Turkestan Earthquake of January 

.3-4. 372 

Norwich and the Broads, W. Jerrold, 202 

Nova .Arae 98, 1910, Dr. Ristenpart, 218 

Nova Lacertae, Mr. Hinks, 348 ; Mr. Espin, 348, 384 ; Prof. 
.Max Wolf, 384, 453, 523, 552 ; Prof. Pickering, 384, 523 ; 
Mr. Bellamy, 384 ; Dr. Graff, 417 ; Prof. Barnard, 453 ; 
Prof. Millosevich, 453 ; Dr. Munch, 453 ; Prof. Hertz- 
sprung, 453 ; Felix de Roy, 453 ; Herr Mewes, 453 ; P. 
Idrac, 486, 523 ; Prof. Nijland, 523 ; Dr. Kuhl, 523 ^ 
P. M. Ryves, 523 

Nova .Sagittarii No 2, the Spectrum of, Leon Campbell, 
22 ; Prof. Millose.-ich, 22 ; Magnitude of. Dr. Ristenpart, 

Nova Sagittarii No. 3, H. V. 3306, Miss Cannon, 248, 552 

November Meteors, John R. Henry, 40 

Nubia, the .Archaeological Survey of. Report on the Human 
Remains, Drs. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S., and F. Wood- 
Jones, 310 

Nudibranchiate Mollusca, a Monograph of the British, with- 
Figures of the Species, Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.M.G., 133 

Nunn (Dr. T. P.), Methods of Algebra Teaching, 89 

O'Brien (James), Orchids, 470 

O'Donahue (T. .A.), Field and Colliery Sur\'eying, 405 

O'Meara (Major), Sub-marine Cables for Long-distance 
Telephone Circuits, 3S3 

Obser\atories : Observatory on Mount Vesuvius, 50 ; .Annales 
de 1 'Observatoire National d'.Athene, Demetrius Eginitis^ 
56 ; Publications of the .Allegheny Observatory, Prof. 
Schlesinger, 218; Dr. ^chlesinger and D. .Alter, 218; 
Dr. R. H. Baker, 218; the Italian Observatories. 282; 
the New Hamburg Observatory, 309 ; Scientific Memoirs 
of the Korean Meteorological Obser\atory, 341 ; the Solar 
Physics Observatory, 373 ; the United States Naval Ob- 
servatory, 418 ; the Obser\atory at Messina, Prof. J. 
Milne, F.R.S., 515 ; Reports of Meteorological Obser\-a- 
tories, 325 ; Madrid Observatory, 1902-5, 525 ; Royaf 
Magnetical and Meteorological Observatory, Batavia, 
1907, 525 ; Odessa Observatory, 1908, Prof. B. V. Stanke- 
vitsch, 525 ; Mysore, Rainfall Registration (1909). 525 

Oceanography : the Oceanographical Museum at Monaco, 
J. Y. Buchanan, F.R.S., 7 ; Inauguration of the Oceano- 
graphical Institute in Paris, 379. 413 ; the Oceano- 
graphical Institute at Paris, Dr. William S. Bruce, 513 

Ogilivie-Gordon (Mrs.), Triassic Masses above the Grbden- 
tal, 280 

Ogilvie-Grant (AV. R.), Irish Coalrit, 557 

Ohnefalsch-Richter (Dr. Max), the Incense-.AItar of Aphro- 
dite at Paphos, 323 

Okada (T.), the Rainy Season in Japan, 247 



XXXll 



Index 



[ 



Nature, 
March 23, 191 1 



Okapi, a Monosfraph of the, Sir E. Ray Lankester, K.C.B., 
F.R.S., and Dr. W. G. Ridewood, Sir H. H. Johnston, 
G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 209 

Okapi, Sir Ray Lankester's Book on the, Sir E. Ray 
Lankester, K.C.B., F.R.S., 305; Sir H. H. Johnston, 
G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 306 

Oliver (Prof. F. W.), the Pollen Chambers of Various Fossil 
Seeds, 5q 

Olsson-SefTer (Miss H.), Character of the Tuantepec 
Isthmus, its People and Resources, 549 

Oort (Dr. E. D. van), Anttrophasis Monorthonyx, 416 

Ophthalmology : Experimental and Chemical Ocular Action 
of Bitumen Dust and Vapour, H. True and C. Fleig, 65 ; 
the Prescribing of Spectacles, A. S. Percival, 467 

Optics : Education in Technical Optics, 56 ; a Micrometric 
Difficulty, E. M. Nelson, 95; Ahrens' Biliquid Prism, 
C. D. Ahrens, 124; Optical Dispersion, Dr. T. H. Have- 
lock, 192 ; Colour-blindness and the Trichromatic Theory 
of Colour-vision, Sir W. de W. Abney, 259 ; on the Sensi- 
bility of the Eye to Variations of Wave-length in the 
Yellow Region of the Spectrum, Lord Rayleigh, O.M., 
F.R.S., at Royal Society, 421 ; Delicacy Interference 
Measurements and the Means of Increasing Them, A. 
Cotton, 429 ; Magnetic Modifications of the Absorption 
and Phosphorescence Bands of Rubies and on a Funda- 
mental Question of Magneto-optics, Jean Becquerel, 463 ; 
New Convertible Balopticon Lantern, 485 ; the Principles 
and Methods of Geometrical Optics, especially as Applied 
to the Theory of Optical Instruments, Prof. J. P. C. 
Southall, 499 ; Licht und Farbe, Robert Geigel, 539 

Orbits of Several Spectroscopic Binaries, the, R. H. Baker, 
384; F. C. Jordan, 385 

Orchids, James O'Brien, 470 

Organic Analysis, Allen's Commercial, 37 

Oriental or Bubonic Plague, Prof. R. T. Hewlett, 237 

Origin of Dun Horses, Prof. J. C. Ewart, F.R.S., 40; 
Prof. James Wilson, 106 

Origin of Incense, Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, K.C.M.G., 
F.R.S., 507 

Origin of Man, the, Charles E. Benham, 336 ; Dr. Cecil 
H. Desch, 406 

Orion Nebula, Variable Stars in the, 87 

Orlich (Dr. E.), Suggestion to Balance Residual Induct- 
ance and Capacity, 282 

Ormerod (H. A.), Group of Prehistoric Sites Excavated in 
South-west Asia Minor, 23 

Ornithology : a Monograph of the Petrels (Order Tur- 
binares), F. Du Cane Godman, F.R.S., 38; Ornithological 
Notes from a South London Suburb, 1874-1909, a Sum- 
mary of Thirty-five Years' Observations, with Some Facts 
and Fancies concerning Migration, F. D. Power, Sir T. 
Digby Pigott, C.B., 44; the Tooth-billed Bower-bird 
{Scenopceetes dentirostris), S. W. Jackson, 84 ; Life of 
William MacGillivray, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.E., Ornith- 
ologist, Professor of Natural History, Marischal College 
and University, Aberdeen, William MacGillivray, 107 ; the 
Flight of Birds against the Wind, Dr. W. Ainslie Hollis, 
107 ; the Flight of Birds, Lucien Fournier, A. Mallock, 
F.R.S., 445 ; the Sailing-flight of Birds, Canon R. Abbay, 
475; F. W. Headlev, 511: A. Mallock, F.R.S., 511; 
Edward D. Hearn, 511 ; Die Vogelwarte Rossitten der 
Deutschen Ornithologischen Gesellschaft und das Kenn- 
zeichnen der \'ogel, Dr. J. Thienemann, 207 ; Aigrettes 
and Bird Skins : the Truth about their Collection and 
Export, Harold Hamel Smith, 207 ; Death of Capt. G. E. 
Shelley, 215; Birds of Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands, 
T. Ir'edale,' 228 ; Birds of Lord Howe and Norfolk 
Islands, with the Description of a New Species of Petrel, 
A. F. Basset Hull, 228 ; the Late Mr. Boyd Alexander's 
Collection of Birds presented to the British Museum, 316; 
Nature of the Colouring of the Kingfisher, F. J. Stubbs, 
316; the Book of Migratory Birds, met with on Holy 
Island and the Northumbrian Coast, to which is added 
Descriptive Accounts of Wild Fowling on the Mud Flats, 
with Notes on the General Natural History of this 
District, W. Halliday, 329 ; the Birds of Dumfriesshire — 
a Contribution to the Fauna of the Solway Area, Hugh 
S. Gladstone, 378 ; the Irish Jay, Messrs. Witherby and 
Hartert, 381 ; Protection of Useful Birds in Hungary and 
Great Britain, W. H. Shrubsole, 381 ; the British Bird- 
book, 407 ; Anurophasis monorthonyx, Dr. E. D. \'an 



Oort, 416 ; Unleitung zur Beobachtung der Vogelwelt, 
Dr. Carl Zimmer, 502 ; the Home-life of the Spoonbill! 
the Stork, and Some Herons, B. Beetham, 544 ; Austra- 
lian Birds, J. A. Leach, 557; Eggs of Certain South 
African Birds, Messrs. Bucknill and (ironvold, 557 ; Irish 
Coaltit, W. R. Ogilvie-Grant, 557 ; White-breasted British 
Cormorants, 557 ; Significance of White Markings in 
Passerine Birds, H. C. Tracy, 557 

Osborn (Prof. H. F.), a " Mummy " of the Iguanodont 
Dinosaur from the Kansas Cretaceous, 520 

Osier (Prof. W.), Man's Redemption of Man, 404 

Ostwald (W.), Die Wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen der 
analytischen Chemie, 201 ; International Language and 
Science, 269 ; Die Forderung des Tages, 298 

Oswald (Dr. F.), the Sudden Origin of New Types, 520 

Outes (Mr.), the Tierras cocidas of the Pampas Beds of 

' Argentina, 178 

Overbeck (O.), Obscure Phenomenon of Alcoholic Fermen- 
tation, 380 

Oxford, Herbert Spencer Lecture at. Evolution, Darwinian 
and Spencerian, Prof. Meldoia, F.R.S., 220 

Oysters, Storage of, in Filtered Water, M. Fabre-Domergue, 
34 

Pack-Beresford (D. R.), the Woodlice of Ireland, their 

Distribution and Classification, K-ii 
Paddock (Mr.), New Spectroscopic Binaries, 523 
Paget (Stephen), Research Defence Society, 6 
Painting : the Materials of the Painter's Craft, in Europe 
and Egypt from Earliest Times to the end of the Seven- 
teenth Century, with Some Account of their Preparation 
and Use, Dr. A. P. Laurie, 533 
Palaeobotany : Lower Cretaceous Angiosperms, Dr. M. C. 
Stopes, 139 ; Jurassic Plants from the Marske Quarry, 
Rev. G. L. Lane, 159 ; a Seed-bearing Irish Pteridosperm, 
Prof. T. Johnson, 161 ; Arctic Plants from the Valley 
Gravels of the River Lea, S. Hazzledine Warren, 206; 
Comparison of Jurassic Floras, Prof. A. C. Seward, 
F.R.S., 258; the Leaves of Calamites, H. Hamshaw 
Thomas, 496 ; the Jurassic Flora of Sutherland, Prof. 
A. C. Seward, 497 
Palaeolithic Shaft-straighteners, Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S., 

371 
Palaeontology: Fossilised Birds' Feathers from the Tertiary 
Ironstone of Redruth, Victoria, F. Chapman, 20 ; Die 
klimatischen Verhaltnisse der geologischen Vorzeit vom 
Praecambrium an bis zur Jetztzeit und ihr Einfluss auf 
die Entwickelung der Haupttypen des Tier- und Pflanzen- 
reiches. Dr. Emil Carthaus, Ivor Thomas, 36 ; Systematic 
Position and Feeding-habits of the African Jurassic Genus 
Tritylodon, and its Northern Allies Plagiaulax and 
Ptilodus, Dr. R. Broom, 48; Geological Age of the Pithe- 
canthropus of the Pluvial Period in Java, Julius Schuster, 
65 ; the Armour of Stegosaurus, F. A. Lucas, 73 ; R. L., 
73 ; the Foraminifera of the Shore-sands of .Selsey Bill, 
Sussex, E. Heron-Allen and A. Earland, 86 ; Die Rekon- 
struktion des Diplodocus, O. Abel, no; Descriptions of 
the Tertiary Polyzoa of Victoria, C. M. Maplestone, 160; 
Trilobite Fauna of Upper Cambrian Age (Olenus Series) 
in North-cast Gippsland, Victoria; F. Chapman, 160 ; 
Birthplace of Man in the Light of Palaeontological Record, 
Prof. S. W. Williston, 247 ; a Descriptive Catalogue of the 
Marine Reptiles of the Oxford Clay, based on the Leeds 
Collection in the British Museum (Natural History), 
London, Dr. C. W. Andrews, F.R.S., 264; a Guide to 
the Fossil Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fishes in the Depart- 
ment of Geology and Palaeontology in the British Museum 
(Natural History), 264 ; Bones from the Alabama Eocene, 
the Pelvis of a Zeuglodon, Dr. Lucas, 278 ; Fucoids, Otto 
M. Reis, 284 ; Anthracosiidae of the Upper Carboniferous 
Beds of Miihrisch-Ostrau, Dr. A. Schmidt, 284 ; New 
Genus and Species of Dibranchiate Cephalopod, Belemno- 
camax boweri, from the Lower Chalk (Tottenhoe Stone) 
of Lincoinshi'-e. G. C. Crick. 285 : Fossil Fishes, Bashford 
Dean, 285 ; Distribution of the Deinosauria in Time and 
through Geographical Areas, R. S. Lull, 285 ; Miocene 
Mammalia of Loeben, A. Zdarsky, 285 ; Investigation of a 
Pre-glacial or Interglacial Bone-deposit near Kronstadt, 
Franz Toula, 28,; ; Expedition to Java in Search of the 
Predecessors of the Human Race, Dr. Elbert, 285 ; Stone 
Implements found near Mar del Plata, Dr. Florentine 



March 23, 191 1 J 



Index 



XXXlll 



Ameghino, 285 ; Phylogeny of the Felidae, Dr. W. D. 
Matthew, 287 ; Dapliaenodon, R. O. Peterson, 288 ; Pose 
of the Sauropod Dinosaurs, Dr. Matthew, 288 ; Croco- 
dilean Skull from the Ceratops Beds of Wyoming, C. VV. 
(jilmore, 288 ; Skull of the Saw-billed Bird {Odontopteryx 
toliapica), B. Spalski, 288 ; Smne British Mesozoic Croco- 
diles, D. M. S. Watson, 361, 429; Der Stand unserer 
Kenntnisse vom fossilen Menschen, Prof. W. Branca, 
Prof. G. Elliot Smith, 402 ; an Institute of Human Palae- 
ontology, 412 ; the Ancient Fossil Archaeocyathus in 
.Antarctica, 415 ; Collection of Insect Remains from the 
South Wales Coalfield, Herbert Bolton, 462 ; a " Mummy " 
of the Iguanodont Dinosaur from the Kansas Cretaceous, 
Prof. H. F. Osborn, 520 

Palazzo (Prof. L.), Misure magnetiche fatte in Sardegna nel 
1892, 50 

Pallis (.Miss M.), Saline Water of Norfolk Broads, 318 

Palmer (Dr. A. Smythe), Luck of the Horse-shoe, 19 

Palmer (F.), Scheme for the Improvement of the Port of 
London, 484 

Pamphil (Georges), Issite, a New Rock in Dunite, 262 

Panama Canal in 1910, the. Dr. Vaughan Cornish at Royal 
Society of .Arts, 420 

Panton (P. N.), Influence of Bacterial Endotoxins on Phago- 
cytosis, 127 

Parasitology : Occurrence of Pentastomes in Australian 
Cattle. T. Harvey Johnston and Dr. J. Burton Cleland, 
130 ; Parasites of the Olive-fly in Tunis, Paul Marchal, 
464 

Paris Academy of Sciences, 33, 65, 97, 129, 161, 193, 227, 
261, 327, 361, 395, 429, 463, 497, 531, 565; Prize .Awards 
of the, 320; Prize Subjects Proposed by the, for 1912, 349 

Paris, The Oceanographical Institute at. Dr. William S. 
Bruce, 513 

Park (Prof. T.), Area Affected by the Tarawera Eruption in 
New Zealand in 1S86, 485 

Parker (Prof. T. J., F.R.S.), a Text-book of Zoology, 533 

Parkes (L. C), Hygiene and Public Health, 507 

Parkyn (E. A.), Darwin and the Transmission of .Acquired 
Characters, 474 

Parry (John), on Hydrogen in Iron, 6 

Passon (Dr. Max), Kleines Handworterbuch der Agrikul- 
turchemie, 164 

Pathology : the Principles of Pathology, Prof. J. G. Adami, 
F.R.S.', and Prof. A. G. Nicholls, F.R.S., 4; Death of 
Dr. D. J. B. Gernez, 18; Death of Dr. Charles Archibald 
Herter, 244 ; Practical Pathology, Prof. G. Sims Wood- 
head, 434 

Patten (Prof. C. J.), a Rare Form of Divided Parietal in the 
Cranium of a Chimpanzee, 24 

Pa\na (C. A.), Larvae of a Common Calcutta Mosquito, 
known as Toxorhynchites immisericors, 122 

Payne (Dr. J. F.), Death of, 115 

Pearson (Prof. H. W.), Desirability and Advantages of a 
South African National Botanic Garden, 451 

Pearson (Karl, F.R.S.), a Second Study of the Influence 
of Parental .Alcoholism on the Physique and .Ability of the 
Offspring, 479 ; a Preliminary Study of Extreme Alcohol- 
ism in .Adults, 479 

Pedashenko (D.), Ostracoda Collected in Issykkul by, 279 

Peet (Mr.), Megalithic Monuments and Prehistoric Culture 
in the Western Mediterranean, 445 

Pellagra, Simulium and, R. Shelford, 41 ; Dr. C. Gordon 
Hewitt, 169 

Peltier and Thomson Effects, Demonstration of, S. G. 
Starling, 512 

Penhallow (Prof. D. P.), Death and Obituary Notice of, 16 

Pennington (C. B.), Recent Fireballs, 150 

Penrose's Pictorial Annual, 401 

Percival (.A. S.), the Prescribing of Spectacles, 467 

Perot (A.), Spectroscopic Measurement of the Rotation of 

, Stars Possessing an Atmosphere, with Special Reference 
to the Sun, 129 ; Luminescence of the Mercury Arc in 
vacuo, 318 

Perrine (Charles D.), Determination of the Solar Parallax, 
287 

Perseids, the Orbit of the, Henry Dierckx, 218 

Peterson (R. O.), Daphaenodon, 288 

Pethybridge (Dr. G. H.), Bacterial Disease of the Potato 
Plant in Ireland, and the Organism Causing it, 296 ; 
Infection of Potato Plants with the Blight Fungus 



{Pbyiophthora infestans) by Means of Mycelium Derived 
Direct from the Planted Tubers, 327 

Petrels, a Monograph of the, (Order Turbinares), F. Du 
Cane Godman, F.R.S., 38 

Petrie (Dr. G. F.), Rats and Plague, 15 ; the Prevention 
of Plague, Dr. Newsholme, 81 

Petrie (Prof. W. M. Flinders, F.R.S.), Work Carried on 
by the British School in Egypt at Meydum and Memphis, 
23 ; Early Burial Customs in Egypt, 41 

Petrology : Les Roches et leurs Elements min^ralogiques, 
Ed. Jannettaz, 166 ; Tables for Calculation of Rock- 
analyses, .Alfred Harker, F.R.S., 540 

Pfaundler (L.), International Language and Science, 269 

Pflanzenreich, Das, Papaveraceae-Hypecoideae et Papaver- 
aceae-Papaveroideae, Friedrich Fedde, 302 

Pharmacy : Death of Dr. Carl S. N. Hallberg, 47 ; the 
Extra Pharmacopoeia of Martindale and Westcott, Dr. W. 
Harrison Martindale and W. Wynn Westcott, 101 ; Chroni- 
cles of Pharmacy, .A. C. Wootton, Prof. Henry G. 
Greenish, 398 ; Suggested .Adoption of Rounded-off 
.Atomic Weights, Dr. W. H. Martindale, 522 

Philip (Prof. James), Physical Chemistry, its Bearing on 
Biology and Medicine, 69 

Philips' >fature Calendar, 191 1, 304 

Philology : British Place-names in their Historical Setting, 
Edmund McClure, Rev. John Griffith, 131 ; International 
Language and Science, Profs. L. Couturat, O. Jespersen, 
R. Lorenz, W. Ostwald, aod L. Pfaundler, 269 

Philosophy : the Presentation of Reality, Dr. Helen Wode- 
house, 269: Philosophical Essays, B. Russell, F.R.S., 
331 ; Wolffsche Begriffsbeslimmungen, Prof. Julius 
Baumann, 367: Wilhelm von Humboldt's ausgewahlte 
philosophische Schriften, 367 ; Fichte, Schleiermacher, 
Steffens iiber das Wesen der Universitat, Eduard 
Spranger, 367 ; Baruch de Spinoza, Ethik, Otto Baensch, 
367 ; Encyklopadie der Philosophic, .A. Dorner, 367 ; 
Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 370 ; Schopen- 
hauer-Darwin : Pessimismus oder Optimismus, Gustav 
Weng, 403 ; Kant and his Philosophical Revolution, Prof. 
R. Si. Wenley, 404 ; the Application of Logic, .Alfred 
Sidgwick, 436 

Phosphorescence in the Sea, Remarkable Displays of. 
Commander Campbell Hep worth, 564 

Photography : Applications of the Kinematograph to 
Bacteriological Photomicrography, iq ; Curved Photo- 
graphic Plates. Prof. E. C. Pickering, 51 ; the Photo- 
graphy of Moving Objects and Hand-camera Work for 
Advanced Workers, .A. Abrahams, 102 ; Photographic 
Magnitudes of Seventy-one Pleiades Stars, .Adolf Hnatek, 
119: the Photography of Nebulae, Dr. W'illiam J. S. 
Lockyer, 140 : the Photographic Magnitudes of Stars. 
Prof.' E. C. Pickering, 181 : E. Hertzsprung, 181 ; the 
" Wellcome " Photographic Exposure Record and Diary, 
191 1, 201 ; Photograms of the Year 1910, 234: Application 
oiF the Gyroscope and of Compressed .Air to Taking Kine- 
matographic Views, G. de Proszynski, 327 ; a Primer of 
Photography, Owen Wheeler. 332 ; Easy Method of 
Treating Printing-out Paper (P.O.P.) for '.AH Kinds of 
Photography, M. J. Allen, 361 ; Penrose's Pictorial 
Annual, 401 : the British Journal Photographic .Almanac, 
191 1. 401; Spectre of the Brocken. Th. Moureux, 417; 
Photographic Determinations of Stellar Parallax, Prof. 
F. Schlesinger, 4^4 ; Sir F. Galton and Composite Photo- 
graphy, Lady Welby, 474 ; Photography in Colours, Dr. 
Geo. L. Johnson, s^q 

Photomicrography, Colour Contrast in, Messrs. Wratten 
and Wain Wright, 319 

Physics : Cours de M^anique Rationelle et Experimentelle 
sp^cialement ^rit pour les physiciens et les ing^nieurs, 
conforme au progframme du Certificat de m^anique 
rationelle. Prof. H. Bouasse, i ; Diffusion of Gaseous 
Ions. Edouard Salles, 33 ; Refrigerating Mixtures, J. 
Duclaux, 33 : Nobel Prize Awarded to Prof. J. D. van 
der Waals, 46 : Measurements of the Heat Conductivities 
of Fine Powders and the Influence of the Size of the 
Grains and the State of the Gas between them on the 
Conductivity. Prof. Smoluchowski, !;o ; the Relations 
between Chemical Constitution and some Physical 
Properties. Prof. Samuel Smiles, Dr. Arthur Harden. 
F.R.S., 6q ; Physical Chemistry, its Bearing on 
Biology and Medicine. Prof. James Philip, Dr. Arthur 



XXXIV 



Index 



Nature, 

March. 23, 191 1 



Harden, F.R.S., 69; the Elements, Sir William A. 
Tilden, F.R.S., Dr. Arthur Harden, F.R.S., 69: the 
Limiting Line of Sedimentation in Wave-stirred Areas, 
A. R. Hunt, 72 ; Elementary Treatise on Physics, 72 ; 
Conduction of Heat through Rarefied Gases, F. Soddy 
and A. J. Berry, 95 ; Chemical Physics involved in the 
Precipitation of Free Carbon from the Alloys of the 
Iron-carbon System, W. H. Hatfield, 95 ; Physical 
Society, 96, 160, 225, 530 ; Determination of the Tension 
•of a Recently Formed Water-surface, N. Bohr, 95 ; New 
Method for Producing High Tension Discharges, Prof. 
Ernest Wilson and W. H. Wilson, 96 ; Behaviour of 
Steel under Combined Static Stress and Shock, F. 
Rogers, 96 ; a Treatise on Electrical Theory and the 
Problem of the Universe, considered from. the Physical 
Point of View, with Mathematical Appendices, G. W. de 
Tunzelmann, 99 ; Introduction to Physical Chemistry, 
Prof. H. C. Jones, 103; the Cavendish Laboratory, 112; 
.a History of the Cavendish Laboratory, 1871-1910, 195; 
Mobility of the Positive Ion in Flames, S. G. Lusby, 
128 ; Mobility of the Positive Ions in Gases at Low 
Pressures, G. W. Todd, 129 ; the Blue Colour of the Sky 
and the Constant of Avogadro, Edmund Bauer and 
Marcel Moulin, 129 ; Capillarimeter for the Measurement 
of the Surface Tension of Viscous Liquids, F. Michaud, 
129 ; Effect of a Magnetic Field on the Potential Differ- 
ence Necessary to Cause a Discharge to Pass Between 
Two Electrodes in a Rarefied Gas, Prof. Righi, 149; 
Absorption of Light by the Earth's Atmosphere, Dr. 
A. W. Roberts, 149 ; Observations on the Double Refrac- 
-tion Induced by Strain in Caoutchouc, Dr. Paolo Rossi, 
140 ; Cusped Waves of Light and the Theory of the 
Rainbow, Prof. W. B. Morton, 160 ; Study of the 
'Porosity of Chamberland Filters, Francisque Grenet, 
161 ; Measurements Made on the Dispersion of Metallic 
Bodies in the Visible Spectrum, Dr. Const. Zakrzewski, 
179-180 ; Rediation from Heated Gases, Report of British 
Association Committee, 186 ; Atmospheric Oscillations, 
Horace Lamb, 192 ; Influence of Viscosity on the 
Stability of the Flow of Fluids, A. Mallock, 192 ; 
Thermoelectric Diagram from —200° to -|-ioo° C, based 
on the Experiments of Sir James Dewar and Prof. 
Fleming, J. D. Hamilton Dickson, 193 ; Dynamic Method 
for Measuring Vapour Pressures, with its Application to 
Benzene and Ammonium Chloride, Profs. Alex Smith 
and A. ^V. C. Menzies, 193 ; the Resistance of Rectan- 
gular Planes Struck Obliquely by the Wind. G. Eiffel, 
193 ; the Reversal of the Phosphorescence Bands, Jean 
Becquerel, 193 ; the Laws of Friction of Solids on Each 
Other, Miss C. Jakob, 217; the Electric Stress at which 
lonisation Begins in Air, Dr. A. Russell, 225 ; the 
Phvsical Society's Exhibition, 248; an Arrangement for 
Keeping the Cold Junction of a Clinical Recording Ther- 
mometer at a Constant Temperature, 249 ; a Simple and 
Strong Form of Vibration Galvanometer based on the 
Kelvin Galvanometer, H. Tinsley and Co., 240: Experi- 
mental Verification of the Hydrodynamical Theory of 
Temperature Seiches, E. M. Wedderburn and A. M. 
Williams, 261 ; Luminescent Tubes containing Neon, 
Georges Claude, 262 ; Some Phvsical Properties of 
Rubber, Prof. A. Schwartz and Philip Kemp, 296 ; a 
School Course of Heat, R. H. Scarlett, 303 ; die 
praktischen Schulerarbeiten in der Physik, Dr. W. Leick, 
304 : the Clarification of Liquids by the Process of 
Tanking, Rowland A. Earp, 308 ; Luminescence of the 
Mercury Arc in vacuo, M. Perot, 318; .Application of the 
Gyroscope and of Comoressed Air to Taking Kinemato- 
-graphic Views, G. de Proszynski, 327; Measurements of 
the Magnetic Properties of Iron, Steel, Nickel, and Cobalt 
at the Temperature of Liauid .'\ir. R. Beattie and H. 
'Gerrard, 347 ; Photo-elasticity, Prof. E. G. Coker, 347 ; 
Separation of Oxygen by Cold, J. Swinburne. 360 : 
Testing of Metals by the Study of the Damping of 
Vibratory Movements, O. Boudouard, 361 ; Centenary of 
the Birth of Regnault, H. Le Chatelier, 383 : the Theory 
of lonisation of Gases by Collision, Prof. John S. 
Townsend, F.R.S., 400; die experimentelle Grundlegung 
• der Atomistik, W. Mecklenberg, 403 ; Development of 
the Atomic Theory, Dr. A. N. Meldrum, 429 ; Resistance 
to the Movement of Small Non-spherical Bodies in a 
Fluid, Jacques Boselli, 429 ; Principle of Relativity, Prof. 



E. Cohn, 452 ; Prof. H. Poincar^, 452 ; Motion of Oscil- 
lating Wafer, Mrs. Hertha Ayrtori, 462 ; Dynamical 
Reaction of a Liquid Jet, U. Cisotti, 463 ; an Uncon- 
scious Forecast by Joule, B. A. Keen, 475 ; Observations 
of the Value of the Gravitational Acceleration on Board 
the American Magnetic Ship Carnegie, Dr. L. A. Bauer, 
481; ; Radio-activitv as a Kinetic Theory of a Fourth 
State of Matter, Prof. William H. Bragg, F.R.S., at 
Royal Institution, 491 ; an Improved Form of Total 
Reflectometer, A. Hutchinson, 496 ; Case of Electrostatic 
Separation, T. Crook, 496 ; Action of External Forces on 
Pressure of Saturated Vapours and the Gases Dissolved 
in a Liquid, G. Lippmann, 497 ; Existence of a Periodic 
Element in the Magneto-kathodic Radiation, M. Gouy, 
497 ; Cause of an Instrumental Error in the Measurement 
of a Base Line, R. Bourgeois, 497 ; the Density, Co- 
efficient of Expansion, and Change of \'olume on Fusion 
of the Alkaline Metals, Louis Hackspill, 497 ; Method for 
Determining the Molecular Weights of Dissolved Sub- 
stances by Measurement of Lowering of Vapour Pressure, 
Alan W. C. Menzies, 497 ; the Modus operandi of the 
Prism, Dr. George Green, 407 ; Demonstration of Peltier 
and Thomson Effects, S. G. Starling, 512 ; the Formation 
of Spheres of Liquids, Charles R. Darling, 512 ; Demon- 
stration of the Phase Difference between the Primary 
and Secondary Currents of a Transformer by Means of 
a Simple Apparatus, Prof. F. T. Trouton, .!53o ; Behaviour 
of Bodies Floating in a Free or a Forced Vortex, Prof. 
A. H. Gibson, 531 ; Mechanical Stress and Magnetisation 
of Nickel, Prof. W. Brown, 531 ; Method of Observation 
of the Trajectories Followed by the Elements of an Air 
Current Deflected by Obstacles of Variable Forms, A. 
Lafay, 532 ; Vibrations of a Pianoforte Sound-board, 
G. H. Berry, 1541 ; Theory of a New Form of Dynamo- 
meter for the Measurement of the Quantity of Electricity 
which Flows Through the Instrument, B. McCoUum, 
>:;i ; Experiments on Stream-line Motion in Curved Pipes, 
Prof. J. Eustice, 564 ; Adhesivity, A. Hanriot, 56/; ; 
Periodic Structure of the Magneto-kathode Rays, M. 
Gouy, 565 
Physiography, Elementary, Prof. R. D. Salisbury, 506 
Phvsiology : Biological Physics, Piiysic, and Metaphysic, 
Thomas Logan, 35 ; Variations in the Quantity and 
Composition of the Pancreatic Juice during Secretions 
brought about by Secretin, S. Lalou, 98 ; Preliminary 
Physiology, W. Narraniore, 103 ; Death of Prof. Angelo 
Mosso, 146; Obituary Notice of, 174; Respiratory Ex- 
changes after work has been done, Jules Amar, 161 : 
Some Causes of Sterility in Cattle, F. H. A. Marshall, 
161 ; Caponising, F. H. A. Marshall and K. J. J. 
Mackenzie, 161 ; Practical Physiological Chemistry : a 
Book designed for Use in Courses in Practical Physio- 
logical Chemistry in Schools of Medicine and of Science, 
Philip B. Hawk. 169; the Brain and the Voice in 
Speech and Song, Prof. F. W. Mott, F.R.S., Prof. 
John G. McKendrick, F.R.S., 199; the .Abuse of the Sing- 
ing and Speaking Voice, Causes, Effects, and Treat- 
ment, Prof. E. J. Moure and A. Bowver, Prof. John G. 
McKendrick, F.R.S., 199; the Voice, .Dr. W. A. Aitlten, 
Prof. John G. McKendrick, F.R.S., 199; Handbuch der 
vergleichenden Physiologie, 234 ; Colour-blindness and 
the Trichromatic Theory of Colour Vision, Sir W'. de W. 
.Abnev, 259 ; Observations on the Body Temperature of 
the Domestic Fowl during Incubation, Dr. Sutherland 
Simpson, 261 ; Contribution to the Study of the Physio- 
logical .Action of the Organic Bases, 262 ; A. Brissemoret 
and A. Joanin, 262 ; das Elektrokardigramm des 
gesunden und kranken Menschen, Prof. Friedrich Kraus 
and Prof. Georg Nicolaf, Prof. John G. McKendrick, 
F.R.S., 265 : the Metabolism and Energy Transforma- 
tions of Healthv Man during Rest, F. G. Benedict and 
T. M. Carpenter, Prof. J. S. Macdonald, 276 ; the Cells 
of the Ciliary Ganglion, Dr. Guido Sala, 270; Develop- 
ment of the Trachea in the Chick, Prof. Livini, 279 ; 
Segmentation of the Occipital Region of the Head in 
the Batrachia Urodela, E. S. Goodrich, 20.^ ; Practical 
Phvsiological Chemistry, Dr. R. H. .Aders Plimmer, 302 : 
Notes on Physiology, Dr. Henry Ashby, 304 ; Influence 
of Temoeratiire and the Electric Current on the Sensi- 
biltv of the Skin, T. V. Moore, 316; Physiological 
Significance of the Vital Coloration of Leucocytes, 



Nature, 
March 23, 191 1 



Index 



XXXV 



I 



L. Bruntz and L. Spillman, 361 ; Pharmacological Action 
of Gonioma Kamassi (South African Boxwood), Dr. 
W. E. Dixon, 427 ; Autoagglutination of Red Blood 
Cells in Trypanosomiasis, Dr. \V. Yorke, 427 ; Eliminat- 
ing Role of the Leucocytes, L. Spillman and L. Bruntz, 
429 ; Physiology the Servant of Medicine, being the 
Hitchcock Lectures for 1909, delivered at the University 
of California, Berkeley, Cal., Dr. Augustus D. Waller, 
F.R.S., Sir T. Clifford AUbutt, F.R.S., 465; the Inges- 
tion of Mineral Acids in the Dog, Henri Labr6 and 
L. Violle, 498 ; Certain Physical and Physiological Pro- 
perties of Stovaine and its Homologues, V. H. Veley 
and W. L. Symes, 529 ; Effect of some Local Anaesthe- 
tics on Nerve, W. L. Symes and V. H. Veley, 529 ; 
Comparative Measurement of Individuals of both Sexes 
from Lunatic Asylums with Normal Men and Women, 
A. Marie and M. MacAuliffe, 532 ; Death of Dr. C. 
Alexander MacMunn, 548 ; the Sinemonic Origin and 
Nature of the Affective Tendencies, Signer Rignano, 
549 ; Study of Artificial Pyrexia produced by Tetrahydro- 
(8-naphthalamine Hydrochloride, Adam Black, 565 ; the 
Independence of the Peripheral Neurons of the Retina, 
Dr. Janie Hamilton MTlroy, 565; Description of th- 
Cerebral Cortex of the Guinea-pig, Dr. Williamina Abel. 
565 ; Experiments made at Mt. Blanc in 1910 on Gastric 
Secretion at very High Altitude, Raoul Bayeux. 566 ; 
Plant Physiology, Translocation of Carbohydrates in 
Plants, S. Mangham, 48; ; a New Method for Estimating 
Gaseous Exchanges of Submerged Plants, F. F. Black- 
man and A. M. Smith, 530 ; on Assimilation in Sub- 
merged Water-plants and its Relation to the Concentra- 
tion of Carbon Dioxide and other Factors, F. F. 
Blackman and A. M. Smith, 530. 

Pianoforte Sound-board, Vibrations of a, G. H. Berrv, ^41 

Picken (Prof. D. K.), the Theory of Elementary Trigono- 
metry, 167 

Pickering (Prof. E. C), Curved Photographic Plates, 51 ; 
the Photographic Magnitudes of Stars, 181 

Pickering (Prof.), Cerulli's Comet (1910^) Identified with 
Faye's Short-period Comet. i;;i ; Nova Lacertae, 384, ^23 

Pickering (S. U.), Twelfth Report of the Woburn Experi- 
mental Fruit Farm, 71 

Pi^ron (Henri), On the Origin of Slavery and Parasitism 
in .Ants, 351 

Piersol (Prof. W. H.), Spawn and Larvae of the Salamander 
Amblysioma jeffersonianum, 279 

Pieott (Sir T. Digby, C.B.), Ornithological Notes from a 
South London Suburb, 1874-1909, a Summary of Thirtv- 
five Years' Observations, with some Facts and Fancies 
concerning Migration, F. D. Power, 44 

Pilerrim (G. E.), Correlation of the Tertiary Fresh-water 
Deposits of India, 553 

Pines of Australia, a 'Research on the, R. T. Baker and 
H. G. Smith, 46^ 

Pinoy (E.), the Form of Sporotrichum Beurmanni in 
Human Lesions, 498 

Pinro, 235 ^ ^ 

Pisciculture : Encvclopedie agricole. Pisciculture, Georges 
Gu^naux. Dr. William Wallace, 16^ 

Pizzagalli (A. M.). La Cosmogonia di Bhrgu. 452 

Plague : Rats and, G. F. Petrie. 15 ; the Prevention of. 
Dr. Newsholme, Dr. G. F. Petrie, 81 ; Oriental or 
Bubonic Plague, Prof. R. T. Hewlett, 237; Investiga- 
tions of, 476 

Planets : the Dark Band surrounding the Polar Caps of 
Mars. Prof. Lowell, 22 : Markings of Mars, James H. 
Worthington, 40; Prof. .A. M." Worthington, C.B., 
F.R.S., 372 ; Observations of Mars. E. M. .Antoniadi, 
305 : Mars and its Atmosphere, Mr. Innes and Mrs. 
H. E. Wood, 486; Prof. Campbell and Dr. Albrecht. 
j86; the Satellites of Mars, Prof. Lowell, •;^2 ; the 

^ Apparent Diameter of Juoiter, Father Chevalier. 51 ; 

' Observations of Jupiter's Galilean Satellites. Mr. Innes. 
^24 ; the Discovery of Neptune, 87 ; the Discovery of 
Neptune. Leverrier's Letter to Galle, 184 ; Elements and 
Numbers of Recently Discovered Minor Planets, Prof. 
Neugfebauer, 119; Saturn's Rings, M. Jonckheere, i:;o; 
K. Srhiller, 218; a Proiection on Saturn's Outer Rine, 
Mr. Jonckheere, 248 ; Observations of Plants, J. Hallev, 
310 

Plant .Anatomy from the Standpoint of the Development 



and Functions of the Tissues and Handbook of Micro- 
technic. Prof. \V. C. Stevens, 33: 

Plant Life in Alpine Switzerland, E. A. Newell Arber, 404 

Plant Physiology : Translocation of Carbohydrates in 
Plants, S. Mangham, 485 ; a New Method for estimating. 
Gaseous Exchanges of Submerged Plants, F. F. Black- 
man and A. M. Smith, 530; on .Assimilation in Sub- 
merged Water-plants and its Relation to the Concentra- 
tion of Carbon Dioxide and other Factors, F. F. Black- 
man and A. M. Smith, 530 

Plants for Cottage Gardens, Hardy, Helen R. Albee, 10 1 

Plaskett (Mr.), the Probable Errors of Radial-velocity 
Determination, 180 

Pleiades Stars, Photografrfiic Magnitudes of Seventy-one, 
Adolf Hnatek, 119 

Plimmer (H. G.), Further Results of Experimental Treat- 
ment of Trypanosomiasis, 64 

Plimmer (Dr. R. H. Aders), Practical Physiological 
Chemistry, 302 

Pocock (R. I.), the Song of the Siamang Gibbon, 170 

Poincare (Prof. H.), Principles of Relativity, 452 

Pollok (Dr. J. H.), Vacuum-tube Spectra of the Vapours 
of some Metals and Metallic Chlorides, 327 

Polvtechnic Institutes, the Work of. Lord Alverstone, 220 

Pope (Prof. W. J., F.R.S.), Crystal Structure and 
Chemical Composition, 551 

Post (Prof. J.), Traits complet d'Analyse Chimiquer 
appliqu^ aux essais industriels, 433 

Potoni^ (Prof. H.), die Entstehung der Steinkohle und 
der Kaustobiolithe iiberhaupt, 199 

Potter's Craft, the, F. Binns, 269 

Pottery. Science and, 411 

Potts (Dr. W. A.), Mentally Deficient Children, their 
Treatment and Training, 507 

Power (F. D.), Ornithological Notes from a South London 
Suburb, 1874-1909, a Summary of Thirty-five A'ears" 
Observations, with some Facts and Fancies concerning 
Migration, 44 

Pracka (Dr. L.), the Light Changes of Forty-nine Variable- 
Stars, 248 

Praeger (R. L.), Open-air Studies in Botany, 540 

Prager (Dr.), Elements for Faye's Comet, 1910^, 319 

Preece (G.), Notes on Applied Mechanics, 537 

Prescribing of Spectacles, the, A. S. Percival, 467 

Press Guide and Advertisers' Directory and Handboc^,.- 
Willing's. 405 

Pressland (A. J.), the Reform of Mathematical and Science 
Teaching in Germany, Lecture at Edinburgh Mathe- 
matical Societv. 125 

Price (M. P.), Exploring Upper Part of the Basin of the 
Yenesei and the Western Frontier of Mongolia. 315 

Pringsheim (Prof. E.), Vorlesungen iiber die Physik der 
Sonne, 68 

Pringsheim (Hans), die Variabilitat niederer Organismen, 
501 

Prior (Dr. G. T.). Schwartzembergite, 496 

Prize Awards of the Paris Academy of Sciences. 320 

Prbszvnski (G. de). Application of the Gyroscope and of 
Compressed Air to taking Kinematographic Views, 327 

Prout (W. T.). Lessons on Elementary Hygiene and 
Sanitation, with Special Reference to the Tropics. 270 

Psvchologv : Unconscious Memory, Samuel Butler. 3 : die 
Entwicklung des menschlichen Geistes, Max Verworn, 
39 : Reason and Belief, Sir Oliver Lodge, 201 ; 
Erkenntnistheoretische Grundziige der Naturwissen- 
schaften und ihre Beziehungen zum Geistesleben der 
Gegenwart, Paul Volkmann, 233 ; Measurement of 
Perseveration and its Value as an Index of Mental 
Character, J. Gray, 278; Medico-psychological Study of 
Prof. Henri Poincar^ undertaken by Dr. Toulouse, 
Gilbert Maire. 452 : der Begriff des Instinktes einst und 
jetzt. Prof. Heinrich Ernst Ziegler. 539 

Punnett (Prof.), Mimicrv in Ceylon Butterflies, 122 

Pwdre Ser, Edward E. Free, 6 



Ouadrantid Meteor Shower, the. T. W. Backhouse. 236 
Ouavle (E. T.). Meteorological Relationships, 55 
Ouinn (George). Fruit Tree Pruning, 2 

Quinton (M.). Form of Treatment of Wasting Diseases o^ 
A'oung Children, 416 



XXXVl 



Index 



r Nttu>e, 
L March 23, i^ii 



Rabot (Charles), Volcano in a Branch of Wood Bay, 49 

Radial-velocity Determination, the Probable Errors of, Mr. 
Plaskett, 180 

Radial-velocity Determinations, Preliminary Results 
Derived from. Prof. Campbell, 348 

Radiation from Heated Gases, Report of British Associa- 
tion Committee, 186 

Radiochemistry, A. T. Cameron, Dr. B. B. Boltwood, 165 

Radiography : New Method of Investigating the Positive 
Ravs, Sir J. J. Thomson, 128; lonisation of Heavy 
Gases by X-Rays, R. T. Beatty, 128; Action of X-Rays 
on the Developing Chick, J. F. Gaskell, 428 ; Energy 
and Distribution of Scattered Rontgen Radiation, J. A. 
Crowther, 462 ; Production and Properties of Soft 
Rontgen Radiation, R. Whiddington, 564 ; Gift of 
Radium to Radium Institute by Sir E. Cassell, 176 ; 
Radium Content of Salts of Potassium, J. Satterly, 261 ; 
Probable Chemical Properties of Radium and its Com- 
binations, M. de Forcrand, 395 ; das Radium und die 
Farben, Prof. Dr. C. Doelter, 470 ; Royal Society of 
Arts' Albert Medal presented to Madame Curie, 176; 
the Tribo Luminescence of Uranium, H. A. Kent, 244 ; 
the Distribution of Secondary Rontgen Radiation round 
a Radiator, J. A. Crowther, 261 ; Note on Scattering 
during Radio-active Recoil, Dr. W. Makower and Dr. 
S. Russ, 296 ; Charges on Ions in Gases and some 
Effects that Influence the Motion of Negative Ions, Prof. 
J. S. Townsend, 394 ; Radio-activity as a Kinetic Theory 
of a Fourth State of Matter, Prof. William H. Bragg, 
F.R.S., at Royal Institution, 491 ; the Density of Niton 
(Radium Emanation) and the Disintegration Theory, 
R. Whytlaw Gray and Sir William Ramsay, F.R.S., at 
Royal Society, 524 

Radiotherapy : Diseases of the Skin, including Radio- 
therapy and Radiumtherapy, Prof. E. Gaucher, Dr. 
A. C. Jordan, 363 

Radium, das, und die Farben, Prof. Dr. C. D. Doelter, 
470 ; see Radiography 

Raff (Janet W.), Protozoa Parasitic in the Large Intestine 
of Australian Frogs, 430 

Railway, the Transandine, Dr. John W. Evans, 219 

Rakshit (Jitendra Nath), Methylamine Nitrite, 396 

Ramsay (Sir William, F.R.S.), the Density of Niton 
(Radium Emanation) and the Disintegration Theory, 
Paper at Royal Society, 524 ; a Perpetual Calendar, 540 

Ranken (H. S.), Further Results of Experimental Treat- 
ment of Trypanosomiasis, 64 

Ransome (F. L.), Notes on some Mining Districts in 
Humboldt County, Nevada, 420 

Rathbun (Miss), Stalk-eyed Crustaceans from the Coast of 
Peru, 84 

Rats and Plague, G. F. Petrie, 15 

Ravenhill (.'Mice), Household Foes, 5 

Rav (P. C), Methvlamine Nitrite, 396 

Rayleigh (Lord, O'.M., F.R.S.), on the Sensibility of the 
Eye to Variations of Wave-lengths in the Yellow Region 
of the Spectrum, Lecture at Royal Society, 421 

Reality, the Presentation of. Dr. Helen Wodehouse, 269 

Reason and Belief, Sir Oliver Lodge, 201 

Recknagel (Mr.), some Mineral Deposits in the Rooiberg 
District, 5154 

Reed (F. R. Cowp>er), Distribution of Life in Pre- 
Carboniferous Life-provinces, 553 

Reed (J. H.), Cotton Growing within the British Empire, 
-Address at Royal Geographical Society, 184 

Rees (Bertha), Structure of the Seed Coats of Hard Seeds 
and their Longevity, 430 

Regan (Tate), Evolution of the Flat-fishes, 6,1:; 

Reichert (Prof. E. T.), the Differentiation and Specificity of 
Corresponding Proteins and other Vital Substances in 
Relation to Biological Classification and Organic Evolu- 
tion and the Crystallography of Haemoglobins. c;7 

Reid (Clement"), Correlation of the Bovey Beds with the 
Lignites of the Rhine, 387 

Reis (Otto M.), Fucoids, 284 

Reitz (Prof. H. L.), College Algebrn. 3*^8 

Remsen (Prof. Ira), a College Text-book of Chemistry. 70 

Renard (Captain Paul), Methods of Finding the Height of 

an .Mrship, 21 
Rennie (Dr. John), the Aims and Methods of Nature-study, 
369 



Reptiles of the World, Tortoises and Turtles, Crocodiles, 
Lizards, and Snakes of the Eastern and Western Hemi- 
spheres, R. L. Ditmars, 196 

Research : Research Defence Society, 6, 449 ; Stephen 
Paget, 6 ; a Suggested Research Fund for Tropical 
Diseases, 28 ; Modern .Scientific Research, Sir William A. 
Tilden, F.R.S., at Vescy Club, 29; Instruction in 
Methods of Research, W. P. Dreaper, 73 ; the Claims of 
Scientific Research, Lord Robson at Royal Society, 183 

Reviews and Our Bookshelf. 

Cours de Mecanique Rationelle et Expcrimcntale, Sp^ciale- 
ment 6crit pour les physiciens et les ing^nieurs, conforme 
au programme du certificat de mecanique rationelle. Prof. 
H. Bouasse, 1 

Sketch of a Course of Chemical Philosophy, Stanislao 
Cannizzaro, 2 

Fruit Tree Pruning, George Quinn, 2 

Unconscious Memory, Samuel Butler, 3 

Faune des Mammif^res d'Europe, Prof. E.-L. Troues- 
sart, 3 

The Principles of Pathologv, Prof. J. G. Adami, F.R.S., 
Prof. A. G. NichoUs, F.R.S., 4 

Household Foes, Alice Ravenhill, 5 

Historv of Chemistry, Sir Pldward Thorpe, C.B., F.R.S., ^ 

A Course of Elementary Science, Practical and Descrip- 
tive, John Thornton, s, 

The Brooks Patent T-square Lock, :; 

Changes in Bodilv Form of Descendants of Immigrants, 
Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S., 11 

Biological Physics, Physic, and Metaphysic, Thomas Logan, 

35 
The Teaching Botanist, Prof. W. F. Ganong, 36 
Die Klimatischen Verhaltnisse der geologischen Vorzeit 

vom Praecambrium au bis zur Tetztzeit und ihr Einfluss 

auf die Entwickelung der Haupttypen des Tier- und 

Pflanzenreiches, Dr. Emil Carthaus, Ivor Thomas, 36 
Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis, 37 
Das Svstem der Biologic in Forschung und Lehre, Dr. Phil. 

S. Tschulok, 37 
A Monograph of the Petrels (Order Tubinares), F. Du 

Cane Godman, F.R.S., 38 
Eugenics, the Science of Human Improvement by Better 

Breeding, C. B. Davenport, 30 
The Book of the Dry Fly, G. A. B. Dewar, -jq 
Die Entwickelung des menschlichen Geistes, Max Verworn, 

3Q 
The British Empire in Pictures, H. Clive Barnard, 39 
The Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand, Reports on the 

Geo-phvsics, Geologv, Zoology, and Botany of the Islands 

Lviner to the South of Zealand, Prof. Arthur Dendv, 

F.R.S., Ai, 
Ornithological Notes' from a South London Suburb, 1874- 

iqoo, a Summary of Thirty-five Years' Observations, 

with some Facts and Fancies concerning Migration, 

F. D. Power. Sir T. Digbv Pigott, C.B., 44 
Annales de I'Observatolre National d'Athfenes, public par 

Dem6trius Eginitis, 56 
The Differentiation and Specificity of Corresponding 

Proteins and other Vital Substances in Relation to 

Biological Classification and Organic Evolution and the 

Crystallographv of Hjemoglobins, Prof. E. T. Reichert 

and Prof. A. P. Brown, 1^7 
Die Chemie der Cellulose unter b^sonderer Beriicksichtigung 

der Textil- und Zellstoffindustrien, Prof. Carl G. 

Schwalbe, 67 
Descriptive Meteorology. Prof. Willis L. Moore, 68 
Les TWories Modernes du Soleil, J. Bosler, 68 
Vorlesungen iiber die Physik der Sonne, Prof. E. Pring- 

sheim, 68 
The Elements. Speculations f s to their Nature and Origin, 

Sir William A. Tilden, F.R.S., Dr. Arthur Harden, 

F.R.S., 6q 
The Relations between Chemical Constitution and some 

Phvsical Properties. Prof. Samuel Smiles, Dr. Arthur 

Harden. F.R.S.. 60 
Phvsical Chemistrv. its Bearing on BiolofTy and Medicine, 

Prof. James C. Philio. Dr. Arthur Harden, F.R.S., 69 
\ College Text-book of Chemistry, Prof. Ira Remsen, 70 
Outlines of Chemistrv. Prof. Louis Kahlenberg, 70 



Suture. 
March 23, 



I 19" J 



Index 



XAXVll 



Super-organic Evolution, Nature and the Social Problem, 

Dr. E. Lluria, 71 
The Romance of Modern Astronomy, describing in Simple 

but Exact Language the Wonders of the Heavens, Hector 

Macpherson, jun., 71 
The Practice of Soft Cheesemaking, C. W. Walker-Tisdale 

and T. R. Robinson, 71 
Twelfth Report of the \Voburn Experimental Fruit Farm, 

Duke of Bedford, K.G., F.R.S., and S'. U. Pickering, 71 
Elementary Treatise on Physics, Dr. E. Atkinson, 72 
Dunkelfeldbeleuchtung und Ultramikroskopie in der Bio- 
logic und in der Medizin, N. Gaidukov, 72 
African Game Trails, Theodore Roosevelt, Sir H. H. John- 
ston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 77 
On the Electricity of Rain and its Origin in Thunder- 
storms, Dr.. George C. Simpson, Dr. C. Chree. F.R.S., 80 
A Treatise on Electrical Theory and the Problem of the 

Universe, considered from the Physical Point of View, 

with Mathematical Appendices, G. W. de Tunzelmann, qq 
The Deinbardt-Schlomann Series of Technical Dictionaries 

in Six Languages, Alfred Schlomann, oq 
Principles of Chemical Geology, Dr. J. \'. Elsden, 100 
Hardy Plants for Cottage Gardens, Helen R. Albee, loi 
The Extra Pharm-icopoeia of Martindale and Westcott, loi 
An Open Creel, H. T. Sheringham, 102 
The Photography of Moving Objects and Hand-camera 

Work for Advanced Workers, A. Abrahams, 102 
Der Sternenhimmel, Prof. J. D. Messerschmitt, 102 
Introduction to Physical Chemistry, Prof. H. C. Jones, 103 
Preliminary Physiology, W. Narramore, 103 
The Invicta Table Book, J. W. Ladner, 103 
Life of William MacGilli%ray, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.E., 

Orninthologist Professor of Natural History, Marischal 

College and University, Aberdeen, William MacGillivrav, 

107 ' 

The Maoris of New Zealand, James Cowan, loq 
Die Rekonstruktion des Diplodocus, O. Abel, no 
First Annual Report of the Commission of Conservation, 

Canada, A. E. Crawley, no 
Mitteilungen des Provinzialkomitees fur Naturdenkmal- 

pflege, A. E. Crawley, no 
Xaturdenkmalpflege und Aquarienkunde, R. Hermann and 

W. WolterstorfT, A. E. Crawley, no 
Xaturdenkmalpflege, Prof. Giirich, A. E. Crawley, no 
L'ber Zeil u. Methode der Xaturdenkmalpflege, Prof. Dr. B. 

Schaefer-Cassel, A. E. Crawley, no 
L'ber das Tierleben in dem von der Staatsforstverwaltung 

geschiitzten Zwergbirken-Moor in Neulinum, Dr. Th. 

Kuhlgatz, A. E. Crawley, no 

Xeues aus der Xaturdenkmalpflege, Dr. W. Gunther, A. E. 

Crawley, no 
Water Requirements of Crops in India, J. W. Leather, 

Dr. E. J. Russell, in 
Homo aurignacensis Hauseri, ein palaeolithischer Skelett- 

fund aus dem unteren Aurignacien der Station Combe 

capelle bei Montferrand (P^rigord), H. Klaatsch und O. 

Hauser, Richard X. Wegner, iiq 
Die Aurignac-Rasse und ihre Stellung im Stammbaum der 

Menschheit, H. Klaatsch, Richard N. Wegner, 119 
Quinquennial Review of the Mineral Production of India 

during the Years iqo4-8. Sir Thomas H. Holland, 

K.C.I.E., F.R.S., and Dr. L. Leigh Fermor, Prof. H. 

Louis, 121 
British Place-names in their Historical Setting, Edmund 

McClure, Rev. John Griffith, 131 
Die Alkaloide, Prof. E. Winterstein and Dr. G. Trir, 131 
Manual of Gardening, L. H. Bailey, 132 
A ^lonograph of the British Xudibranchiate Mollusca. with 

Figures of the Species, Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.M.G., 

133 
Wild Flowers of the British Isles, H. Isabel Adams, 134 
Echinoderma of the Indian Museum, Prof. Ren6 Kochler. 

134 
Practical Electrical Engineering for Elementary Students, 

W. S. Ibbetson, 135 
Practical Electricity and Magnetism, R. Elliott Steel, 13-; 
Elementary Experimental Electricity and Magnetism, W. T. 

Clough,'i35 
The Calculus for Beginners, J. W. Mercer, 136 
A Text-book of Organic Chemistry, Prof. A. F. Holleman, 

136 



A Popular Guide to the Heavens, Sir Robert 5. Bali, 

F.R.S., 136 
Catalogue of Hardy Trees and Shrubs growing in the 

Grounds of Syon House, Brentford, A. B. Jackson, 136 
The Essentials of Histology, Descriptive and Practical, for 

the Use of Students, Prof. E. A. Schafer, F.R.S., 137 
The Charm of the Road, England and Wales, James J. 

Hissey, 137 
Report to the Local Government Board on the Enteric 

Fever "Carrier," Dr. J. C. G. Ledingham, 145 
Encyclop^ie agricole. Pisciculture, Georges Gu^naux, Dr. 

William Wallace, 163 
Kleines Handworterbuch der Agrikulturchemie, Dr. Max 

Passon, Dr. E. J. Russell, 164 
Radio-chemistry, .A. T. Cameron, Dr. B. B. Bolt wood, i^ - 
Egyptological Researches, W. Ma.x Miiller, 165 
Les Roches et leurs Elements mineralogiques : Descriptior. 

Analyses Microscopiques, Structures, Gisements, Ed. 

Jannettaz, 166 
The Public School Geometry, F. J. W. Whipple, 167 
The Student's Matriculation Geometry, S. Gangopddhvdva, 

167 
First Stage Mathematics, 167 

Second Stage Mathematics (with Modern Geometry), 167 
Conic Sections, S. Gangopddhydya, 167 
Public School .Arithmetic, W. Si. Baker, A. A. Bourne, 167 
A School Algebra, H. S. Hall, 167 
Elements of .Algebra, A. Schultze, 167 
The Theory of Elementary Trigonometry, Prof. D. K. 

Picken, 167 
Milch und Molkereiprodukte. ihre Eigenschaften Zusam- 

mensetzung und Gewinnung, Dr. Paul Sommerfeld, 168 
Theoretical Mechanics, P. F. Smith, W. R. Longley, 169 
The .Anatomy of the Honey Bee, R. E. Snodgrass, i6q 
Practical Physiological Chemistry, Philip B. Hawk, i6r» 
The Xegro in the Xew World, Sir Harrv H. Johnston, 

G.C.M.G., K.C.B., Prof. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S., 172 
.A Preliminary Study of Chemical Denudation, F. W. 

Clarke, 173 
The Age of the Earth, G. F. Becker, 173 
.A Historv of the Cavendish Laboratory, 1871-1910, iq.; 
Reptiles of the World, Tortoises and Turtles. Crocodilians, 

Lizards and Snakes of the Eastern and Western Hemi- 
spheres, R. L. Ditmars, 196 
Lecons sur le Calcul des Variations. Prof. J. Hadamard, 

iq7 
Hydroelectric Developments and Engineering, F. Koester, 

Stanley P. Smith, 198 
Die Entstehung der Steinkohle und der Kaustobiolithe 

iiberhaupt. Prof. H. Potonie, iqq 
The Brain and the Voice in Soeech and Song, Prof. F. W. 

Mott. F.R.S., Prof. John G. McKendrick, F.R.S.. 100 
The .Abuse of the Singing and Speaking Voice: Causp<, 

Eff^ects, and Treatment. Prof. E. J. Moure, A. Bowy*^r, 

Prof. John G. McKendrick, F.R.S., iqq 
The Voice : an Introduction to Practical Phonolofn.-, Dr. 

W. A. Aitken, Prof. John G. McKendrick, F.R.S.. loq 
Die Wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen der analytischen 

Chemie. W. Ostwald, 201 
The " Wellcome " Photographic Exposure Record and 

Diary, iqn. 201 
Reason and Belief, Sir Oliver Lodge, 201 
Altitude Tables, Comouted for Inter\-als of Four Minutes 

between the Parallels of Latitude rP and 30° and 

Parallels of Declination 0° and 24°. designed for the 

Determination of the Position-line at all Hour Angles 

without Logarithmic Comoutation. F. Ball, 201 
Metallography Applied to Siderurgic Products, Humbert 

Savoia, 202 
Researches upon the Atomic Weigfhts of Cadmium, 

Manganese, Bromine, Lead, .Arsenic, Iodine, Silver, 

Chromium, and Phosphorus. G. P. Baxter, 202 
Practical Measurements, .A. W. Siddons, A. Vassall. 202 
Thp Year-book of the Scientific and Learned Societies of 

Great Britain and Ireland, 202 
Cambridge, X. Barwell. 203 
Norwich and the Broads, W. Jerrold, 202 
The Heart of Wessex. S. Heath. 202 
Di° Voeelwarte Rossitten der Deutschen Ornitholos^ischen 

G°sellschaft und das Kennzeichnen der Vogel. Dr. J. 

Thienemann, 207 



XXXVlil 



Index 



Nature, 
March 23, 1911 



Aigrettes and Bird-skins : the Truth about their Collection 

and Export, Harold Hamel Smith, 207 
A Monograph of the Okapi, Sir E. Rav Lankester, K.C.B., 

F.R.S., Dr. W. G. Ridewood, SiV H. H. Johnston, 

G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 209 
Home Office, Mines and Quarries, Prof. Henry Louis, 211 
The Broad Stone of Empire, Problems of Crown Colony 

Administration, with Records of Personal Experience, Sir 

Charles Bruce, G.C.M.G., 229 
Miscroscopy : the Construction, Theory, and Use of the 

Microscope, E. J. Spitta, 230 
A Treatise on the Geometry of Surfaces, .\. B. Basset, 

F.R.S., 231 
American Meat and its Influence upon the Public Health, 

Dr. Albert Leffingwell, 232 
EMe Untersuchungs-Methoden des Eisens und Stahls, Dr. 

A. Rudisiile, Prof. H. C. H. Carpenter, 233 
Erkenntnistheoretische Grundziige der Naturwissen- 

schaften und ihre Beziehungen zum Geistesleben der 

Gegenwart, Paul Volkmann, 233 
Photograms of the Year 1910 : Typical Photographic Pic- 
tures Reproduced and Criticised, 234 
The " Code " School Garden and Nature Notebook, 234 
Handbuch der vergleichenden Physiologic, 234 
Guide to the British Vertebrates Exhibited in the Depart- 
ment of Zoology, British Museum (Natural History), 234 
The Sea-kings of Crete, Rev. James Baikie, 235 
Pinro, 235 

Teachers' Notes on Nature-study : Plants and Animals, 235 
The Scientist's Reference Book and Pocket Diary for 191 1, 

235 
Accidents of an Antiquary's Life, D. G. Hogarth, 238 
The Milling and Baking Qualities of Indian Wheat, Albert 

Howard and Gabrielle L. C. Howard, 249 
The Influence of Environment on the Milling and Baking 
Qualities of Wheat in India, Albert Howard, H. M. 
Leake, and Gabrielle L. C. Howard, 249 
Wheat in India : its Production, Varieties, and Improve- 
ments, Albert Howard and Gabrielle L. C. Howard, 249 
Climate of the Argentine Republic, W. G. Davis, 250 
The Prevention of Malaria, Major Ronald Ross, C.B., 

F.R.S., 263 
A Descriptive Catalogue of the Marine Reptiles of the 
Oxford Clay, based on the Leeds Collection in the 
British Museum (Natural Historv), Dr. C. W. Andrews, 
F.R.S., 264 
A Guide to the Fossil Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fishes in 
the Department of Geology and Palaeontology in the 
British Museum (Natural History), 2^4 
Das Elektrokardiogramm des gesunden und Kranken 
Menschen, Prof. Friedrich Kraus and Prof. Georg 
Nicolai, Prof. John G. McKendrick. F.R.S., 265 
The Tribe and Intertribal Relations in Australia, G. C. 

Wheeler, 267 
Two Representative Tribes of Queensland, with an Inquiry 
concerning the Origin of the Australian Race, J. Mathew, 
267 
Veronica prostrata L., Teucrium L., und austriaca L. nebst 
einem anhang iiber deren nachste verwandte. Dr. Bruno 
Watzl, 267 
A Course of Drawing for the Standards, J. W. T. Vinall, 

268 
Natural and Common Objects in Primary Drawing, with 
Full Directions as to their Use, J. W^ T. Vinall, 26S 
Iron and Steel Analvsis. A. Campion, 268 
The Potter's Craft, F. Binns, 260 
Heroes of tfce Elizabethan Age. E. Gilliat. 260 
International Language and Science, Profs. L. Conturat, 
O. Jespersen, R. Lorenz, W. Ostwald, L. Pfaundler, 269 
Internaciona Mat^matikal Lexiko en Ido, Germana, Angla, 

Franca e Italiana, Dr. Louis Conturat. 269 
The Presentation of Reality, Dr. Helen Wodehouse, 260 
Lessons on Elementary Hvgiene and Sanitation, with 

Special Reference to the Trop'xs, W. T. Prout, 270 
.Aeroplane Patents, Robt. M. Neilson, 270 
Strav Leaves on Travel, Sport, Animals, and Kindred 

Subiects, J. C. Walter, 270 
1200 Mining Evamination Questions, 270 
Chez les Francais, 270 

Excavations on the Island of Psehra, Crete, Richard B. 
Seager, H. R. Hall, 272 



The Encyclopaedia of Sport and Games, 274 

Gleanings from Fifty Years in China, A. Little, 275 

The Metabolism and Energy Transformations of Healthy 

Man during Rest, F. G. Benedict and T. M. Carpenter, 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, 276 
MedusEe of the World, Alfred Goldsborough Mayer, 285 
Determination of the Solar Parallax, Charles D. Perrine, 

The Coming of Evolution : the Story of a Great Revolu- 
tion in Science, Prof, J. W. Juddii C.B,, F.R.S., Prof. 
R. Meldola, F.R.S., 297 

Educational .Aims and Efforts, 1880-1910. Sir Philip 
Magnus, M.P., 298 

Die Forderung des Tages, Wilhelm Ostwald, 299 

Industrial England in the Middle of the Eighteenth 
Century, Sir H. Trueman Wood, 299 

The Spectroscope and its Work, Prof. H. F. Newall, 
F.R.S., 300 

Metallography, Dr. Cecil H. Desch, Prof. A. McWilliam, 
301 

Practical Physiological Chemistry, Dr. R. H. Aders 
Plimmer, 302 

Das Pflanzenreich, Regni Vegetabilis Conspectus. 
Papaveraceae-Hypecoideae et Papaveraceae-Papaveroideae, 
Friedrich Fedde, 302 

Woodcraft for Scouts and Others, O. Jones, M. Woodward, 

303 

A School Course of Heat, R. H. Scarlett, 303 

Die praktischen Schulerarbeiten in der Physik, Dr. W. 
Leick, 304 

Who's Who, 191 1, 304 

The Writers' and Artists' Year Book, 304 

The Englishwoman's Year Book and Directory, 304 

Notes on Physiology, Dr. Henry Ashby, 304 

The Stars from Year to Year, with Charts for every 
Month, H. Periam Hawkins, 304 

The Star Calendar for 191 1, 304 

The Star Almanac for 191 1, H. Periam Hawkins, 304 

The Medical Directory, 191 1, 304 

Philip's Nature Calendar, 1911, 304 

The Archaeological Survey of Nubia, Report on the 
Human Remains, Drs. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S., and 
F. Wood Jones, 310 

The Book of Migrator>' Birds, met with on Holy Island 
and the Northumbrian Coast, to which is added Descrip- 
tive Accounts of Wild Fowling on the Mud Flats, with 
Notes on the General Natural History of this District, 
W. Halliday, 329 

Theoretical Principles of the Methods of Analytical Chem- 
istry based upon Chemical Reactions, Prof. M. G. 
Chesneau, Dr. H. M. Dawson, 330 

k Monograph of the Culicidae or Mosquitoes, mainly Com- 
piled from Collections Received at the British Museum, 
Fred V. Theobald, 330 

Philosophical Essays, B. Russell, F.R.S., 331 

Heredity in the Light of Recent Research, L. Doncaster, 
331 

The Tomb of Two Brothers, Miss M. A. Murray, 332 

A Primer of Photography, Owen Wheeler, 332 

Round the Year with " the Stars, Garrett P. Serviss, 

333 
Anecdotes of Big Cats and other Beasts, David Wilson, 

333 
The Life Story of a Tiger, Lt.-Col. A. F. Mockler-Ferry- 

man, 333 
Anton Dohrn : Gedacht nisrede gehalten auf dem Inter- 

nationalen Zoologen-Kongress in Graz am 18 August, 

1910, Prof. Th. Boveri, 334 
Fly-leaves from a Fisherman's Diary, Captain G. E. 

Sharp, 334 
Mating, Marriage, and the Status of Woman, James Corin, 

334 
Mother and Child, L. M. Marriott, 334 
The Modern Geometry of the Triangle. W. Gallatly, 335 
Paul Appell : Biographie. Bibliographie analytique des 

Ecrits, Ernest Lebon, 335 
A Flower Anthology, 335 
Hazell's .Annual for 1911, 335 
Plant -Anatomy from the Standpoint of the Develooment 

and Functions of the Tissues and Handbook of Micro- 

technic, Prof. W. C. Stevrns. 335 



March 23, 191 1 J 



Index 



xxxix 



The Annual of the British School at Athens, H. R. Hall, 

339 
Scientific Memoirs of the Korean Meteorological Observa- 
tory, 341 
Diseases of the Skin, including Radiotherapy and Radium- 
therapy, Prof. E. Gaucher, Dr. \. C. Jordan, 363 
Geographical Essays, Prof. \V. M. Davis, 364 
Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis, 365 
Dioptrographic Tracings in Four Normal of Fifty-two 

Tasmanian Crania, Prof. R. J. \. Berry, .\. \V. D. 

Robertson, 366 
Wolffsche Begriffsbestimmungen, ein Hilfsbiichlein beim 

Studium Kants, Prof. Julius Baumann, 367 
Wilhelm von Humboldts ausgewahlte philosophische 

Schriften, 367 
Fichte, Schleiermacher, Steflens iiber das Wesen der 

Universitat, Eduard Spranger, 367 
Baruch de Spinoza, Ethik, Otto Baensch, 367 
Encvklopadie der Philosophie, \. Dorner, 367 
College Algebra, Prof. H. L. Reitz and A. R. Crathorne, 

368 
Trigonometry, Prof. A. G. Hall, F. G. Frink, 36S 
First Course in Calculus, Prof. E. J. Townsend, Prof. 

G. A. Gk)odenough, 368 
Der Naturfreund am Strande der Adria und des Mittel- 

meergebietes, Prof. Carl I. Cori, 369 
The Aims and Methods of Nature-study, Dr. John Rennie, 

369 
An Introduction to Biology for Students in India, Prof. 

R. E. Lloyd, 370 
Botany for High Schools, Prof. G. F. .\tkinson, 370 
Proceedings of the .Aristotelian Society, 370 
Hausliche Blumenpflege, eine Anleitung zur Pflege der 

dankbarsten Zimmer- und Balkon-Pflanzen, Paul F. F. 

Schulz, 370 
Flashes from the Orient, or a Thousand and One Morn- 
ings with Poesy, John Hazelhurst, 371 
The Birds of Dumfriesshire — a Contribution to the Fauna 

of the Solway .Area, Hugh S. Gladstone, 378 
American Men of Science, 397 
Leading .American Men of Science, 397 
Chronicles of Pharmacy, .A. C. Wotton, Prof. Henry G. 

Greenish, 398 
A Text-book of Botanv for Colleges and L'niversities, 

Prof. J. M. Coulten, Prof. C. R." Barnes, Prof. H. C. 

Cowles, 399 
Leitfaden fiir das Zoologische Praktikum, Prof. Willy 

Kiikenthal, 400 

The Theory of lonisation of Gases by Collision, Prof. 

John S. Townsend. F.R.S., 400 
Penrose's Pictorial Annual, 401 

The British Journal Photographic Almanac, 1911, 401 
Geologische Charakterbilder, Grosse erratische Blocke im 

norddeutschen Flachlande. F. Wahnschafife, das Karst- 

phanomen, A. Grund, 402 
Der Stand unserer Kenntnisse vom fossilen Menschen, 

Prof. W. Branca. Prof. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S., 402 
Schopenhauer-Darwin, Pessimismus oder Optimismus, 

Gustav Weng, 403 
Die experimentelle Grundlegung der .Atomistik, \V. 

Mecklenberg, 403 
Kant and his Philosophical Revolution, Prof. R. M. 

Wen ley, 404 
Plant Life in .Alpine Switzerland, being an .Account in 

Simple Language of the Natural Histon.- of .Alpine 

Plants, E. A. Newell .Arber, 404 
Index to Desor's Synopsis des Echinids Fossiles. Dr. F. .A. 

Bather, F.R.S., 404 
Man's Redemption of Man, Prof. W. Osier. F.R.S.. 404 
Weather Instruments and How to Use Them, D. W. 

Horner, 405 
Willing's Press Guide and .Advertisers' Directory and 

Handbook, 191 1, 405 
Field and Colliery Surveying. T. .A. O 'Donahue. 405 
Solutions of the Examples in an Elementary Treatise on 

Conic Sections by the Methods of Coordinate Geometry, 

Charles Smith, 405 
La Metallc^raphie appliqu^ aux produits Siderurgiques. 

U. Savoia, 405 
Key to Hail and Stevens's School .Arithmetic, L. W. 

Grenville, 405 



The British Bird-book, 407 

British Bird's Eggs, .A. F. Lydon, 408 

in Forbidden Seas, H. J. Snow, 408 

Mineral Deposits of the Cerbat Range, Black Mountains, 

and Grand Wash Cliflfs, Mohave County, Arizona, F. C. 

Schrader, 420 
Iron Ores, Fuels, and Fluxes of the Birmingham District, 

.Alabama, E. F. Burchard, C. Butts, Edwin C. Eckel, 

420 
The Mercurj- Minerals from Terlingua, Te.\as, W. F. 

Hillebrand, W. T. Schaller, 420 
.A Reconnaissance of some Mining Camps in Elko, Lander, 

and Eureka Counties, Nevada, W. H. Emmons, 420 
The Innoko Gold-placer District, .Alaska, with .Accounts 

of the Central Kuskokwim \"alley and the Ruby Creek 

and Gold Hill Placers, .A. G. Maddren, 420 
A Reconnaissance of the Gypsum Deposits of California, 

with a Note on Errors in the Chemical .Analysis of 

Gypsum, George Steiger, F. L. Hess, 420 
Notes on some Mining Districts in Humboldt County, 

Nevada, F. L. Ransome, 420 
The Value of Public Coal Lands, the Value of Coal Land, 

G. H. Ashley ; Depth and Minimum Thickness of Beds 

as Limiting Factors in Valuation, C. .A. Fisher, 420 
The Encyclooaedia Britannica, 431 
Solenoids, Electromagnets, and Electromagnetic Windings, 

Charles R. Underbill, Prof. Gisbert Kapp, 432 
Traits complet d'analyse Chimique, appliqu^e aux essais 

industriels. Prof. J. Post, Prof. B. Neumann, C. Sim- 

monds, 433 
Practical Patholog>-, Prof. G. Sims Woodhead, 434 
The Collected ^iathematical Papers of James Joseph 

Sylvester, F.R.S., 434 
Battersea Park as a Centre for Nature Study, W. Johnson, 

435 
How to know the Trees, H. Irving, 435 
Rosenkrankheiten und Rosenfeinde, Dr. K. Laubert, Dr. 

M. Schwartz, 435 
Exercises in Metal Work, .A. T. J. Kersey, 436 
.A Lecture on Mendelism, Dr. H. Drinkwater, F.R.S., 436 
The .Application of Logic, .Alfred Sidgwick, 436 
Vergiftungen durch Pflanzen und Pflanzenstoffe : ein 

Grundriss der vegetalen Toxikologie fiir praktische 

.Aerzte, .Apotheker und Botaniker, Dr. F. Kanngiesser, 

Henry G. Greenish, 436 
Papers of the British School at Rome, 445 
Stock-breeding and .Agriculture in 1908, 455 
Live Stock and Agricultural Census of the .Argentine 

Republic, May, 1908, 455 
Metabolism in Diabetes Mellitus, F. G. Benedict. E. P. 

Joslin, Prof. J. p. Macdonald, 4.:;^ 
Die Eiszeit auf Korsika und das Verhalten der exogenen 

Naturkrafte seit dem Ende der Diluvialzeit, Dr. Roman 

Lucerna, 456 
Physiology- the Servant of Medicine, being the Hitchcock 

Lectures for 1909, delivered at the LTniversity of Cali- 
fornia. Berkelev, Dr. Ausrustus D. Waller, F.R.S., Sir 

T. ClififoKl .Allbutt. K.C.B.. F.R.S., 465 
.A Research on the Pines of .Australia, R. T. Baker, H. G. 

Smith, 465 
.A Manual of Practical Inorganic Chemistn.-, Dr. K. M. 

Kellas, 466 
The Prescribiasr of Spectacles, .A. S. Percival, 467 
The Fauna of'British India, including Ceylon and Burma : 

Coleoptera. Lamellicornia, Cetoniinae, and Dynastinae, 

G. J. .Arrow, 467 
Electric Motors. Henr>- ^L Hobart. Stanley P. Smith, 468 
Lehrbuch der Geologic von Deutschland, Prof. J. Walther, 

Prof. Grenville A. J. Cole, 468 
Geolop-ie von Deutschland und den angrenzenden Gebieten, 

Prof. R. Lepsius, Prof. Grenville .A. J. Cole. 468 
Geologie von Ostpreussen, Prof. .A. Tornquist, Prof. Gren- 
ville A. J. Cole. 468 
Orchids. James O'Brien, 470 
Practical Mathematics and Geometry, E. L. Bates. 

F. Charlesworth, 470 
Introduction i la M^tallographie Microscopique, Prof. P. 

Goerens, 470 
na« Radium und die Farben. Prof. Dr. C. Doelter. 470 
.A Book of Nimble Beasts. D. English, 478 
.A Second Study of the Influence of Parental .Alcoholism on 



xl 



Index 



Nature 
March, 23, X911 



the Physique and Ability of the Offspring, Pari Pearson, 
F.R.S.; Ethel M. Elderton, 479 

A Preliminary Study of Extreme Alcoholism in Adults, 
Amy Harrington, Karl Pearson, F.R.S., Dr. David 
Heron, 479 

Record of the First Series of the British Coal Dust Experi- 
ments, cond'ucted by the Committee appointed by the 
Mining Association of Great Britain, Prof. W. Gallovvav, 
487 

The Principles and Methods of Geometrical Optics, 
«?specially as applied to the Theory of Optical Instru- 
ments, Prof. J. P. C. Southall, 499 

The Face of Manchuria, Korea, and Russian Turkestan, 

E. G. Kemp, 500 

Die Variabilitat niederer Organismen, Hans Pringsheim, 
C. ClifTord Dobell, 501 

Monographs on Biochemistry : the Fats, Prof. J. B. 
Leathes, 502 

Unlcitung zur Beobachtung der Vogehvelt, Dr. Carl 
Zimmer, 502 

Electric Circuit Problems in Mines and Factories, E. H. 
Crapper, Prof. Gisbert Kapp, 503 

Exercises in Electrical Engineering for the Use of Second- 
year Students in Universities and Technical Colleges, 
Prof.-T. Mather, F.R.S., Prof. G. W. O. Howe, Prof. 
Gisbert Kapp, 503 

Darwinism and Human Life, Prof. J. .Arthur Thomson, 

504 
Darwinism and the Humanities, Prof. James Mark Bald- 
■ win, 504 
The Manuring of Market-garden Crops, Dr. B. Dver, 

F. W. E. Shrivell, 505 

Guide to the Crustace;a, Arachnida, Onychophora, and 

Myriopoda exhibited in the Department of Zoology, 

British Museum (Natural History), 505 
LiTe and Habit, Samuel Butler, 505 
Stars shown to the Children, EUfson Hawks, 506 
A Treatise on Electro-Metallurgj, W. G. McMillan, 

Prof. .\. McWilliam, 506 
Diptera Danica, Genera and Species of Flies hitherto found 

in Denmark, W. Lundbeck, 506 
Elementary Physiography, Prof. R. D. Salisbury, ^od 
Mentally Deficient Children, their Treatment and Training, 

Dr. G. E. Shuttleworth, Dr. W. \. Potts, 507 
The Flower Book, Constance S. Armfield, 507 
Hygiene and Public Health, L. C. Parkes, H. R. Ken- 
wood. 507 
A Text-book of Zooloav. Prof. T. J. Parker, F.R.S., Prof. 

W. A. Haswell, F.R'.S., Prof. F. W. Gamble, .t;33 
The Materials of the Painter's Craft, Dr. A. P. Laurie, 533 
Kapillarchemie, Eine Darstollune: der Chemie der Kolloide 

und verwandter Gebiete, Dr. Herbert Freundlich, 534 
Island in Vergangenhoit und Gegonwart, Reise-Erinner- 

ungen, Paul Herrmann, :;3^ 
Hereditary Characters and their Modes of Transmission, 

C. E. Walker. 536 
Geologic Nouvlle, H. Lenicque, 536 
Women of all Nations, .1^37 
Notes on .Applied Mechanics, R. H. Whapham, G. Preece, 

537 
Apolied Mechanics, including Hydraulics and the Theory of 

the Steam Engine. John Graham, ^';7 
The Microscopical Examination of Food and Drugs, Prof. 

H. G. Greenish, !;38 
Child Problems, Dr. G. B. Mangold. '^-^ 
Der Begriff des Instinktes einst und Jetzt, Prof. Heinrich 

Ernst Ziegler, ^-xq 
Licht und Farbe, Robert Geigel, ■;39 
Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalzenae in the British 

Museum, 539 
Photography in Colours, Dr. Geo. L. Johnson, 539 
Tables for Calculation of Rock-analvses, Alfred Harker, 

F.R.S., :;40 
Ponulare Vortrage aus dem Gebiete der Entwickelungslehre, 

Dr. Wilhelm Breitenbach, 1:40 
Ooen-air Studies in Botany, R. L. Praeger, :;40 
The Yellow and Dark-skinned People of .Africa, South of 

the Zambezi. Dr. G. McCall Theal, Sir H. H. Johnston, 

G.C.M.G., K.C.B.. :;42 
The Home-life of the Spoonbill, the Stork, and some 

Herons, B. Beetham, 1544 



The Conservation of Natural Resources in the United 

States, Charles R. van Hise, 545 
Report of the Conservation Commission of Maryland for 

1908-9, 545 
Memorandum of Indian Wheat for the British Market, Sir 

James Wilson, K.C.S.I., 547 
Supplement to the Thirtj'-ninth .Annual Report of the Local 

Government Board, 1909-10, Dr. Arthur Newsholme, 556 

R(5voutsky (Mile. E.), Chemical Distinction between 
Orthose and Microcline, 328 

Richardson (L.), the So-called " Stone Circle " on Shurding- 
ton Hill, 146; Rhaetic and Contiguous Deposits of West, 
Mid, and Part of East Somerset, 159; the Inferior Oolite 
and Contiguous Deposits of the South Cottcswolds, 387 

Richmond (G. F.), Suitability of Bamboos and Lalang or 
Cogon Grass for making Paper Pulp, 246 

Ridcwood (Dr. W. G.), a Monograph of the Okapi. 209 

Righi (Prof.), Effect of a Magnetic Field on the Potential 
Difference Necessary to Cause a Discharge to Pass 
Between Two Electrodes in a Rarefied Gas, 149 : Comets 
and Electrons, 180 ; the Probable Ionising Action of the 
Magnetic Field, 497 

Rignano (Signor), the Mnemonic Origin and Nature of the 
Affective Tendencies, 549 

Ristenpart (Dr.), Cerulli's Comet (19106), Identified with 
Faye's Short Period Comet, 151 ; Magnitude of Nova 
Sagittarii No. 2, 151 ; Nova Arae 98, 1910, 218; Elements 
for Faye's Comet, 19106, 319 

Ritchie (James), an Entoproctan Polyzoon (Barentsia 
benedetli), 565 

River Systems in the East, the Influence of, Ewald Banse, 
288 

Rivers (Dr. W. H. R.), Kava Drinking in Melanesia. 23 

Robeck (Madame de), the Total Eclipse of the Moon, 
November 16, 118 

Roberts (Dr. .A. W.), Absorption of Light by the Earth's 
Atmosphere, 149 

Robertson (.A. W. D.), Dioptrographic Tracings in Four 
Normal of Fifty-two Tasmanian Crania, 366 

Robertson (J. B.)^ Dun Coat Colour in the Horse, 138 

Robertson (Muriel). Division of the Collar-cells of Cal- 
careous Sponge, Clathrina coriacea, 117 

Robin (F.), Variation of Resistance of Steels to Crushing 
as a Function of the Temperature, 33 

Robinson (T. R.), the Practice of Soft Cheesemaking, 71 

Robson (Lord), the Claims of Scientific Research, Speech 
at Royal Society, 183 

Roches ' et leurs Elements min6ralogiques, les, Ed. 
Jannettaz, 166 

Rock-analvses, Tables for Calculation of, Alfred Harker, 
F.R.S.,'540 

Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, 146 

Roe (Mr.). Cometarv Theories, 486 

Rogers (F.), Behaviour of Steel under Combined Static 
Stress and Shock, 96 

Rogozinski (F.), Haemoglobin as a Peroxydase, 429 

Rolling in Ships, the Reduction of, H. Frahm, 250 

Rome, Papers of the British School at, 445 

Roosevelt (Theodore), African Game Trails, 77 

Roots (James D.), the Earth's .Action on' Sunlight and 
Heat, 486 

Rosenhain (W.), Constitution of the -Alloys of Alummium 
and Zinc, 564 

Rosenkrankheiten und Rosenfeinde, Dr. K. Laubert and 
Dr. M. Schwartz, 435 

Ross (Major Ronald, C.B., F.R.S.), Some Enumerative 
Studies on Malarial Fever, 260 ; Case of Sleeping Sick- 
ness Studied by Precise Enumerative Methods, 260 ; 
Experiments on "the Treatment of .Animals Infected with 
Trypanosomes by Means of .Atoxyl, Vaccines, Cold, 
X-'Ravs, and Leucocytic Extract, 260 ; the Prevention of 
Malaria, 263 

Rossi (Dr. Paolo), Observations on the Double Refraction 
induced bv Strain in Caoutchouc, 149 

Rost (H.), Synthesis of Ketones in the Tetrahydroaromatic 
Series, 65 

Rousset (H.), .Action of Light on Plants, 149 

Row (R. W. H.), Non-Calcareous Sponges from the Red 
Sea, 395 

Roy (Felix de). Nova Lacertae, 453 



Nature, 
March 2 



re, -I 

3. «9«* J 



Index 



xli 



Royal Anthropological Institute, Huxley Memorial Lecture 
at, the Arrival of Man in Britain, Prof. \V. Boyd 
Dawkins, F.R.S., 122 ; Certain Physical Characters of 
the Negroes of the Congo Free State and Nigeria, Dr. 
Arthur Keith, 221 

Royal Astronomical Society, 226 

Royal Colonial Institute : the Imperial Department of 
Agriculture in the West Indies, 418 

Royal Geographical Society : the Duke of the Abruzzi's 
Expedition to the Karakoram Himalayas, Dr. F. De 
Filippi at, 124; Cotton Growing within the British Empire, 
J. H. Reed, 184; the Second French Antarctic Expedi- 
tion, Dr. J. B. Charcot at, 257; the Michael Sars North 
Atlantic Deep-sea Expedition, 1910, Dr. Johan Hjort at, 
388 ; Explorations in New Guinea, Dr. H. A. Lorentz, 
490 

Royal Institution : Matavanu : a New Volcano in Savaii 
(German Samoa), Dr. Tempest Anderson, 92 ; the 
Dynamics of a Golf Ball, Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., 
251 ; the Progressive Disclosure of the Entire Atmo- 
sphere of the Sun, Dr. H. Deslandres, 422, 457 ; Radio- 
activity as a Kinetic Theorv of a Fourth State of 
Matter, Prof. William H. Bragg, F.R.S., 491 

Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, 296 

Royal Meteoiolc^ical Society, 128, 295, 565 

Royal Microscopical Society, 95, 361, 463 

Royal Society, 64, 95, 126, 192, 259, 394, 427, 461, 495, 
529, 564 ; Medal Awards, 46 ; .Anniversary Meeting of 
the, 143 ; Medal Awards, 143 ; the Claims of Scientific 
Research, Ix)rd Robson at, 183 ; on the Sensibility of 
the Eye to Variations of Wave-lengths in the Yellow 
Region of the Spectrum, Lord Rayleigh, O.M., F.R.S., 
421; the Density of Niton (Radium Emanation) and the 
Disintegration Theory, R. Whytlaw Gray and Sir 
William Ramsay, F.R.S., 524 

Royal Society of Arts, the Panama Canal in 19 10, Dr. 
Vaughan Cornish at, 420 

Royal Society of .Arts, Journal of the, 455 

Royal Society, Dublin, 161, 327, 531 

Royal Society, Edinburgh, 193, 261, 497, 565 

Royal Society of Sciences, Gottingen, 464 

Royal Society, New South Wales, 129 

Royal Society of South .Africa, 162 ; .Aims of .Astronomy 
of Precision, S. S. Hough, F.R.S., at, 323 

Royal Society of Victoria, 160, 262, 430 

Roze (M.). Death of, 414 

Rozet (CI.), Total Eclipse of the Moon of November 16, 
1910, observed at .Aosta, Italy, 261 

Rudge (Prof. W. A. Douglas), Tribo Luminescence of 
Cranium, 207 

Rudisiile (Dr. .A.), die Untersuchungs-Methoden des Eisens 
und Stahls, 233 

Ruffer (Dr. M. Armand), an .Account of Pott's Disease 
of the Spine in an Egyptian Mummy belonging to 
the Time of the Twentv-first Dvnasty about 1000 B.C., 
549 

Russ (Dr. S.), Note on Scattering during Radio-active 
Recoil, 296 

Russell (Dr. .A.), the Electric Stress at which lonisation 
begins in .Air, 225 

Russell (.Arthur), New Locality of Phenakite in Cornwall, 
128 

Russell (B., F.R.S.), Philosophical Essavs, 331 

Russell (Dr. E. J.). Objects and Methods of .Agricultural 
.Soil Surveys, 25 ; Partial Sterilisation of Soils, 25 : 
Wheat-growing and its Present-day Problems, 57 ; -Agri- 
culture in the Dry Regions of the British Empire, 11 1: 
Transvaal .Agricultural Journal, iii ; .Agricultural 
Journal of the Cape of Good Hope. 11 1 ; Water Require- 
ments of Crops in India, J. W. Leather, iii; Kleines 
Handworterbuch der .Agrikulturchemie, Dr. Max Passon, 
164 

Russell (Dr. H. N.), Mass-ratios of the Components of 
Krijger 60 and Castor. 418 

Russell (S. C). Variation of the Depth of Water in a 
Well at Detling, near Maidstone, compared with the 
Rainfall 1885-1909. 565 

Russian Magnetic Observations, Prof. Ernst Levst, Dr. 
C. Chree. F.R.S., 388 

Ruston (Mr.), the Impurities of the Town Atmosphere and 
their Effects on Vegetation, 24 



Rykachef (M.), Temperature of the Upper Air, 323 
Ryves (P. .M.), Nova Lacertac, 523 

Sabatier (Paul), Direct Esterification by Catalysis, 565 
Safety Lamps and the Detection of Fire-damp, 524 
Sailing-flight of Birds, the. Canon R. .Abbay, 475 ; F. W. 
Headiey, 511; A. Mallock, F.R.S., 511; Edward I). 
Hearn, 511 
Sala (Dr. Guido), the Cells of the Ciliary Ganglion, 279 
-Salisbury (Prof. R. D.), Elementary Physiography, 50^1 
Salles (Edouard), Diffusion of Gaseous Ions, 33 
Salmon (E. S.), Epidemic Outbreak of Eutypella prunastri. 
184; Life-history of the .Apple " Scab " Fungus (Venturia 
inaequalis), 184 ; a Species of Leptothyrium, 184 
Salmon (W. H.), Geometry of the Triangle, 50 
Sand (Dr. H. J. S.), Apparatus for the Rapid Electro- 
analytical Determination of Metals, 360 
Sanitation : Lessons on Elementary Hygiene and Sanita- 
tion, with Special Reference to the Tropics, W. T. 
Prout, 270 ; Death of Dr. William Williams, 548 
Sarawak, Occurrence of Matonia sarmentosa in, Cecil J. 

Brooks, 541 
Sasaki (Prof. C), Silkworm Problems, 151 
Satterlv (J.), Radium Content of .Salts of Potassium, 261 
Saturn's Outer Ring, a Projection on, M. Jonckheere, 248 
Saturn's Rings, M. Jonckheere, 150; K. Schiller, 218 
Saunders (S. .A.), Determination of Selenographic Positions 

and the Measurement of Lunar Photf^raphs, 226-7 
-Savaii, Matavanu, a New A'olcano in, (German Samoa). 

Dr. Tempest .Anderson at Royal Institution, 92 
-Savoia (Humbert), Metallography Applied to Siderugic 

Products, 202 
Savoia (U.), la M^tallographie appliqu^ aux produits 

Siderurgiques, 405 
-Sawyer (Mr.), Sugar Beet Grown for Export in Norfolk. 

317 
Seal (CI.), Sterilisation of Water on the Large Scale by 

LUtra-violet Light, 6^ ; .Arc Lamp having a Mercury 

Kathode and giving White Light, 407 
Scale (.A.), Pearl and Pearl-shell Fishery, 177 
Scarlett (R. H.), a School Course of Heat, 303 
Schaefer-Cassel (Prof. Dr. B.), Uber Zeil u' Methode der 

Naturdenkmalpflege, 1 10 
Schafer (Prof. E. A.. F.R.S.), the Essentials of Histology, 

'37 

Schaller (W. T.), the Mercury Minerals from Terlingua, 
Texas, 420 

Scharff (Dr. R. P.), Evidences of a Former Land-bridge 
between Northern Europe and North America. 387 

Scharff (Dr.), Whale-fishery at Inishkea and Ely Point, 116 

Schiller (Dr.). CeruUi's Comet (i9ioe). Identified with 
Fave's Short-period Comet, i:;i 

Schilier (K.). Saturn's Rings. 2^18 

-Schlesinger (Prof.). Publications of the .Allegheny Observa- 
tory, 218; Photographic Determinations of Stellar 
Parallax, 4:^4 

Schlomann (.Alfred), the Deinhardt-Schlomann Series of 

• Technical Dictionaries, 99 

Schmidt (Dr. .A.). .Anthracosiidae of the Upper Carboni- 
ferous Beds of Mahrisch-Ostrau, 284 

Schmidt (Pr^f. E. C), Experiments on Freight-train Resist- 
ance and its Relation to Average Car Weight. 5^I 

Schoen (M.), Influence Exerted by the Reaction upon 
Certain Properties of Malt Extracts. 129 

School Garden and Nature Note-book, the " Code," 234 

Schopenhauer-Darwin : Pessimismus oder Optimismus. 
Gustav Weng. 403 

Schrader (F. C). Mineral Deposits of the Cerbat Range. 
Black Mountains, and Grand Wash Cliffs, Mohave 
County, .Arizona. 420 

Schrvver (S. B.). Investigations on the State of .Aggregation 
of Matter, 127 

Schultze (.A.). Elements of .Algebra, 167 

Schulz (Paul F. F.). Hiiusliche Blumenpflege, 370 

Schuster (.Arthur), Orogin of Magnetic Storms. 461 

Schuster (Julius). Geological .Age of the Pithecanthropus of 
the Pluvial Period in Java, 65 

Schuvten (Prof.), Report of the Section L Research Com- 
mittee on Mental and Physical Factors Involved in 
Education, 89 

Schwalbe (Prof. Carl G.), die Chemie der Cellulose unter 



xlii 



Index 



Nature^ 
March 23, igii 



besonderer Beriicksichtigung der Textil- und Zellsstoflfin- 

dustrien, 67 
Schwartz (Prof. A.), Some Physical Properties of Rubber, 

296 
Schwartz (Dr. M.), Rosonkrankheiten und Rosenfeinde, 435 
Schwarz (Prof.), Occurrence of High Senonian or Danian 

Beds on the South Coast of Africa, 554 
Science : a Course of Elementary Science, John Thornton, 
S ; Modern Scientific Research, Sir William A. Tilden, 
F.R.S., at Vesey Club, 29 ; Observatory on Mount 
Vesuvius, 50 ; the Carnegie Institution of Washington 
and its Work, Dr. R. S. Woodward, 74 ; Science and 
Engineering, Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., at Junior 
Institution of Engineers, 122 ; Report on the Work of 
the Government Laboratories, Johannesburg, 149 ; the 
Claims of Scientific Research, Lord Robson at Royal 
Society, 183 ; the Year-book of the Scientific and Learned 
•Societies of Great Britain and Ireland : a Record of the 
Work Done in Science, Literature, and Art during the 
Session 1909—10 by Numerous Societies and Government 
Institutions, 202 ; the State's Duty to Science, Dr. Muir, 
C.M.G., F.R.S., 213 ; Science and the State, Dr. T. 
Muir, C.M.G., F.R.S., at South African Association for 
the Advancement of Science, 221 ; the Scientists' Refer- 
once Book and Pocket Diary for 191 1, 235; the Admission 
of Women to the French Academies, 342, 372 ; thfe Making 
of a Darwin, Dr. David Starr Jordan at American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, 3:^4 ; American Men 
of Science, 397 ; Leading American Men of Science, 397 ; 
Man's Redemption of Man, Prof. W. Osier, 404; Science 
and Literature, Lord Morley of Blackburn at English 
Association, 446 ; Memorial to Sir John Evans, 448 ; 
Science from the Non-professional Standpoint, M. Green- 
wood, 440 ; What Science has done for the West Indies, 
Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., 477; 
Progress of the Smithsonian Institution, Dr. C. D. 
Walcott, 1^26 
Scott-Moncrieff (P. D.), Death of, £148 
Scottish Natural History, T. A. Harvie Brown, 336 
Scrivenor (J. B.), Relatione of the Igneous Rocks of Islands 
between Johore and Singapore, e^e^j^ ; Rocks from the 
Kinta Valley of Perak, 554 
Sea-Kings of Crete, the. Rev. James Baikie, 235 
Sea-otter, the, H. J. Snow, 408; Prof. John Milne, F.R.S., 

510 ; Prof. D'Arcy W. Thompson, 510 
Seager (Richard B.), Excavations on the Island of Pseira, 

Crete, 272 
Seal Herds, Present Condition of American Bison and, 

12 
Sedimentation in Wave-stirred Areas, the Limiting Line of, 

A. R. Hunt, 72 
Sedldcek (J.), Definitive Elements for the Orbit of Comet 

1904 II. (1904^), 218 
Seismology : Earthquakes in the Pacific, J. J. Shaw, iii; ; 
Prof. Milne, 115; Afforestation, a Remedy for the 
Disastrous Effects of Earthquake in Messina and 
Southern Italy, Gino Cucchetti, 149 ; the Remarkable 
Series of Earthquakes in Alaska in September, 1899, 
Lawrence Martin, 179 ; the Recent Earthquakes in Asia, 
Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S., 33-;; Dr. C. Chree, F.R.S., 
■;-?<; : the Turkestan Earthquake of January 3-4, Rev. 
Walter Sidgreaves, 372 ; F. Edward Norris, 372 ; Earth- 
quake of January 3-4, 1911, Alfred Angit, 396; the 
Registration of Small Artificial Earthquakes at a distance 
of 17 kilometres, Louis Fabry, 498 ; the Observatory at 
Messina, Prof. J. Milne, F.R.S., 1^15 
Selenium Photometry of Stars, Dr. Joel Stebbins, 119 
Seligrnann (Dr.), a Neolithic Site in the Southern Sudan, 23 
Selous (F. C), Expedition to the Southern District of the 
Bahr-el-Grazal for the Purpose of Securing the Head and 
Skin of an Eland, 314 
Senderens (J. B.), Ketones Derived from the Three Isomeric 
Toluic Acids, 30? : Ketones Derived from the Phenyl- 
propionic Acid, i;6£; 
Senouque (A.), Experiments in Wireless Telegraphy from 

an Aeroplane, 463 
Serotherapy : Method of Isolating and Growing the Lepra 

Bacillus of Man, E. W. Twort, 127 
Serviss (Garrett P.), Round the Year with the Stars, 333 
Seward (Prof. A. C, F.R.S.), Comparison of Jurassic 
Floras, 258 ; the Jurassic Flora of Sutherland, 497 



Sex Relationship, Dr. R. J. Ewart, 322, 406; Hertha 

Ayrton, 406 
Shaft-straightencrs, Palaeolithic, Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S., 

371 

Shan (Semionof-of-Tian), Towns and Villages of Russia 
and their Distribution in Relation to Physical Conditions 
and Historical Events, 317 

Sharp (Captain (i. E.), Fly-leaves from a Fisherman's 
Diary, 334 

Sharpe (Sir Alfred), Habits of Glossina morsitans, 176 

Shaw (J. J.), Earthquakes in the Pacific, 115 

Shaw (Dr. P. E.), Measurement of End-standards of 
Length, 104. 

Shaw (Dr. W. N., F.R.S.), the New Meteorological OfTice, 
181 ; the Recent Earthquakes in Asia, 335 

Shegolef (Ir. M.), Lichen Collected in the Jugjur Chain 
(Stanovoi), 279 

Shelford (R.), Simulium and Pellagra, 41 

Shelley (Capt. G. E.), Death of, 215 

Shenstone (J. C), Flowering Plants and F"erns growing 
in Farringdon Street, 20 

Shepherd (Col. C. E.), the Pharyngial Teeth of Fishes, 
177 

Sheringham (H. T.), an Open Creel, 102 

Sherlock (R. L.), Relationship of the Permian to the 
Trias in Nottinghamshire, 360 ; the Geology of the 
Melton Mowbray District and South-east Nottingham- 
shire, 386 

Sherrington (Prof. C. S., F.R.S.), Results of some Ex- 
periments indicating the Existence of Afferent Nerves in 
the Eye Muscles, 27 ; Constant Current as a Stimulus 
of Reflex Action, and the Effect of the Intensity of the 
Current on the Response to Stimulation, 27 

Shipley (Dr.), Partial Sterilisation of Soils, 25 

Ships, the Reduction of Rolling in, H. Frahm, 250 

Shrivell (F. W. E.), the Manuring of Market-garden 
Crops, 505 

Shrubsole (W. H.), Protection of Useful Birds in Hungary 
and Great Britain, 381 

Shull (Dr. G. H.), Further Evidence in favour of a so- 
called Pure-line Method in Corn Breeding, 217 

Shuttleworth (Dr. G. E.), Mentally Deficient Children, 
their Treatment and Training, 507 

Siamang Gibbon, the Song of the, R. I. Pocock, 170 

Siddons (A. W.), Practical Measurements, 202 

Sidgreaves (Rev. Walter), the Turkestan Earthquake of 
January 3-4, 372 

Sidgwick (Alfred), the Application of Logic, 436 

Siemens (Alexander), Engineering and Civilisation, Address 
at Institution of Civil Engineers, 59 

Silver (Dr. G.), Observations of Magnetic Declination and 
Dissipation of Electric Charge which they made at 
Padua on May 14-21, 150 

Simmonds (C), Trait^ complet d 'analyse Chimique, 
appliqu^e aux essais industriels. Prof. J. Post and Prof. 
B. Neumann, 433 , 

Simpson (Dr. George C), on the Electricity of Ram and 
its Origin in Thunderstorms, 81 ; Atmospheric Elec- 
tricity over the Ocean, 462 

Simpson (G. C. E.), Haemoglobin Metabolism in Malarial 
Fever, 260 . 

Simpson (J. J.), Hicksonella, a New Gorgonellid Genus, 

Simpson (Dr. Sutherland), Observations on the Body Tem- 
perature of the Domestic Fowl during Incubation, 261 

Simulium and Pellagra, R. Shelford, 41 ; Dr. C. Gordon 
Hewitt, 169 

Simultaneity of " Abruptlv-beginning " Magnetic Storms, on 
the, O. krogness, 170; Dr. L. A. Bauer, 306 

Sinel (J.), Exploration of a Palaeolithic Cave-dwelling, 
known as La Cotte, at St. Brelade, Jersey, 344 

Sino-ing- the Brain and the Voice in Speech and Song, 
Prof F. W. Mott, F.R.S., Prof. John G. McKendnck, 
F.R.S., 199; the Abuse of the Singing and Speaking 
Voice Causes, Effects, and Treatment, Prof. E. J. 
Moure and A. Bowver. Prof. John G. McKendrick, 
F.R.S., 199; the Voice, Dr. W. A. Aitken, Prof. John G. 
McKendrick, F.R.S., 199 . „ ♦, ' 

Singularities of Curves and Surfaces, A. B. Bassett, 
F.R.S., 336, 440; T. J. I'a. B., 336. 440 

Sirius, the Radial Velocity of, W. Munch, 151 



Nature, "l 



March 23 



Index 



xliii 



Sleeping Sickness, Native Methods of Fishing in Relation 
to the Incidence and Dissemination of, Dr. Bodeker, 17S ; 
sec Morbology 

"^ling, Distribuiion of the, in America, Dr. Friederici, 147 

Mnalley (W. M.), Apparatus for the Rapid Electro- 
Analytical Determination of Metals, 360 

Smiles (Prof. Samuel), the Relations between Chemical 
Constitution and some Physical Properties, 69 

Smith (Prof. Alex.), Dynamic Method for Measuring 
Vapour Pressures with its Application to Benzene and 
.Ammonium Chloride, 193 ; Quantitative Study of the 
Constitution of Calomel Vapour, 193 

Smith (.A. M.), a New Method for Estimating Gaseous 
E.\changes of Submerged Plants, 530 ; on Assimilation 
in Submerged Water-plants and its Relation to the Con- 
centration of Carbon Dioxide and other Factors, 530 

Smith (Charles), Solutions of the Examples in an Elemen- 
tary Treatise on Conic Sections by the Methods of 
Coordinate Geometrv, 405 

Smith (Prof. G. Elliott, F.R.S.), the People of Egypt, 24; 
Early Burial Customs in Egypt, 41 ; the Convolutions 
of the Brain, 97; the Negro in the New VV'orld, Sir 
Harry H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 172; the 
Archieological Survey of Nubia, Report on the Human 
Remains, 310; der Stand unserer Kenntnisse vom 
fossilen Menschen, Prof. W. Branca, 402 ; an Account 
of Pott's Disease of the Spine in an Egyptian Mummy 
belonging to the time of- the Twenty-first Dynasty about 
1000 B.C., 549 

Smith (Dr. G. F. H.), Schwartzembergite, 496 

Smith (H. G.), a Research on the Pines of Australia, 465 

Smith (Harold Hamel), Aigrettes and Bird Skins : the 
Truth about their Collection and Export, 207 ; 
"Aigrettes and Bird Skins," 316 

Smith (Dr. H. Hammond), Possible Cause of Pneumo- 
enteritis in the Red Grouse (Lagopus scoticus), 226 

Smith (P. F.), Theoretical Mechanics, 169 

Smith (Stanley P.), Hydroelectric Developments and En- 
gineering, F. Koester, 198 ; Electric Motors, Henry M. 
Hobart, 468 

.Smith (Mr.), the Geology of the Melton Mowbray District 
and South-east Nottinghamshire, 386 

Smithsonian Institution, Progress of the. Dr. C. D. 
Walcott, 526 

Smoke and its Prevention, Prof. Vivian B. Lewes at 
London Institution, 290 

Smoluchowski (Prof.), Measurements of the Heat Conduc- 
tivities of Fine Powders and the Influence of the Size of 
the Grains and the State of the Gas between them on 
the Conductivity, 50 

Snell (Mr.), Behaviour of the Chromosomes during Mitosis, 

58 
Snodgrass (R. E.), the Anatomy of the Honey Bee, 169 ; 

the Thorax of the Hymenoptera, 246 
.Snow (H. J.), in Forbidden Seas, 408 

Soddy (F.), Conduction of Heat through Rarefied Gases, 95 
Solar .Activity, Temperature Changes and. Prof. F. H. 

Bigelow, 352 
Solar Activity and Terrestrial . Temperatures, W. J. 

Humphreys, 87 
Solar Corona, Tracing the, in Lunar Observations, Em. 

Touchet, 283 
.Solar Parallax, Determination of the, Charles D. Perrine, 

287 
Solar Phvsics Observatorv, the, 373 
Sollas (Prof. W. J., F.R.S.), Pateolithic Shaft-Straighteners, 

Solway Area, the Birds of Dumfriesshire — a Contribution 

to the Fauna of the, Hugh S. Gladstone, 378 
Sommerfeld (Dr. Paul), Milch und Molkereiprodukte, ihre 

Eigenschaften, Zusammensetzung und Gewinnung, 168 
Song of the Siamang Gibbon, the, R. J. Pocock, 170 
'Soured Milk and its Preparation, Lactic Cheeses, Prof. 

R. T. Hewlett, 338 
South .African .Association for the Advancement of Science, 

Science and the State, Dr. T. Muir, C.M.G., F.R.S., 

at, 221 
Southall (Prof. J. P. C), the Principles and Methods of 

Geometrical Optics, especially as Applied to the Theory 

of Optical Instruments, 499 
Sowfon (Miss S. C. M.), Constant Current as a Stimulus 



of Reflex Action, and the Effect of the Intensity of the 
Current on the Response to Stimulation, 27 

Spalski (H.), Skull of the Saw-billed Bird [Odontopteryx 
toliapica), 28^ 

Spearman (Dr.), Inquiry into Individual V'ariations of 
Memory anK>ng some 400 Subjects, 89 ; the Relation of 
the Memory to the Will, 353 

Spectacles, the Prescribing of, A. S. Percival, 467 

Spectroscope and its Work, the, Prof. H. F. Newall, 
F.R.S., 300 

Spectrum Analysis : the Spectrum of Nova Sagittarti No. 2, 
Leon Campbell, 22 ; Prof. Millosevich, 22 ; Stars having 
Peculiar Spectra, and New Variable Stars, 87 ; Modifica- 
tions undergone by the Lines of the Spark Spectrum in 
a Magnetic Field, G. A. Hemsalech, 161 ; Dr. Const. 
Zakrzewski's Measurements on the Dispersion of Metallic 
Bodies in the Visible Spectrum, 179, 180; the Spectrum 
of Halley's Comet, C. P. Butler, 193 ; the Spectrum of 
the American Nebula, Dr. Max Wolf, 282 ; Vacuum- 
tube Spectra of the Vapours of some Metals and Metallic 
Chlorides, Dr. J. H. Pollok, 327 ; the Orbits of Several 
Spectroscopic Binaries, R. H. Baker, 384 ; F. C. Jordan, 
385* New Spectroscopic Binaries, J. H. Moore, 523; 
Mr. Paddock, 523; Prof. Campbell, 524; on the Sensi- 
bility of the Eye to Variations of Wave-length in the 
Yellow Region of the Spectrum, Lord Rayleigh, O.M., 
F.R.S., at Royal Society, 421 ; Lines in the Spectra of 
Nebulae, Dr. W. H. Wright, 454; First Observations 
on the New Star in Lacerta, P. Idrac, 463 ; Polarisation 
in the Spectrum of o Ceti, Dr. Wright, 486 ; Researches 
on the Movements of the Solar .Atmospheric Layers by 
the Displacement of the Lines of the Spectrum, 
H. Deslandres, 497 ; the Spectra of some W'olf-Rayet 
Stars, J. C. Duncan, 552. 

Spheres of Liquids,^ the Formation of, Chas. R. Darling, 
512 

Spicer (Rev. E. C), the Cocos-Keeling Atoll, 41 

Spillmann (L.), Physiological Significance of the Vital 
Coloration of Leucocytes, 361 ; Eliminating R6le of the 
Leucocytes, 429 

Spinoza, Baruch de, Ethik. Otto Baensch, 367 

Spitsbergen, Stockholm to, the Geologists' Pilgrimage, 
G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S., 152 

Spitta (E. J.), Microscopy : the Construction, Theory, and 
Use of the Microscope, 230 

Spoonbill, the Home-life of the, the Stork, and some 
Herons, B. Beetham, 544 

Sport and Games, the Encyclopaedia of, 274 

Spranger (Eduard) Fichte, Schleiermacher, Steffens iiber 
das Wesen der Universitat, 367 

Standard Cells, the Electromotive Force of. Dr. R. T. 
Glazebrook, F.R.S., 508 

Stankevitsch (Prof. B. V.), Odessa Observatory, 1908, 525 

Stapf (Dr. O.), Report on International Botanical Con- 
gress held at Brussels on May 14-22, 1910, 395 

Starling (S. G.), Demonstration of Peltier and Thomson 
Effects, 512 

Stars : the Spectrum of Nova Sagittarii No. 2, Leon 
Campbell, 22 ; Prof. Millosevich, 22 ; Magnitude of 
Nova Sagittarii No. 2, Dr. Ristenpart, 151 ; Discovery 
of another Nova, Sagittarii No. 3, Miss Cannon, 248 ; 
Nova Saerittarii No. 3, H.V. 3306, Miss Cannon. 5^2 ; 
a New Variable Star or a Nova 97-1910 Cygni, Mr. 
Hinks, 22 ; New Variable Stars in Harvard Map No. 52, 
Miss Cannon, 22 ; Stars having Peculiar Spectra, and 
New Variable Stars, 87 ; Variable Stars in the Orion 
Nebula, 87 ; der Sternenhimmel, Prof. J. D. Messer- 
schmitt, 102 ; Selenium Photometry of Stars, Dr. Joe! 
Stebbins, 119; Photographic Magnitudes of Seventy- 
one Pleiades Stars, Adolf Hnatek, 119; the Radial 
Velocity of Sirius, W. Miinch, 151 ; Proper Motion of 
the Star B.D. 4-33° 09, Dr. .Abetti, 181 ; the Photo- 
graphic Magnitudes of Stars, Prof. E. C. Pickering, 
181 ; E. Hertzsprung, 181 ; Nova .Arae 98, 1910, Dr. 
Ristenpart, 218; the Light Changes of Forty-nine Vari- 
able Stars, Dr. L. Pracka, 248 ; the Movements of 
Certain Stars, in Space, Compared with that of the 
Sun, Dr. P. Stroobant, 282 ; the Stars from Year to 
Year, with Charts for Everv Month, H. Periam Hawkins, 
304; the Star Calendar for 191 1, H. Periam Hawkins, 
304; the Star Almanac for 191 1, H. Periam Hawkins, 



xliv 



Index 



Nature, 
March 23, 1911 



304 ; Nineteen Stars with Newly Discovered Variable 
Radial Velocities, O. J. Lee, 319; Round the Year 
with the Stars, Garrett P. Serviss, 333 ; Nova Lacertaj, 
Mr. Hinks, 348; Mr. Espin, 348, 384; Dr. Graff, 417; 
Prof. Max Wolf, 384, 453, 523, 552 ; Prof. Pickering, 
384, 523 ; Mr. Bellamy, 384 ; Prof. Barnard, 453 ; 
Prof. .Millosevich, 453; Dr. Munch, 453; Prof. 
Hertzsprung, 453 ; Felix de Roy, 453 ; Herr Mewes, 
453 ; P. Idrac, '486, 523 ; Prof. Nijland, 523 ; Dr. Kiihl, 
523 ; P. M. Ryves, 523 ; a New Variable or Nova 
(134, 1910, Piscium), E. Ernst, 418; Double Stars, Dr. 
R. G. Aitken, 418; Prof. Burnham, 418; Star Colours, 
Mr. Innes, 418; Discovery of an Eighth-Magnitude 
Nova, Mr. Espin, 319; the Orbits of Several Spectro- 
scopic Binaries, R. H. Baker, 384 ; F. C. Jordan, 385; 
New Spectroscopic Binaries, J. H. Moore, 523 ; Mr 
Paddock, 523 ; Prof. Campbell, 524 ; Photographic 
Determinations of Stellar Parallax, Prof. F. Schlesinger, 
454; Stars shown to the Children, Ellison Hawks, 506; 
the Spectra of some Wolf-Rayet Stars, J. C. Duncan, 552 

Statistics, International Mineral, Prof. Henry Louis, 211 

Stead (Dr.), Relations of Science with Commercial Life, 90 

Stebbing (E. P.), Forestry Education : its Importance and 
Requirements, Lecture at the University of Edinburgh, 
61 ; Preservation of Bamboos from the Attacks of the 
Bamboo Beetle or " Shot-borer," 178 

Stebbins (Dr. Joel), Selenium Photometer Measures of the 
Brifjhtness of Halley's Comet, 51 ; Selenium Photometry 
of Stars, 119 

Steel (R. Elliott), Practical Electricity and Magnetism, 135 

Steel, a Fourth Recalescence in, Prof. J. O. Arnold, 1157; 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, F.R.S., 235 

Steele (Dr. B. D.), Properties of Binary Mixtures of some 
Liquefied Gases, 453 

Stegosaurus, the Armour of, F. A. Lucas, 73 ; R. L., 73 

Steiger (George), Errors in the Chemical Analysis of 
Gypsum, 420 

Stein (Sigmund), Sugar-Beet Growing, 25 

Stelfox (A. W.), List of the Land and Fresh-water Mol- 
lusca of Ireland, 296 

Stellar Magnitudes, J. E. Maybee, 348 

Stephens (Dr. J. W. W.), Peculiar Morphology of a Try- 
panosome from a Case of Sleeping Sickness and the 
Possibility of its being a New Species {Trypanosoma 
rhodesiense), 64 

Sternenhimmel, der. Prof. J. D. Messerschmitt, 102 

Stevens (Prof. W. C.), Plant Anatomy from the Standpoint 
of the Development and Functions of the Tissues and 
Handbook of Micro-technic, 335 

Stevenson (Capt. W. D. H.), the Killing of Rats and Rat- 
fleas by Hydrocyanic Acid, 246 

Stewart (the late Samuel Alexander), Life-work of, 415 

Stockholm, the International Agrogeological Congress at, 
88 

Stockholm to Spitsbergen : the Geologists' Pilgrimage, 
G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S., 152 

Stokey (Miss A. G.), Sporangium of Lycopodium pithyoidcs, 

o 345 

Stopes (Dr. M. C), Lower Cretaceous Angiosperms, 139 

Strahan (Mr.), the Geology of the South Wales Coalfield, 
386 

Strahan (Col. George), Death of, 380 

Stray Leaves on Travel, Sport, Animals, and Kindred Sub- 
jects, J. C. Walter, 270 

Strecker (Dr. Karl), Present Position of Wireless Tele- 
graphy, 118 

Stroobant (Dr. P.), the Movements of Certain Stars, in 
Space, Compared with that of the Sun, 282 ; Astronomy 
at the Brussels Exhibition, 283 

Strutt (Hon. R. J., F.R.S.), Helium and Geological Time, 
6, 43 ; Afterglow of Electric Discharge, 226 ; the After- 
glow of Electric Discharge in Nitrogen, 439 

Stubbs (F. J.), Egrets formerlv Common in England, 20 ; 
Nature of the Colouring of the Kingfisher, 316 

Sun : les Theories Modernes du Soleil, J. Bosler, 68 ; 
. Vorlesungen iiber die Physik der Sonne, Prof. E. Pring- 
sheim, 68; the Movements of Certain Stars, in Space, 
Compared with that of the Sun. Dr. P. Stroobant, 282 ; 
the Progressive Disclosure of the Entire Atmosphere of 
the Sun, Dr. H. Deslandres at Royal Institution of 
Great Britain, 422, 457 ; the Progressive Disclosure of 



the Entire Atmosphere of the Sun, Albert Alfred Buss, 
540; Utilisation of the .Sun's Heat, Prof. Ceraski, 454 

Super-organic Evolution, Dr. E. Lluria, 71 

Supino (Prof. Felice), Effect of Light on the Ova of Trout, 
149 

Surgery: Death of Prof. Franz Konig, 215; Present Status 
of Neurological Surgerj , Dr. Harvey Cushing, 147 

Surveying : Field and Colliery Surveying, T. A. 
O'Donahue, 405; the New Zealand Survey, 185; Death 
of Col. George Strahan, 380 

Sutherland (Alexander), Excavation of a Broch at Cogle, 
Waken, Caithness, 22 

Sutton (Dr.), Question of Utilising Wind Power in Country 
Districts, 148 

Swinburne (J.), Separation of Oxygen by Cold, 360 

Sy (F.), Halley's Comet, 351 

Sykes (Major), North-eastern Persia the Ancient Parthia, 
and Hyrcania, 84 

Sylvester (James Joseph, F.R.S.), the Collected Mathe- 
matical Papers of, 434 

Sj^mes (W. L.), Certain Physical and Physiological Proper- 
ties of Stovaine and its Homologues, 529 ; Effect of 
some Local Anjesthetics on Nerve, 529 

Synchronisation of Clocks, 516 

Syon House, Brentford, Catalogue of Hardy Trees and 
Shrubs Growing in the Grounds of, A. B. Jackson, 136 

Taffanel (J.), Safety Explosives Employed in Mines, 129 
Tait (Dr. J.), the Conditions Necessary for Tetanus of the 

Heart, 27 ; Neurogenic Origin of Normal Heart 

Stimulus, 27 
Tannery (Prof. Jules), Death of, 114; Obituary Notice of, 

Tasmanian Crania, Dioptrographic Tracings in Four 
Normal of Fifty-two, ProL R. J. A. Berry and A. W. D. 
Robertson, 366 

Tchougaeff (L.), Action of Hydrogen to the Isomeric 
Thujenes and Sabinene, 227 

Technical Institutions, Association of, Sir Henry Hibbert, 

525 . ..,.,. 

Technical Institutions, the Association of Teachers in, 55 

Telegraphy, Wireless : Wireless Telegrams direct from 
Canada and Massowah, 82 ; Eiffel Tower used for Daily 
Transmission of Time-signals to Ocean-going Vessels by 
Means of Wireless Telegraphy, 114; Present Position of 
Wireless Telegraphy, Dr. Karl Strecker, 118; Telephonic 
and Radio-telegraphic Comparisons of Chronometers by 
the Method of Coincidences between Paris and Brest, 
MM. Claude, Ferri^, and Driencourt, 161 ; New Experi- 
ment in Stimulation by Shocks in, Br. Glatzel, 227 ; 
Some Improvements in Transmitters and Receivers for 
Wireless Telegraphy, Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S., 248; 
Telegraphic Message from the ss. Cedric, 314; Experi- 
ments in Wireless Telegraphy from an Aeroplane, A. 
Senouque, 463 

Temperature Changes and Solar Activity, Prof. F. H. 
Bigelow, 352 

Temperature of the Upper Air, M. Rykachef, 323 

Terrestrial Temperatures, Solar Activity and, W. J. 
Humphreys, 87 

Theal (Dr. G. McCall), the Yellow and Dark-skinned 
People of Africa, South of the Zambezi, 542 

Theobald (F. V.), the Damage done to Fruit Trees by 
Thrips, 184 ; a Monograph of the Culicidse or Mosqui- 
toes, 330 

Therapeutics : Diseases of the Skin, including Radio- 
therapy and Radiumtherapy, Prof. E. Gaucher, Dr. 
A. C. Jordan, 363 ; Form of Treatment of Wasting 
Diseases of Young Children, M. Quinton, 416 

Thienemann (Dr. J.), die Vogelwarte Rossitten der 
Deutschen Ornithologischen Gesellschaft und das 
Kennzeichnen der Vogel, 207 

Thiselton-Dyer (Sir W. T., K.C.M.G., F.R.S.), the 
Jodrell Laboratory at Kew, 103 ; the Inheritance of 
Acquired Characters, 371 ; What Science has done for 
the West Indies, 477 ; Origin of Incense, 507 

Thoday (D.), Experiments on Anaesthetised Leaves, 26; 
Assimilation and Translocation under Natural Condi- 
tions. 58; the Inheritance of the Yellow Tinge in Sweet- 
pea Colouring, 160 

Thoday (Mrs.), Morphology of the Ovule of Gnetum 



Nature, 
March 23, igti 



Index 



xlv 



africannm, 59; the Inheritance of the Yellow Tinge in 
Sweet-pea Colouring, 160 

I homas (H. Hamshaw), the Leaves of Calamites, 496 

1 homas (H. H.), the Skomer Volcanic Series (Pembroke- 
shire), 530 

Thomas (Ivor), die Klimatischen Verhaltnisse der geolo- 
gischen Vorzeit vom Prascambrium an bis zur Jetztzeit 
und ihr Einfluss auf die Entwickelung der Haupttypen 
des Tier- und Pflanzenreiches, Dr. Emil Carthaus, 36 

Thomas (Oldfield), Mammals of the Tenth Edition of 
Linnaeus, 295 

Thomas (Mr.), the Geology of the South Wales Coalfield, 
386 

Thompson (Prof. D'Arcy W.), In Forbidden Seas, 510 

Thompson (M. S.), Excavations in Thessaly in 1910, 23 ; 
Distribution of Early Civilisation in Northern Greece 
in Relation to its Geographical Features, 450 

Thompson (Prof. W. H.), Nutritive Value of Beef Extract, 
27 

Thomson (D.), Some Enumerative Studies on Malarial 
Fever, 260 ; Case of Sleeping Sickness Studied by Precise 
Enumerative Methods, 260 

Thomson (Prof. J. Arthur), the Determination of Sex, 463 ; 
Darwinism and Human Life, 504 

Thomson Q. G.), Enumerative Studies on Trypanosoma 
gambiense and Trypanosoma rhodesiense in Rats, 
Guinea-pigs, and Rabbits, 260 ; Experiments on the 
Treatment of Animals Infected with Trypanosomes by 
Means of Atoxyl, Vaccines, Cold, X-Rays, and Leuco- 
cytic Extract, 260 

Thomson (Sir J. J., F.R.S.), Science and Engineering, 
Address at Junior Institution of Engineers, 122 ; New 
Method of Investigating the Positive Rays, 128; the 
Dynamics of a Golf Ball, Discourse at Royal Institution, 

Thomson EITects, Demonstration of Peltier and, S. G. 
Starling, 512 

Thornton (John), a Course of Elementarv Science, 5 

Thorpe (Sir T. Edward, C.B., F.R.S.), History of Chem- 
istry, 5 ; the Volume of the Kilogramme of Water, 
242 ; Travaux et M^moires du Bureau International des 
Poids et Mesures, 242 

Tian (M.), Nature of the Decomposition of Hydrogen 
Peroxide Solutions produced by Light, 227 

Tiger, the Life Story of a, Lt.-Col. A. F. Mockler-Ferry- 
man, 333 

Tilden (Sir William A., F.R.S.), Modern Scientific Re- 
search, Address at Vesey Club, 29 ; the Elements, 69 

Tillyard (R. J.), Experiments with Dragon-fly Larvae, 
228 ; Camacinia othello, 362 

Time, Accuracy of, on Magnetograms, G. W. Walker, 
236 

Tinazzi (Dr.), Application of the Dilatometric Method to 
the Study of the Polymorphism of the Alkali Nitrates, 86 

Tinsley (H. and Co.), a Simple and Strong Form of Vibra- 
tion Galvanometer based on the Kelvin Galvanometer, 240 

Tison (A.), Are the Gnetales Apetalous Angiosperms? 

Todd (G. W.), Mobility of the Positive Ions in Gases at 

Low Pressures, 129 
Tokyo, the New, Benjiro Kusakabe, 185 
Tolmachef (I. P.), Changes Made in the Map of the Coast 

between the Rivers Khatanga and Anabar, 317 
Tomb of Two Brothers, the, Miss M. A. Murray, 332 
Torday (E.), the Bu-Shongo of the Congo Free State, 

23 

rTornquist (Prof. A.), Geologie von Ostpreussen, 468 
~Touchet (Em.), Tracing the Solar Corona in Lunar 

Observations, 283 
foula (Franz), Investigations of a Pre-glacial or Inter- 

gflacial Bone-deposit near Kronstadt, 285 
Pownsend (Prof. E. J.), First Course in Calculus, 368 
Townsend (Prof. J. S., F.R.S.), Charges on Ions in Gases 

and some Effects that Influence the Motion of Neg^ative 

Ions, 394 ; the Theory of lonisation of Gases by Collision, 

400 
Toxicology : Vergiftungen durch Pflanzen und Pflanzen- 

stofTe, ein Grundriss der vegetalen Toxikologie fiir prak- 

tische Aerzte, Apotheker und Botaniker, Dr. F. 

Kanngiesser, Henry G. Greenish, 436 
foyama (K.), Silkworm Problems, 151 



Tozcr (Miss F.), Results of some Experiments indicating 

the Existence of Afferent Nerves in the Eye Muscles, 27 
Tracy (H. C), Significance of White Markings in Passerine 

Birds, 557 
Transandine Railway, the, Dr. John W. Evans, 219 
Transference of Names in Zoology, the, Dr. W. T. Caiman, 

406 
Transvaal Agricultural Journal, Dr. E. J. Russell, in 
Travis (W. R.), Small Microscope Lamp Particularly 
Suited for Opaque Objects and Dark-ground Illumination 
with High Powers, 361 
Tremearne (Capt. A. J. N.), Bull-fighting among the 
Fulani, 116; Folk-tales dealing with the Relations of 
Hausa Parents and Children, 146 
Trier (Dr. G.), die Alkaloide, 131 

Trigonometry, Prof. A. G. Hall and F. G. Frink, 368 
Trigonometry, the Theory of Elementary, Prof. D. K. 

Picken, 167 
Tropical Diseases, a Suggested Research Fund for, 28 
Trouessart (Prof. E. L.), Faune des Mammif^res d'Europ-, 3 
Trouessart (Dr. E.), Reported Discovery in the Congo of a 

New Mammal, 481 
Trouton (Prof. F. T.), Demonstration of the Phase Differ- 
ence between the Primary and Secondary Currents of a 
Transformer by Means of a simple Apparatus, 530 
True (H.), P2xperimental and Chemical Ocular Action of 

Bitumen Dust and Vapour, 65 
True (F. W.), Specimens of Beaked Whales (Ziphiidae) in 

the United States National Museum, 116 
Tschulok (Dr. Phil. S.), das System der Biologic in 

Forschung und Lehre, 37 
Tucker (Richard Froude), Death of, 114 
Tunzelmann (G. W. de), a Treatise on Electrical Theory 
and the Problem of the Universe, considered from the 
Phvsical Point of View, with Mathematical Appen- 
dices, 99 
Turkestan Earthquake of January 3-4, Rev. Walter Sid- 
greaves, 372 ; F. Edward Norris, 372 
Turner (Dr. Dawson), Results of the X-rays in Therapeutic 

Doses on the Growing Brains of Rabbits. 27 
Turner (Prof. H. H.), Accuracy of the Positions of the 
Star Images in the "Harvard Sky," 226; Recent 
Advance of " the Astronomical Regiment," 385 
Turner (R. E.), Fossorial Hymenoptera, 496 
Tutt (J. W ). Death of, 343 
Twort (E. W.), Method for Isolating and Growing the 

Lepra Bacillus of Man, 127 
Tyrrell (G. W.), Characters of Igneous Rocks in Southern 
Scotland, 387 



Underbill (Charles R.), Solenoids, Electromagnets, and 

Electromagnetic Windings, 432 
United States, the Conservation of Natural Resources in 

the, Charles R. Van Hise, 545 
United States Naval Observatory, 418 

University and Educational Intelligence, 32, 62, 93, i2->, 
. 158, 190, 223, 258, 294, 327, 360, 393, 426, 460, 494, 528, 

563 
Uranium, Tribo Luminescence of. Prof. W. A. Douglas 

Rudge, 207 ; Alfred C. G. Egerton, 308 
Urbain (E.), .'\rc Lamp having a Mercury Kathode and 

giving White Light. 497 
Urbain (G.), Sterilisation of Water on the Large Scale by 

Ultra-violet Light, 6^ ; New Element .Accompanying 
' Lutecium and Scandium in the Gadolinite Earths, 

Celtium, 429 



Vacca (Dr.), Theorv of Numbers, 86 

Valle (Dr. F.), Death of, 83 

Variabilitat niedcrer Organismen, die, Hans Pringsheim, 

C. Clifford Dobell, 501 
Variations, Lemons sur le Calcul des, Prof. J. Hadamard, 

197 
Vassall (A.), Practical Measurements, 202 
Vaupel (Dr. F.), Flora of the Samoa Islands, 382 
Vegard (L.), Studies of Magnetic Disturbances, 473 
Veiev (V. H.), Certain Physical and Physiological Pro- 
perties of Stovaine and its Homologues, 529 ; Effect of 
some Local Anaesthetics on Nerve, 529 



xlvi 



Index 



[ 



Nature, 
March 23, 1911 



Vermorel (V.), General Principles which Ought to be 
Followed in Establishing Formulae for Insecticides, 262 

Vernadsky (W.), Chemical Distinction between Orthose 
and Microcline, 328 

Verneuil (A.), Nature of the Oxides causing the Coloration 
of the Oriental Sapphire, 227; Preparation of the Black 
Enamel of the Italo-Greek Potteries, 565 

Vernon (Dr. H. M.), Dakin's Work on Oxidation of Fatty 
Acids and Ami no-acids by Hydrogen Peroxide and Traces 
of Ferrous Salts, 26 ; Results of some Experiments on 
the Combination of Poisons with the Contractile Sub- 
stance of Cardiac Muscle, 27 

Veronica prostrata, L., Tcucrium, L., und austriaca, L., 
nebst einem anhang iiber deren nachste verwandte, Dr. 
Bruno Watzl, 267 

Vertebrates, Guide to the British, Exhibited in the Depart- 
ment of Zoology, British Museum (Natural History), 234 

Vertebrates, Morphological Method and the Ancestry of, 
Prof. J. Graham Kerr, F.R.S., 203 

Verworn (Max), die Entwicklung des menschlichen Geistes, 

Vesey Club, Modern Scientific Research, Sir William A. 

Tilden, F.R.S., at, 29 
Vibrations of a Pianoforte Sound-board, G, H. Berry, 541 
Vickcrs (H. M.), an Apparently Hitherto Unnoticed 

" Anticipation " of the Theory of Natural Selection, 510 
V'illey (Jean), Measurement of Very Small Displacements 

by Means of the Electrometer, 34 
Vinall (J. W. T.), a Course of Drawing for the Standrads, 

268 ; Natural and Common Objects in Primary Drawing, 

268 
V^inet (E.), Lead Arsenate in Viticulture, 262 
Violle (I^.), the Ingestion of Mineral Acids in the Dog, 498 
Viticulture, Lead Arsenate in, L. Moreau and E. Vinet, 

^62 
Vivisection, the Truth about, 344 
Vogelwarte Rossitten der Deutschen Ornithologischen 

Gesellschaft und das Kennzeichnen der Vogel, die. Dr. 

J. Thienemann, 207 
Vogelwclt, Unleitung zur Beobachtung der, Dr. Carl 

Zimmer, 502 
Voice, the, Dr. W. A. Aitken, Prof. John G. McKendrick, 

F.R.S., 199 
Voice, the Abuse of the Singing and Speaking, Causes, 

Effects, and Treatment, Prof. E. J. Moure and A. 

Bowyer, Prof. John G. McKendrick, F.R.S., 199 
Voice in Speech and Song, the Brain and the, Prof. F. W. 

Mott, F.R.S., Prof. John G. McKendrick, F.R.S., 199 
Voigt (Prof.), Liquid Rendered Double Refracting by the 

Action of a Magnetic Field, 118 
Volcanoes : Matavanu : a New Volcano in Savaii (German 

Samoa), Dr. Tempest Anderson at Royal Institution, 92 
Volkmann (Paul), Erkenntnistheoretische Grundziige der 

Naturwissenschaften und ihre Beziehungen zum Geistes- 

leben der Gegenwart, 233 
Volume of the Kilogramme of Water, the, Sir T. Edward 

Thorpe, C.B., F.R.S., 242 

Wace (A. J. B.), Excavations in Thessaly in 1910, 23 ; 
Distribution of Early Civilisation in Northern Greece in 
Relation to its Geographical Features, 450 

Wager (Harold), Chromosome Reduction in the Hymeno- 
mycetes, 59 ; the Function and Fate of the Cystidia of 
Coprinus, 59 ; Effect of Gravity upon the Movements 
and Aggregation of Euglena viridis, Ehrb., and other 
Micro-organisms, 126 

Wahl (A.), Condensation of Acetic Ester with its Higher 
Homologues, 396 

Wahnschaffe (F.), Geologische Charakterbilder, ii., Grosse 
erratische Blocke im nord-deutschen Flachlande, 402 

Wainwright (Mr.), Colour Contrast in Photomicrography, 

319 

Walcott (Dr. C. D,), Progress of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, 526 

Waldo (Fullerton L.), Progress in the Construction of the 
Panama Canal, 21 

Walker (C. E.), Hereditary Characters and their Modes 
of Transmission, 536 

Walker (G. W.), an Electrostatic Voltmeter for Photo- 
graphic Recording of the Atmospheric Potential, 192 ; 
.Accuracy of Time on Magnetograms, 236 



Walker-Tisdale (C. W.), the Practice of Soft Cheese- 
making, 71 
Wallace (Dr. William), Encyclopedia agricole, Pisciculture, 

George Gu6naux, 163 
Wallach (Prof. Otto), Nobel Prize Awarded to, 82, 213 
Waller (Dr. Augustus D., F.R.S.), Physiology the Servant 
of Medicine, being the Hitchcock Lectures for 1909 
delivered at the University of California, Berkeley, Cal., 
465 
Wallis (B. C), the Teaching of Geography, 354 
Walpole (G. S.), Action of B. lactis aerogenes on Glucose 

and Mannitol, 427 
Walsh (Lt.-Col. J. H. Tull), Position of Birds' Nests in 

Hedges, 207 
Walter (Dr. H. E.), Variation in the Oyster-boring Whelk, 

20 
Walter (J. C), Stray Leaves on Travel, Sport, Animals, 

and Kindred Subjects, 270 
Walther (Prof. J.), Lehrbuch der Geologic von Deutsch- 

land, 468 
Warren (S. Hazzledene), Arctic Plants from the Valley 

Gravels of the River Lea, 206 
Water, the Volume of the Kilogramme of. Sir T. Edward 

Thorpe, C.B., F.R.S., 242 
Watney (Miss G. R.), Zonal Classification of the Salopian 

Rocks of Cautley and Ravenstonedale, 462 
Watson (D. M. S.), Some British Mesozoic Crocodiles, 

361, 429 
Watson (Dr. Malcolm), Drainage and Malaria, 471 
Watt (H. B.), Early Tree Planting in Scotland, 550 
Watzl (Dr. Bruno), Veronica prostrata L., Teucrium L., 
und austriaca L. nebst einem anhang iiber deren 
nachste verwandte, 267 
Wave-lengths, a System of Standard, Prof. Kayser, 151 
Wave-stirred Areas, the Limiting Line of Sedimentation 

in, A. R. Hunt, 72 
Weather Instruments and How to Use Them, D. W. 

Horner, 405 
Wedd (Mr.), the Geology of the Melton Mowbray District 

and South-east Nottinghamshire, 386 
Wedderburn (E. M.), Temperature Observations in the 
Madiisee (Pomerania), with Mathematical Discussion of 
Temperature Oscillations, 261 ; Experimental Verifica- 
tion of the Hydrodynamical Theory of Temperature 
Seiches, 261 
Weed (Mr.), Venomous Toad-fishes of the Genera 

Thalassophryne and Thalassothia, 84 
Wegner (Richard N.), Homo aurignacensis Hauseri, ein 
palasolithischer Skelettfund aus dem unteren Aurignaci- 
ender Station Combecapelle bei Montferrand (P^rigord), 
H. Klaatsch and O. Hauser, 119; die Aurignac-Rasse 
und ihre Stellung in Stammbaum der Menschheit, H. 
Klaatsch, 119 
Weinberg (M.), Mici-ostructure of Hailstones, 485 
Weiss (Prof. F. E.), Some Experiments on the Inherit- 
ance of Colour in the Pimpernel, 59 ; Sigillaria and 
Stigmariopsis, 361, 429 
Weiss (Pierre), New Property of the Magnetic Molecule, 
395 ; the Magnitude of Magneton deduced from the 
Coefficients of Magnetisation of Solutions of Iron Salts, 
565 
Welby (Lady), Sir F. Galton and Composite Photography, 

474 
Welch (Miss E. G.), Zonal Classification of the Salopian 

Rocks of Cautley and Ravenstonedale, 462 
Welch (Robert), List of the Land and Fresh-water 

Mollusca of Ireland, 296 
" Wellcome " Photographic Exposure Record and Diary, 

the, 1911, 201 
Weng (Gustav), Schopenhauer-Darwin : Pessimismus oder 

Optimismus, 403 
Wenley (Prof. R. M.), Kant and his Philosophical Revolu- 
tion, 404 
Wessex, the Heart of, S. Heath, 202 
West Indies, the Imperial Department of Agriculture in 

the, Sir Daniel Morris, K.C.M.G., at Royal Colonial 

Institute, 418 
West Indies, What Science has Done for the. Sir W. T. 

Thiselton-Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., 477 
West (Prof. G. S.), Remarkable New Species of Volvox 

Collected by Mr. Rousselet in Rhodesia, 278 



Nature, 
March 33, 1911) 



Index 



xlvii 



West (J. A.), Habits of the Common American Mole, 520 

Westcott (VV. Wynn), the Extra Pharmacopoeia of Martin- 
dale and Westcott, 10 1 

Whapham (R. H.). Notes on Applied Mechanics, 537 

Wheat : the Milling and Baking Qualities of Indian 
Wheat, Albert Howard and Gabrielle L. C. Howard, 
249 ; the Influence of Environment on the Milling and 
Baking Qualities of Wheat in India, Albert Howard, 
H. M. Leake, and Gabrielle L. C. Howard, 249; Wheat 
in India, its Production, Varieties, and Improvements, 
Albert Howard and L. C. Howard, 249 ; Memorandum 
on Indian Wheat for the British Market, Sir James 
Wilson, K.C.I.E., 547 

Wheat-growing and its Present-day Problems, Dr. E. J. 
Russell, 57 

Wheeler (G. C), the Tribe, and Intertribal Relations in 
Australia, 267 

Wheeler (Owen), a Primer of Photography, 332 

Whiddington (R.). Production and Properties of Soft 
Rontgen Radiation, 564 

Whipple (F. J. W.), the Public School Geometry, 167 

Whitaker (W., F.R.S.), Worked Flints from the Ipswich 
District, ii6 

" \Vhite Ants " and other Pests, Protection from. Will 
A. Dixon. 270 

White (H. J. Osborne), the Geology of the Country around 
A Ires ford, 386 

White (Miss M.), Results of the Hourly Balloon Ascents 
made from the Meteorological Department of the Man- 
chester University, March 18-19, *9io» 128 

White (Sir William), Relations of Science with Com- 
mercial Life, 90 

White (Sir William H.. K.C.B., F.R.S.), the John Fritz 
Medal Awarded to, 548 

Whitman (Dr. Charles Otis), Death of, 244 

Who's Who, 191 1, 304 

Wiener (Leo), Race known as the Ishmaelites, 549 

Wild Flowers of the British Isles, H. Isabel Adams, 134 

Willey (Dr. A.), the Southern Division of the Mannar 
Pearl-oyster Fishery, 148 ; Ceylonese Drum known as 
Udakiya. 344 

Williams (A.), Presence of Sanderlings on the Shores of 
Dublin Bay throughout July, 116 

Williams (A. M.). Experimental Verifications of the 
Hvdrodynamical Theory of Temperature Seiches, 261 

Williams (A. Stanley), Equatorial Current of Jupiter in 
1880, 226 

Williams (Dr. William), Death of, 548 

Williston (Prof. S. W.), Birthplace of Man in the Light 
of PaIa?ontolofifical Record, 247 

Willing's Press Guide and .Advertisers' Director}- and Hand- 
book, 405 

Wilson (.Alfred W. G.), Organisation and Work of the 
Department of Mines of Canada, 521 

Wilson (David), .Anecdotes of Big Cats and other Beasts. 

333 

Wilson (Prof. Ernest), New Method for Producing High 
Tension Discharges, 96 

Wilson (H. .A. F.), Influence of Bacterial Endotoxins on 
Phagocytosis, 127 

Wilson (Prof. James), the Origin of Dun Horses, 106 

Wilson (J. Bowie), the Mount Morgan Ore Deposits, 
Queensland, 128 

Wilson (Canon J. M.), Two Fragments of .Ancient Geo- 
metrical Treatises found in the Worcester Cathedral 
Librarv. 38.^ 

Wilson (W. H.), New Method for Producing High Tension 
Discharges, 96 

Wilson (Mr. and Mrs.), Recent Fireballs, 150 

Wine, .Analysis of, and other Spirituous Liquors, C. Sim- 
monds. 433 

Winter Whitening in Mammals, Note on. Major G. E. H. 
Barrett-Hamilton, 42 

Winterstein (Prof. E.), die .Alkaloide, 131 

Wireless Telegraphv : Wireless Telegrams direct from 
Canada and Massowah, 82 ; Eiffel Tower used for Daily 
Transmission of Time-signals to Ocean-going Vessels 
bv means of Wireless Telegraphy, 114; Present Position 
of Wireless Telegraphy, Dr. Karl Strecker, n8 ; Tele- 
phonic and Radio-telegraphic Comparisons of Chrono- 
meters bv the Method of Coincidences between Paris and 



Brest, MM. Claude. F"erri^, and Driencourt, 161 ; New 
Experiments in Stimulation by Shocks in, Br. Glatzel, 
227 ; Some Improvements in Transmitters and Receivers 
for Wireless Telegraphy, Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S., 
248; Telegraphic Message from the ss. Cedric, 314; 
Experiments in Wireless Telegraphy from an Aeroplane, 
A. Senouque, 463 

Witherby (.Mr.), the Irish Jay, 381 

Woburn Experimental Fruit Farm, Twelfth Report of the, 
Duke of Bedford, K.G., F.R.S., and S. U. Pickering, 71 

Wodehouse (Dr. Helen), the Presentation of Reality, 269 

Wolf (Dr. Max), the Spectrum "of the .American Nebula, 
282 ; the Total Eclipse of the Moon, November 16, 1910, 
319; Nova Lacerta;, 384, 453, 523. 552 

Wolffsche Begriffsbestimmungen, Prof. Julius Baumann. 

367 
WolterstorfF (W.). Naturdenkmalpflcge und Aquarienkunde, 

no 
Woman, Mating, Marriage, and the Status of. James Corin. 

334 
Women, the Admission of. to the French Academies, 342, 

372 
Women of All Nations, 537 

Wood (F. E.), Habits of the Common .American Mole, 520 
Wood (H. E.), Halley's Comet, 349 
Wood (Mrs. H. E.), Mars and its .Atmosphere, 486 
Wood (Sir H. Trueman), Industrial England in the Middle 

of the Eighteenth Century, 299 
Wood (Prof.). Errors of .Agricultural Experiments, 25 ; 

Feeding Value of Mangels, 161 
Wood-Jones (Dr. F.), the Cocos-Keeling .Atoll, 41, 106, 

139; the Archaeological Survey of Nubia, Report on the 

Human Remains, 310 
Woodcraft for Scouts and Others, O. Jones and M. Wood- 
ward, 303 
Woodhead (Prof. G. Sims), Practical Pathology. 434 
Woods (Mr.), Southern Nebulae, 1552 
Woodward (A. M.), Group of Prehistoric Sites Excavated in 

South-west Asia Minor, 23 
Woodward (Dr. .A. S.), Excavations in the Cavern of La 

Cotte, St. Brelade's Bay (Jersey), made during Present 

Year by the Jersey Society of .Antiquaries, 261 
Woodward (M.), Woodcraft for Scouts and Others. 303 
Woodward (Dr. R. S.), the Carnegie Institution of 

Washington and its Work, 74 
Wootton (.A. C), Chronicles of Pharmacy, 308 
Worssell (Mr.), Halley's Comet, 350 ; .Absorbing Matter 

in Space, 453 
Worthington (Prof. A. M., C.B., F.R.S.), the Markings 

of Mars, 372 
Worthington (James H.). Markings of Mars. 40 
Wratten (Mr.), Colour Contrast in Photomicrographv, 319 
Wright (C. H.), Fk>ra of the Falkland Islands. Jo6 ' 
Wright (C. S."). .Atmosoheric Electricity over the Ocp^n, 462 
Wrieht ^Dr. W. H.), Lines in the Spectra of Nebulae, 454 ; 

Polarisation in the Spectrum of o Ceti, 486 
Writers' and .Artists' Year Book, the, 304 
\Vurtz (Dr. Henry), Death of, 146 

Yatsu (N.), Germinal Localisation in the Egg of Cere- 
bratulus, 5.^0 

Yorke (Dr. W.), .Autoagglutination of Red Blood Cells in 
Trypanosomiasis, 427 

Young (Prof. R. B.), Gold of the Banket Conglomerate 
of the Rand Imported, with the Pyrite, after the Deposi- 
tion of the Beds, 5j;5 _ 

Young (Dr. W. H.), the Fourier Constants of a Function, 
462 

Zach (Dr. F.), Cytological Investigation of Corn Rust, ^45 
Zakrzewski (Dr. Const.), Measurements made on the Dis- 
persion of Metallic Bodies in the Visible Spectrum, 179- 
180 
Zammit (T.), Neolithic Interment Discovered between 

.Attard and Nobile, 24^ 
Zdarskv (.A.), Miocene Mammalia of Loeben, 285 
Zenneck fProf. J.), Fixation of .Atmospheric Nitrogen, 556 
Ziegler (Prof. Heinrich Ernst), der Begriff des Instinktes 

einst und jetzt. 539 
Zimmer (Dr. Carl), Unleitung zur Beobachtung der 
Vogelwelt, 502 



xlviii 



Index 



Nature , 
March, 23, ,1911 



Zoology: Faune des Mamniif^res d 'Europe, Prof. E. L. 
Trouessart, 3 ; British Mammals, Major G. E. H. 
Barrett-Hamilton, 6 ; New Antelope, Tragelaphus 
buxtoni, Mr. Lydekker, 19 ; Egrets formerly Common 
in England, F. J. Stubbs, 20; Origin of Dun Horses, 
Prof. J. C. Ewart, F.R.S., 40; Prof. James Wilson, 
106; Dun Coat Colour in the Horse, J. B. Robertson, 
138 ; the Cocos-Keeling Atoll, Rev. E. C. Spicer, 41 ; 
F. Wood-Jones, 41, 106, 139; the Reviewer, 42, 106; 
Madge W. Drummond, 107, 206 ; Note on Winter 
Whitening in Mammals, Major G. E. H. Barrett- 
Hamilton, 42 ; Certain Teeth from a Cavern in Cuba, 
Dr. F. Ameghino, 48 ; Place of Economic Zoology in a 
Modern University, Prof. Hickson, 48 ; Death of A. E. 
Brown, 82; Are Mules Fertile?, Prof. J. C. Ewart, 
F.R.S., 106; Specimens of Beaked Whales (Ziphiidae) 
in the United States National Museum, F. W. True, 116; 
Zoology in the Indian Empire, 122; Mimicry in Ceylon 
Butterflies, Prof. Punnett, 122; Pipe-fishes, Syngnathida;, 
from Rivers of Ceylon, George Duncker, 122 ; New 
Genus of Psychodid Diptera from the Himalaya and 
Travancore, Dr. Annandale, 122 ; Larvae of a Common 
Calcutta Mosquito, known as Toxorhynchites ini- 
misericors, C. A. Pavia, 122 ; a Monograph of the British 
Nudibranchiate MoUusca, with Figures of the Species, 
Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.M.G., 133 ; Echinoderma of the 
Indian Museum, Prof. Ren^ Koehler, 134; Experiments 
on the Occurrence of the Web-foot Character in 
Pigeons, J. Lewis Bonhote, 160; Lacerta pelo- 
ponnesiaca, Bibr., G. A. Boulenger, 160; Zoological 
Society, 160, 226, 295 ; Systematic Position of the 
Species of Squalodon and Zeuglodon described from 
Australia and New Zealand, T. S. Hall, 160 ; Battle for 
Existence in the Madrepores of Coral Reefs. Ch. Gravier, 
161-2 ; the Song of the Siamang Gibbon, R. I. Pocock, 
170; New Species of Peripatus, Dr. R. Horst. 177; 
Reptiles of the World, Tortoises and Turtles, Crocodiles, 
Lizards, and Snakes of the Eastern and Western Hemi- 
spheres, R. L. Ditmars, 196 ; Morphological Method and 
the Ancestry of Vertebrates, Prof. J. Graham Kerr, 
F.R.S., 203 ; a Monograph of the Okapi, Sir E. Ray 



Lankester, K.C.B., F.R.S., and Dr. W. G. Ridewooil 
Sir H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 209; Sir R.ix 
Lankestcr's Book on the Okapi, Sir K. Ray Lankcst* 1 
K.C.B., F.R.S., 305: Sir H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.(. 
K.C.B., 306; the Alimentary Tract of Certain Bird- 
and on the Mesenteric Relations of the Intestinal Looj)- 
F. E. Beddard, 226 ; Development of Solaster endecu 
Forbes, Dr. J. F. Gemmill, 226; Guide to the Briti>i 
Vertebrates Exhibited in the Department of Zoology, 
British Museum (Natural History), 234 ; Death of Dr. 
Charles Otis Whitman, 244 ; the Encyclopadia of .Sport 
and Games, 274 ; Medus;e of the World, Alfred Golds- 
borough Mayer, 285 ; Mammals of the Tenth Edition of 
Linnaeus, Oldfield Thomas, 295 ; Report of the Inter- 
national Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, Dr. 
W. E. Hoyle, 295; Anecdotes of Big Cats and other 
Beasts, David Wilson, 333 ; the Life Story of a Tiger, 
Lt.-Col. A. F. Mockler-Ferryman, 333 ; Anton Dohrn, 
Gedachtnisrede gehalten auf den Internationalcn Zoologen- 
Kongress in Graz am 18 August, 19 10, Prof. Th. Boveri, 
334 ; Murrayona phanolepis, a New Type of Sponge from 
Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, Dr. R. Kirkpatrick, 
345 ; Unio picioruni, U. tutnidus, and Onodonta cygnea, 
Margaret C. March, 361, 429 ; Anatomy and Develop- 
ment of the Marsupialia, J. J. Flynn, 362 ; Animals for 
the Zoological Gardens at Giza, Capt. Stanley Flower, 
381 ; Non-calcareous Sponges from the Red Sea, 
R. W. H. Row, 395 ; Leitfaden fur das zoologische 
Praktikum, Prof. Willy Kukenthal, 400 ; Index to 
Desor's Synopsis des Echinides Fossiles, Dr. F. A. 
Bather, F.R.S., 404; the Transference of Names in 
Zoology, Dr. W. T. Caiman, 406 ; Protozoa Parasitic 
in the Large Intestine of Australian Frogs, Janet W. 
Raff, 430 ; New York Zoological Park, 450 ; Guide to 
the Crustacea, Arachnida, Onychophora, and Myriopoda 
Exhibited in the Department of Zoology, British Museum 
(Natural History), 505 ; the Woodlice of Ireland, their 
Distribution and Classification, D. R. Pack-Beresford 
and Nevin H. Foster, 531 ; a Text-book of Zoologv, 
Prof. T. J. Parker, F.R.S., and Prof. W. A. Haswell, 
F.R.S., Prof. F. W. Gamble, F.R.S., 533 




A WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

'* To the solid ground 
Of Xature trusts the mind which builds for aye." Wordsworth. 



THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 3, 1910. 



THEORETICAL MECHANICS. 
Cours de Mecaniqiie Rationelle et Experimentale, 
specialement ecrit pour les physiciens et les in- 
genieurs, conforme au programme du certificat de 
mecaniqiie rationelle. By Prof. H. Bouasse. Pp. 
692. (Paris : Ch. Delagrave, n.d.) Price 20 francs. 

A NOTICEABLE feature of this treatise on 
theoretical mechanics is the large number of 
practical examples discussed. The majority of these 
are of a physical rather than an engineering char- 
acter, some of them dealing with physical apparatus. 
Investigations of oscillations under various conditions 
occupy a considerable part of the book. The author 
claims mechanics as a branch of phvsics, the first 
diapter of physics, and aims at supplying a treatise 
of the kind which is likely to be useful to those whose 
interest in the subject depends on its applications to 
practical physical questions. He protests against the 
unpractical character of the French treatises on the 
subject written b}' mathematicians, and of the ques- 
tions asked in examinations. 

To a considerable extent the book fulfils its aim. 
It contains a great deal of information (including some 
Useful fragments of mathematics connected only inci- 
dentally with mechanics), and it is for the most part 
written in a pleasant, lucid style, slightly marred by 
occasional eccentricities. As much of the theor\- is 
included as is generally needed for practical use, no 
attempt being made to restrict the use of mathe- 
matical methods. There are, however, some slips. 
An important one, which should puzzle a reader un- 
acquainted with the subject, occurs in the investiga- 
tion of Euler's equations. Occasionally also the 
methods adopted are clumsy or unduly ponderous. 

A case of ponderous treatment of theory occurs in 
so simple a matter as the investigation of the com- 
position of angular velocities. The author hints at 
reasons, not fullv explained, which appear to him to 
make it desirable, " in order to avoid all difficulty," 
to derive the composition of angular velocities from 
the study of a succession of finite angular displace- 
NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



ments. He goes on to discuss the theor\^ of this at 

considerable length, a rather tiresome procedure. 

Now the meaning of the composition of simul- 
taneous motions is not a very easy thing to under- 
stand, and ought to be a matter for clear definition. 
Without a definition, expressed or implied, it is un- 
intelligible. Prof. Bouasse does not give a definition 
of it, but he implies that the resultant motion 
is to be calculated from the limiting case 
of successive displacements when these are 
small. Such a method of treatment is not un- 
common, but surelv the method afforded by the con- 
sideration of relative motions taking place simul- 
taneously is preferable. In the case of angular 
velocities, the mounting of a body in gimbals provides 
the mechanism which is needed for a clear conception 
of the composition, the angular velocity of the body 
being the resultant of its angular velocity relative to 
an intermediate base and the angular velocit}.- of this 
base relative to the final one. The difference between 
the two methods of treatment is not solely one of 
style. The resultant is given by either method, and 
an experienced reader would pay no attention to any 
other feature of the arrangement adopted. But in- 
experienced readers, for whom the more elementary- 
parts of a book like this must be intended, might 
reasonably be puzzled by perceiving that successive 
displacements do not give results identical in all re- 
spects with what is proposed. The path of a point of 
the moving body remains a zigzag up to the limit, and 
if the length of this path were the thing to be cal- 
culated the method of successive displacements would 
not give a correct result. If the limit of successive 
displacements is to be regarded as the definition of 
the composition, it ought to be a correct method for 
calculating everything about the motion. 

It might be expected that a professor of physics, 
who regards mechanics as a branch of his subject, 
would give some attention in detail to the physical 
laws which form the basis of his calculations. Our 
author, however, frankly ridicules the idea of ques- 
tioning the truth of them, and does not even take the 
trouble to state them correctly. He professes to deal 
with the subject from the beginning, but any reader 

B 



NATURE 



[November 3, 1910 



who had no previous knowledge of it would be be- 
wildered. No pure mathematician could be more 
careless as to what the equations which he desires to 
write down are based upon, or show less interest in 
the question whether the results to which they lead 
are verified. Moreover, he does not explicitly refer 
to the base, relative to which the motions studied are 
reckoned, according to the theory which he is using, 
or appear to take any interest in the remarkable fact 
that the observed motions of bodies define such a 
base, which presumably has some relation to other 
physical phenomena. The only occasion on which he 
attempts to deal with the foundations of the subject 
is in connection with the law of action and reaction 
in statics, the treatment of which is clumsy and un- 
convincing-, perhaps even unintelligible. 

As in tne case of the rest of physics, there are two 
ways of looking at mechanics, each of which has its 
own proper place. One is to regard all parts of the 
subject as coordinated by means of a generalisation 
which is as comprehensive as possible. The 
other is to aim rather at isolating the points 
involved in the subject, so that any degree of inde- 
pendence which they possess may be recognised, and 
so that it may as much as possible be seen how far 
the most precisely ascertained results carry us, and 
whether a doubt cast on any particular doctrine 
affects the whole foundation of the subject or 
not. Though the attainment of the former is the 
constant aim of scientific study, the latter is the 
proper attitude in which to approach it, and it seems 
to be a mistake to write the first chapter of physics in 
a different spirit. W. H. M, 



CANNIZZARO'S COURSE OF CHEMICAL 
PHILOSOPHY. 

Sketch of a Course of Chemical Philosophy. By 
Stanislao Cannizzaro (1858). Alembic Club re- 
prints. No. 18. Pp. iv + 55. (Edinburgh: The 
Alembic Club, 19 10.) 

Tp"HE Alembic Club have done well at this juncture 
J- to publish a translation of Cannizzaro's famous 
letter to De Luca — a letter which, to use Davy's 
phrase in connection with an equally memorable pro- 
nouncement, acted like an alarm-bell on Europe. In- 
deed, now that he has joined the majority, no more 
fitting monument to the perspicacity and genius of 
the great Italian chemist could be conceived than the 
publication, in the form of an admirably executed 
translation, of that statement of doctrine which 
astonished and ultimately convinced the chemical 
world of the mid-Victorian epoch. 

To the chemists of the present age it is hardly 
possible to convey an idea of the profound sensation 
which this letter created. The effect was immediate 
and irresistible. At that time the name of Canniz- 
zaro was hardlv known beyond a limited circle of 
French and Italian men of science. With the appear- 
ance of the message came the conviction that a 
Daniel had come to judgment — that a prophet and a 
law-giver had arisen amongst us. The middle period 
of the last century was a time of political ferment 
NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



and social unrest, and here and there it culminated ii 
revolution. It was equally a period of disturbanci 
and upset in other spheres of human activity than 
politics and sociology. In chemistry, more perhaps 
than in the case of any other science at that time, the 
old order was changing, but the process was destruc- 
tive rather than constructive. Old faiths were being 
undermined and thrown down, but the new dogmas 
had not stability enough to supplant them. 

Cannizzaro's letter appeared at what, in the cant- 
phrase, is termed the psychological moment. It 
brought order, method, and arrangement into what 
hitherto had been a mass of inconsistency and con- 
tradiction. Its logic was so clear, its appeal to history 
and to well-ascertained fact so irrefutable, its state- 
ment of proof so admirably marshalled, that criticism 
was silenced, and the doubter disarmed. Before a 
decade had passed its principles were everywhere 
accepted, and it is not too much to say that Canniz- 
zaro_ effected a revolution in chemical thought as 
momentous in its way as the revolution he was sub- 
sequently concerned in bringing about in the political 
development of Italy. 

To the student of chemistry it would be superfluous 
to enter into an analysis of Cannizzaro's letter, as 
its principles are now intimately woven into the web 
of modern chemical doctrine. Indeed, so indissolubly 
associated is the fundamental basis of Cannizzaro's 
chemical philosophy with the chemical philosophy of 
to-day that the statement of these principles, or of 
the course of argument upon which they are based, 
would have the semblance of a platitude. But we can 
assure the student that, however familiar he may be 
with the outcome of the doctrine with which the name 
of Cannizzaro will be imperishably connected, he will 
read with admiration and delight the pronunciamento 
in which the Genoese chemist makes known to his 
friend and colleague, and through him to the world, 
the dogma of what was henceforth to be the new- 
chemistry — with admiration for the extraordinary per- 
spicacity and conviction of its argument, and with 
delight at the simplicity and force of its statement. 

T. 



PRUNING OF FRUIT TREES. 

Fruit Tree Pruning. A Practical Text-book for Fruit- 
growers working under the Climatic and Econoinic 
Conditions prevailing in Temperate Australia. By 
George Quinn. Pp. vi + 230. (Adelaide, Australia: 
R. E. E. Rogers, Acting Government Printer, 1910.) 
Price IS. 3d. 

THE pruning of fruit trees is an operation that de- 
mands, on the part of the operator, first, an inti- 
mate knowledge of the natural habits of the particular 
trees, and, in the second place, considerable experience 
of the general results which follow a proper system 
of pruning. Unfortunately, every gardener and 
amateur who cultivates ever so few trees gets the 
conviction that, come what will, he must prune, and, if 
he is ignorant of the methods, nevertheless he 
mutilates the branches and imagines that his trees 
will respond satisfactorily to the treatment given 



J 



November 3, 19 10] 



NATURE 



them. In these circumstances it is not to be wondered 
at if the value of pruning in any form or degree 
has come to be questioned by certain fruit-growers 
and experimentalists, who have had very little diffi- 
'.ttter to expose all parts of the tree to the sun and 
t diminishing the crop. 

It still remains incontrovertible, however, that young 
trees are benefited by a moderate degree of pruning 
if this is carried out by intelligent operators possessing 
rhe knowledge and experience necessary for the task. 

ach pruning is necessary for forming a proper 
■ oundation for the tree, for the removal of cross- 
branches, and the thinning out of the centre in order 
to better expose all parts of the tree to the sun and 
air. 

This volume, prepared by the horticultural in- 

ructor for the Department of Agriculture, South 
vustralia, under the direction of the Hon. Minister 
: Agriculture, is issued for the purpose of teaching 
the technique of pruning to fruit-growers having to 
work under the climatic and economic conditions 
prevailing in temperate Australia. The author's quali- 
fications for teaching are clearly shown in his sensible 
and pertinent remarks upon the facts on which the 
l.eory of pruning is based, and his description of the 
bjects the pruner seeks to obtain. Having instructed 
the reader in these matters, he describes the opposite 
effects of winter and summer pruning, the parts 
of a tree, and their different values ; also the 
forms of tree to be encouraged, and the best means 
of developing fruit-bearing wood in place of foliaceous 
but barren branches. He n(.'Xt passes to a descrip- 
tion of the specific treatment of different kinds of 
fruit, including apricot, plum, cherry, almond, peach, 
apple, pear, quince, fig, orange, lemon, and loquat. 

There are 200 illustrations from photographs, most 
of these being valuable as a means of explaining the 
text, but others are inferior, and their omission would 
not have detracted from the appearance of the volume. 



UNCONSCIOUS MEMORY. 
Unconscious Metnory. By Samuel Butler. New 
edition. With an Introduction by Prof. Marcus 
Hartog. Pp. xxxvii+186. (London: A. C. Fifield, 
Clifford's Inn, E.C., 1910.) Price 5^. net. 
TT is probable that Butler will live in history as the 
-*• writer of " Erewhon," but his more serious works, 
dealing with what may be called the philosophical 
side of biology, are still worth reading, and Mr. 
Fifield's re-issue will be welcomed by many. The 
volume under review consists partly of rather personal 
polemic against Darwin, and partly of a further de- 
velopment of Butler's views as expressed in his " Life 
and Habit." These views may be summarised as 
follows. 

It is a fact of hourly observation that practice makes 
things easy which once were difficult (e.g., the play- 
ing of a sonata), and even results in their being done 
without consciousness of effort. It follows that the 
fact of an intricate action being done unconsciously 
is an argument for the supposition that it must have 
been done repeatedly already. Now take the case of 
NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



a newly-hatched chicken, which pecks at once and 
perfectly. How is this? It is because something in 
the chicken remembers having pecked before, and 
consequently knows how to do it. An individual is 
not a new being ; it — or part of it — has existed in the 
bodies of its parents. Thus heredity is memory. 
Cells remember what they have done before, and 
know how to do it again. 

This, followed to its conclusion, involves the attri- 
bution of some kind of intelligence even to atoms. 
Indeed, we can hardly avoid it. Atoms have their 
likes and dislikes. Carbon and oxygen are sociable, 
fluorine is reserved and stand-offish. " The distinc- 
tion between inorganic and organic is arbitrary." 
(This view is closely akin to that of Haeckel.) All 
action is purposive and intelligent. When an organ- 
ism develops a new quality, it is because the organism 
has felt the need of it. Evolution is therefore 
teleological from within ; differentiation of species, 
and variations of all kinds, are not entirely due (or 
as much as Charles Darwin supposed) to natural 
selection. Here Butler follows Buffon, Lamarck, and 
Erasmus Darwin. 

Mr. G. Bernard Shaw has said that Butler was, in 
his department, the greatest English writer of the 
latter half of the nineteenth century; and, though 
he was only a dilettante, it is surprising how 
illuminating and suggestive his ideas seem, even now, 
thirtv or forty years after first publication. It is note- 
worthy that Dr. Francis Darwin quoted him with 
special approbation in his presidential address before 
the British Association in 1908. 

Prof. Marcus Hartog furnishes a useful introduc- 
tion, discussing Butler's whole work and his place 
in the history of science. 

The first edition of " Unconscious Memory " was 
reviewed in Nature, January 27, 1881. 



THE MAMMALS OF EUROPE. 
Faiine des Mammiferes d'Europe. By Prof E.-L. 
Trouessart. Pp. xvii + 266. (Berlin: R. Fried- 
lander and Sohn, 1910.) Price 12 marks. 
IN issuing an up-to-date descriptive catalogue of the 
mammals of Europe Prof. Trouessart has conferred 
a real and lasting benefit on zoological science, sincj. 
owing to the great increase of species and races du 
to modern methods of discrimination, the well-known 
work of Blasius has long been practically useless. 
Indeed, if the two works be compared, it might at 
first sight be difficult to believe that they treat of the 
same subject, so great has been the increase in the 
last few vears in the number of recognisably distinct 
forms, and so extensive the changes in nomenclature. 
Nowadays views differ — and will probably continue to 
differ — SiS to the limitations of species and races; but 
Dr. Trouessart appears inclined in most cases to use 
the former term in the most restricted sense. Justify- 
ing himself in doubtful instances by the dictum of 
Desmarest that " il est plus misable de trop reunir que 
de trop diviser," he might, if we remember rightly, 
have supported an opposite view by a statement of 
Huxley to the effect that it is more important to re- 



NATURE 



[November 3, 1910 



cognise resemblances than to overlook differences; 
and in the excessive multiplication of genera and 
species (as distinct from division into races) there is 
undoubtedly a great danger of losing sight of mutual 
affinities. 

As instances of this multiplication, reference may 
be made to the specific separation of the Irish from 
the Scotch hare, of the Scotch from the English wild 
cat, and of the British from the Continental water- 
rats. On the other hand, the British squirrel is re- 
garded merely as a local race of the Continental 
species, a classification difficult to reconcile with that 
adopted in the case of the species just mentioned. 
Whatever may be individual views on such matters, we 
venture to think that most naturalists will agree in 
objecting to the principle of introducing the names 
of one or more species between those of the typical 
form and the races of another, as is done in the case 
of the wild cats. In regard to generic grouping, it 
may be mentioned that, in the case of mice, the 
long-tailed species appears as Mus sylvaticus, and the 
harvest-mouse as Apodemus minutus, whereas the 
latter (if generic spHtting be adopted), should be 
Micromys tninutus, and the former Apodemus 
sylvaticus. The weasels, again, are included in the same 
genus as the polecats, from which they are sundered 
by many modern naturalists. As regards the distri- 
bution of the European fauna, the author recognises 
four distinct areas, viz., Central European, Arctic, 
Eastern or Steppe, and African or Mediterranean. 

While congratulating Dr. Trotiessart on the com- 
pletion of a laborious task, we may take the oppor- 
tunity of mentioning that his work strongly em- 
phasises and confirms a reply the present writer was 
compelled to make some months ago to Dr. A. R. 
Wallace, namely, that to give, even approximately, 
the number of species of mammals inhabiting the 
various zoological provinces is, under present con- 
ditions, an absolute impossibility. It is very largely 
a case of "go as you please." R. L. 

THE SCIENCE OF PATHOLOGY. 
The Principles of Pathology. By Prof. J. G. Adami, 
F.R.S., and Prof. A. G. Nicholls, F.R.S. (Can.). 
Vol. II., Systemic Pathology. Pp. xvi+1082. 
London: Henry Frowde and Hodder and Stoughton, 
1910.) Price 305. net. 

THIS second volume of Prof. Adami 's great work 
on the science of pathology deals with systemic 
pathology-^the pathology of the individual tissues and 
organs of the body, or special pathology, as it is often 
termed^ — and has been written in conjunction with his 
colleague, Prof. Nicholls. In the preface the authors 
offer an (unneeded) apology for the bulkiness of the 
first voluiTbe on general pathology (reviewed in Nature 
of November 25, 1909, vol. Ixxxii., p. 94), and the 
relative brevity of this second volume, for many would 
consider that special pathology requires at least double 
the space devoted to general pathology. They point 
W't, howevfer, that, provided the student has acquired 
a good grasp of general pathology, he has but to apply 

no". 2140, VOL. 85] 



those principles in order to become possessed of a 
sound basis of special pathology, a proposition with 
which we are in complete agreement. 

But for the inclusion, therefore, of the pathology of 
the blood and cardio-vascular system, and also of the 
disorders of function as well as of structure of the 
various organs, even the present volume might have 
been curtailed in length. At the same time, we think 
that this attempt at brevity has in some cases been 
carried too far, and although the subjects may have 
been dealt with at length in the first volume on general 
pathology, some repetition would not have been out 
of place. As instances, we may mention the 
bare reference to diabetes in the section dealing with 
the pancreas, and the omission of blackwater fever 
as a disease in which haemoglobinuria occurs. Other- 
wise, we confess we have found little to criticise, and 
the work gives a very full and accurate account of the 
subject. 

Each organ is dealt with on a systematic plan ; first 
a brief summary of its developmental history, ana- 
tomical structure and physiological functions, followed 
by a description of the congenital and acquired abnor- 
malities, circulatory disturbances, inflammations and 
parasitic Infections, and retrogressive and progressive 
metamorphoses to which it may be subject. In the 
division devoted to the blood and cardio-vascular 
system, the sections dealing with leukaemia seem some- 
what brief in view of the importance of the subject, 
and no mention is made of cases of the lymphatic 
variety in which the total number of leucocytes is not 
markedly increased, but in which nearly all the leuco- 
cytes present are lymphocytes. In the section dealing 
with pernicious anaemia also no mention is made of 
the almost invariable leucopenia present, a point of 
considerable diagnostic importance in the numerous 
cases in which the blood picture is not typical. In 
discussing the origin of oedema, the authors hold that 
the facts demand the assumption (with Heidenhain) 
that the lymphatic and capillary endothelium is en- 
dowed with a certain grade of selective secretory 
activity. 

In the section dealing with the diseases of the nose 
it is surely not expedient to refer to the common 
polvpus as a "poljp," a term which now has a more 
or less definite zoological signification. 

We congratulate the authors heartily on the com- 
pletion of their labours; the work is not a mere com- 
pilation, but is the outcome of a ripe personal know- 
ledge of the subject. Divergent views are stated fairly, 
and if the authors' views do not always agree with 
those current, the reasons are given, and they merit 
careful consideration. 

The book is profusely illustrated with plates and 
figures (some coloured), drawn or photographed directly 
from patients, specimens, and sections, which are 
admirably reproduced. We think it a mistake, how- 
ever, not to have given the magnification of the photo- 
micrographs ; simply to state, as is done, the lenses 
with which the photographs were taken does not 
sufficiently indicate the magnification of the object 
depicted. 



November 3, 1910] 



NATURE 



OUR BOOK SHELF. 

Household Foes. A Book for Boys and Girls. By 
Alice Ravenhill. Pp. xxiii + 359. (London : Sidg- 
wick and Jackson, Ltd., 1910.J Price 2s. 6d. 

Miss Ravenhill has written this small work with the 
bject of arousing the interests of boys and girls in 
:\e practice of daily domestic cleanliness, and at the 
ime time of furnishing them with reasons for this 
: actice. She also aims at indicating the links which 
.aould be made to connect school lessons with home 
habits, and prominence is given to the value of good 
habits and to the necessity for their constant daily 
practice. She directs attention to the broad educa- 
tional value of the subject of '"hygiene," in exercising 
observation and reason, and in cultivating the habit 
of tracing effects to their causes. The text of most 
: the chapters is "dirt"— the dirt of home surround- 
;.gs, of air, water, and food; and at the end of each 
chapter references are given to works in which the 
subject-matter may be further studied and developed, 
ore especiallv on the practical and experimental 
de. Young people are slow to learn that there are 
no rights apart from responsibilities, which in this 
connection include duties to self, to home, to com- 
munitv, to empire, and to race; it is well, therefore, 
that Miss Ravenhill devotes her two concluding 
chapters to "the citizen's power to control dirt, decay, 
and disease," and "imperial safeguards against dirt 
and disease." 

Hygiene has gradually found a footing in the 
elementary school code ; but one cannot hope, for 
some years to come, to get the best results of this 
teaching and training, for the reason that school 
teachers as a body do not possess the necessar^f know- 
ledge to enable them to present the subject with judg- 
ment and discrimination. This small work well 
serves as a ven,- useful guide to them, and to this end 
it is perhaps the best statement hitherto published, 
for the essential facts are dealt with in an appropriate 
and impressive manner, and the book contains little 
(if anything) which is unsuitable or unnecessary, while 
the authoress tells practically all that it is necessary 
to tell. A child with the elementary- knowledge of 
hygiene which Miss Ravenhill seeks to convey, and 
trained to act in accordance with its precepts, should 
be well equipped from the standpoint of hygiene. The 
book may be confidently recommended to all those 
parents and teachers who are concerned with the 
. education of the young. 

History of Chennstrw By Sir Edward Thorpe, C.B., 
F.R.S. Vol. i.. From the Earliest Times to the 
Middle of the Nineteenth Century. Pp. viii+148. 
Vol. ii.. From 1850 to 1910. Pp. viii+152. (Issued 
for the Rationalist Press Association, Ltd.) 
(London : Watts and Co., 1909 and 19 10.) Price 
\s. net each volume. 

Sir Edward Thorpe, who has enriched chemical 
literature with so many valuable biographical contri- 
butions, has added greatly to our indebtedness bv the 
publication of these two' small volumes of chemical 
histor}-. In method and st\le thev follow the emin- 
ently readable work of Thomas Thomson, which has 
been so long out of print, and in many respects out 
of date, and the modern student is now' supplied with 
a brief history- of chemistr>% which is well within his 
intellectual and material means, and cannot fail 
to add greatly to the interest of his studies. The 
divorce of historical and other human interest from the 
study of science, resulting from our examination svstem, 
is greatly to be deplored. It gives good ground for the 
allegations of ariditv so often made against scientific 
teaching and scientific text-books, and it deprives the 
NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



student of much that would aid him in the comprehen- 
sion of modern chemical theory. It is to be hoped 
that these volumes will have a very wide circulation, 
and that students may be encouraged to proceed to 
study some of the works which are indicated in the 
appended bibliographies. 

The first volume, beginning with the chemistr>- of 
the ancients, brings the reader to the early part of 
the nineteenth centur\-, whilst the second volume 
follows the subject to the present day. This last 
volume is naturally highly compressed, but, like the 
first, it bears the imprint of a master-hand in the 
exact and readable presentation of chemical history. 
A series of admirable portraits is inserted throughout 
the work. A. S. 

A Course of Elementary Science, Practical and De- 
scriptive. By John Thornton. Pp. vi + 216. 
(London : Longmans and Co., 1910.) Price 25. 

This book, which contains chapters on measurement, 
mechanics, and heat, is intended by the author for 
junior pupils who are attending class and laboratory 
instruction. As the title implies, it is partly descrip- 
tive and partly practical in character. After perusing 
the book one is led to the conclusion that the author 
has not a very wide acquaintance with physics or 
much experience of up-to-date laboratory methods. 
The book has the characteristic of those many manuals 
on this subject which appeared so hurriedly ten or 
twelve years ago. The language is often loose, e.g. 
p. i;^, Expt. I, "Draw a large circle on a sheet of 
cardboard and divide it into degrees." On p. 29 the 
author states that results need not be carried beyond 
the second decimal place as a rule. In determining 
quantities in the laboratory' where the final result is 
obtained by arithmetical operations on quantities 
actually measured, it is the degree of accuracy with 
which these several quantities are measured that 
determines the number of significant figures in the 
final answer. Such examples as Expt. 11, p. 35 : — 
Weight of lead in air, 17 oz. ; weight of lead in water. 
155 oz. ; specific gravity, ii'3 ; or the example on 
p. 41 : — 3ooo/o'8.; = 35294 c.c, are ill-chosen. On 
p. 131 we are told that the steel rails of a tram line 
have a small space left between their ends, when 
laid, to allow for expansion. How many observant 
boys have looked for such spaces and failed to find 
them? On p. 144 it is stated that water expands 
regularly from CM-dinan,' air temperature to 100° C. 

The Brooks Patent T-square Lock. (Letch worth, 
Herts : W^m. J. Brooks and Co.) Prices 45. 6d. and 
55. 6d. 
This very useful adjunct to the ordinary- T-square 
is one of the best of the devices which have recently 
been introduced to facilitate the work of the draughts- 
man, and it will be much appreciated by all who are 
engaged in mechanical and architectural drawing. 
The contrivance is simple in character, moderate in 
price, and well made, and is designed so as to be 
readily attachable to any existing square, no altera- 
tion of the drawing board being required. By its use 
the T-square, without loss of freedom, is instantly 
locked in any desired position on the board, thus 
freeing both the hands of the operator. The lock 
may be put out of action at will, and the T-square 
manipulated in the ordinary manner. The " lock " 
attachment will be found extremely serviceable when 
used with a board which rests horizontally, as on a 
table, but when the board is much inclined or is 
vertical, the employment of this or a similar device is 
indispensable. There are many teachers who might 
with great advantage utilise this apparatus for black 
board work. 



NATURE 



[November 3, 1910 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

[The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions 
expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake 
to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected 
manuscripts intended for this or any ^oiher /)art o/ Nature. 
No notice is taken of anonymous communications.] 

Helium and Geological Time. 

In Nature of October 27 (p. 543) a short notice appears 
relative to some experiments of Prof. A. Piutti, of Naples, 
on the occlusion of helium from the air by salts in 
the act of solidification. Prof. Piutti apparently considers 
his results as throwing doubt on the figures which I have 
given for the age of different geological formations from 
the accumulation of helium in them. I wish to give my 
reasons for dissenting from this criticism. 

In the first place, it is not clear from Prof. Piutti's 
description that the gases extracted from his solidified 
salts contain any more helium than normal atmospheric 
air. He has not attempted to show, if I understand his 
description rightly, that there is any selective absorption 
of helium in preference to the other atmospheric gases ; 
nor is it at all likely that such a selective absorption 
exists, for we have no knowledge of chemical affinity 
between helium and other gases, while, in respect of 
solubility, it would probably be inferior to them. Again, 
on account of its low molecular weight, it would, if any- 
thing, be better able to escape from mechanical retention. 
But the gases from minerals are in practically all cases 
many times richer in helium than is atmospheric air. 
Mere retention of air cannot therefore account for any 
appreciable proportion of, the helium found. 

There remains the question, also alluded to by Prof. 
Piutti, of whether helium can have been absorbed from 
any source in the interior of the earth. I have already 
discussed this question, as regards igneous rocks, in Proc. 
Roy. Soc, A, vol. Ixxxiii., p. 298. As regards the bulk 
of the rock, it is impossible to exclude such an origin, and 
I have carefully avoided drawing conclusions which might 
be vitiated by it. My inferences have been drawn from 
minerals like zircon and sphene, which are immensely 
rnore radio-active than the rock in general, and immensely 
richer in. helium. It is without plausibility to assume that 
the excess of helium in these has any extraneous origin. 

R. J. Strutt. 

Imperial College of Science, South Kensington. 



Pwdre Ser. 

On my return from a field season beyond the reach of 
periodicals, I have just seen, for the first time, Prof. 
McKenny Hughes's article on " Pwdre Ser" in Nature 
of June 23, and the correspondence relating thereto in the 
succeeding numbers. It may interest your readers to 
know that a substance of this sort was found by Mr. 
Rufus Graves (at one time lecturer on chemistry In' Dart- 
mouth College) at Amherst, Mass., on August 14, 1819, 
and by him identified with a luminous meteor which had 
been seen to fall at that spot on the previous evening. 
His report of the occurrence appeared in the American 
Journal of Science, vol. ii., pp. 335-7, 1820. The mass 
of jelly was circular, about 8 inches in diameter and 
about I inch thick. It was of a bright buff colour, and 
covered with a " fine nap similar to that on milled cloth." 
The interior was soft, of an insufferable odour, and 
liquefied on exposure to the air. Some of this liquid was 
allowed to stand in an open glass for a few days, when 
it had entirely evaporated, leaving only a small quantity 
of a " fine ash-coloured powder without taste or smell," 
which effervesced strongly with sulphuric acid, but not 
with nitric nor hydrochloric. 

Mr. Graves's account was noted by Arago in the Annal. 
de Chimie, vol. xix., pp. 67-9 (182 1), who quoted also 
several similar occurrences cited in earlier chronicles. It 
is probable, of course, that Mr. Graves was mistaken in 
his identification, that the meteor actually fell at some 
other point, and that the jelly was confused therewith : 
only because no other unusual substance was found at the ; 
point where the meteor was supposed to have fallen. Mr. j 
Graves himself considered that there was " no reasonable 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



doubt that the substance found was the residuum of the 
meteoric body," but the evidence which he states is hardly 
satisfactory to the modern, more critical inquirer. 

It seems probable that these jellies are, in general, 
Plasmodia of some form or forms of Myxomycetes, and 
that their common identification with falling stars may 
have its basis in the frequent recurrence of this error into 
which Mr. Graves seems to have been led. It is well 
known that visual estimates of the distance of falling 
stars are almost invariably far too low. If, then, an un- 
trained observer of a meteor goes next morning to the 
near-by place where he thought he saw the body fall, and 
finds there no unusual body excepting one of these Plas- 
modia, the jelly and the meteor are almost sure to be 
associated in his mind. Especially is this probable, since 
the Plasmodia, in general (at least in my experience), have 
the appearance of having fallen on the grass rather than 
of having grown there. Edward E. Free. 

United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau 
of Soils, Washington, D.C., October 17. 



On Hydrogen in Iron. 

At the recent meeting of the British Association at 
Sheffield, Sir Norman Lockyer referred to the relationship 
Between hydrogen and iron at stellar temperatures. Some 
observations of mine, made several years ago, are of 
interest in this connection. I also note that at the recent 
meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute, in a discussion 
on the influence of carbon in iron, it was suggested that 
the gases known to be present should also receive 
attention. 

Iron contains ten times its volume of hydrogen, and in 
many instances 20 volumes of hydrogen ; even 100 has 
been noted. Iron therefore contains from about 0-013 to 
0-026 per cent, of hydrogen, 100 volumes equalling 0-13 per 
cent., all deemed important in metal with like proportions 
of carbon and sulphur and phosphorus. It is now fully 
admitted that hydrogen hardens iron, and should there- 
fore be estimated: i gram frozen H, ice = 7-2 c.c, 
0-1=0-72 c.c. I note also iron=i c.c. =7-2 gram iron. 
II 1 1 c.c. of solid H = i/io gram in 100 iron =14-4 c.c. = 
7 grams per 1000 c.c, and 1000 ordinary pressure = only 
0-08961 gram. The figures quoted are apparently in 
accordance with the periodic law, series 1-7. 

As regards the above, more might be said if space 
permitted. John Parry. 

October 19. 



Research Defence Society. 

In connection with the cases of plague in Suffolk, let 
me say that this societ}^ has lately published an illustrated 
pamphlet, on "Plague in India, Past and Present," by 
Lieut. -Colonel Bannerman, director of the Bombay 
Bacteriological Laboratory. It gives a full account of the 
experiments which proved that fleas carry the plague from 
rats to man ; it also gives a full account of Haffkine's 
preventive treatment, and of the many thousands of lives 
which have been saved by this treatrnent. I am sorry that 
th.' Research Defence Society cannot afford to give away 
this pamphlet in large quantities, but I shall be happy to 
send it to any of your readers who will send me seven 
stamps. I shall also be happy to send copies, on sale or 
return, to all booksellers. 

Stephen Paget. 
(Hon. Secretary Research Defence Society.) 

21 Ladbroke Square, London, W. 



British Mammals. 

I AM grateful for your reviewer's good wishes for the 
success of my book (Nature, October 20). He writes 
that he has only one fault to find, namely, that a paper 
of Dr. K. .Andersen's dealing with the authority for the 
names Nyctalus noctula and N. leisleri is not mentioned 
anywhere. I beg to state that the title of this paper is 
given on p. 53. It could not be cited in the synonymy, as 
the. names Nyctalus noctula and N. leisleri do not actually 
occur in it. In fact, I believe that my book is the first in 
which these names occur. 

G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton. 



November 



J' 



1910] 



NATURE 



THE OCEANOGRAPHICAL MUSEUM AT 
MONACO. 

IN the history' of the development of the study of 
the sea all the sciences find an application, 'and 
nil were worthily represented at the inauguration of 
:he Oceanographical Museum of Monaco on March 
^q of this year. The ceremonies and festivities inci- 
dent to the occasion have already been chronicled in 
the columns of Nature (April 14, vol. Ixxxiii., p. 191). 
it is proposed here to give an impression of the life- 
work of the Prince of Monaco, which found expression 
in the solemnities of that occasion. The accompany- 
ing illustrations ^ afford an idea of the magnificence 
of the building and of the richness of the collections. 
Fig. I gives a view of the museum from the sea. 
The scale on which it is built can be judged from 
:he fact that the height of the roof above the lowest 
masonrj' is 75 metres. Fig. 2 is the statue of the 
Prince standing on the bridge of his yacht. It is an 
artistic work, and a good portrait. It gives fine ex- 
pression to the modesty as well as to the power of 
the creator of the greai 
monument in the centre of 
which it stands. 

The museum and the 
vessels attached to it, with 
heir staffs and general 
jrganisation, are only one- 
half of the great enterprise 
which is entitled, " Institut 
Oceanographique Fondation 
Albert I" Prince de Monaco." 
Its seat is in Paris, where it 
possesses its own buildings 
and a rich endowment, both 
of them the gift of the 
Prince. It has professors of 
physical and biological 
oceanography and of the 
physiology of marine ani- 
tnals, and the lectures de- 
livered during last year had 
the most numerous attend- 
ance of any in Paris. During 
the life of the Prince he 
exercises supreme authority. 
Both in Paris and at Monaco 
there is complete organisa- 
tion for giving effect to his 
wishes, and, in the event of 
his death, for carrying on 
the work without interrup- 
tion, and on the lines inau- 
gurated by himself. Thus continuity and permanence 
have been assured. 

It will be readily realised that the establishment 
of these two great institutions has not been accom- 
plished without the expenditure of large sums of 
money and the devotion of much time and labour to ' 
it. It is almost impossible for anvone to realise the \ 
greatness of the work which is being accomplished J 
without having been intimatelv connected with it, and i 
even with this advantage the development of the con- ; 
ception is slow. As with all great achievements, it > 
■will take at least a generation before it is thoroughlv ! 
'understood and adequately appreciated. ' | 

The museum at Slonaco bears testimonv at every ! 
turn to the great lines on which the Prince has him- ' 
self worked, and in which his work is fundamental. ( 
Thus, in the purely hydrographical department, we 
see his bathymetrical chart of the world, on which i 

1 For the illuMrations in this anicle we are indebted to the courtesy of l 
the propn-tor of the Xatu^vissfnsch'r/iluhe Wochenschri/t. They are 
reprodMctrd from photographs hy Prof. Doflein. of Munich, and illustrate an ' 
article by him in that periodical.— Editor. Nature. 



all the trustworthy deep soundings are entered. This 
great document may be said to be the foundation-stone 
of oceanographical work. .Another and much earlier 
piece of hydrographical work is the current chart of 
the North Atlantic, which gives the result of his 
laborious work on board the Hirondelle. By the 
methodical dispersion of floats, especially constructed 
to expose the least possible surface above water, along 
different lines radiating generally from the group of 
the .Azores, by patiently awaiting their recovery, and 
by then combining their records, he furnished the 
demonstration that this portion of the ocean is prac- 
tically a lake, bounded, not by land, but by the motion 
of its own peripheral waters, thus enclosing a roughly 
circular portion of the sea, part of which is generally 
associated with the Sargassum weed and called the 
Sargasso Sea. The "water, thus self-confined in the 
warm, drv subtropical region, is exposed to powerful 
evaporation, and to a considerable annual variation of 
temperature at the surface. The combination of these 
two thermal factors furnishes the mechanical power 




iiJMW i feui.a s6ga;g€-5«yjaK355» h i JgjWMa 




Fig. 1.— V 



NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



iew of the Oceanographical Museum at Monaco as seen from the sea. 



by which the deeper layers of the water obtain more 
heat and attain a greater density in this sea than 
they do in any other part of the of>en ocean, as was 
pointed out by the writer in a paper "on the vertical 
distribution of temperature in the ocean," read before 
the Royal Society- on December 17, 1874, and pub- 
lished in its Proceedings, vol. xxiii., p. 123. 

In the great hall to the left of the entrance the 
visitor is at once struck by the magnificent collection 
of skeletons of Cetaceans, which includes those of 
many species. These are skeletons of individual 
whales, nearly all of which have been killed by the 
Prince himself, and each is complete, every- bone in 
the animal being accounted for. From alf points of 
view this collection is at once the most attractive and 
the most interesting in the museum, and in it we see 
the Prince reflected as a hunter and as a naturalist. 

In Fig. 3 we have the Orca, with its formidable 
double row of teeth. It preys on other Cetaceans, and 
always shows plenty of sport. The specimen figured 
belonged to the leader of a school of three, which was 



NATURE 



[November 3. 1910 



met with a few miles outside of Monaco. They 
fought to the death, and when killed they were 




Fig. 2. — Statue of Prince Albert I. of M jnaco in the Museum 



a large mass of something came out of its mouth close 
to the yacht and began slowly to sink. The Prince 
at once jumped into the dinghey, and, with a 
long landing net, retrieved the object before 
it sank out of sight. The object is represented 
in Fig. 5, and is a unique piece. It is a frag- 
ment of the gigantic scaled cephalopod which 
Prof. Joubin, who described it, named 
Lepidoteiithis Grimaldii. 

A healthy cachalot is valued for the 
spermaceti, or wax, which is contained in its 
head, and a sick one is still more valued for 
the ambergris which it may contain. This 
curious substance, which has at all times been 
so highly esteemed in pharmacy and per- 
fumery, forms the subject of a very interesting 
"Account of Ambergris " by Dr. Schweidawer* 
which was read before the Royal Society on 
February 13, 1783, and published in the Philo- 
sophical Transactions, vol. Ixxiii., p. 220. 
From his investigations it appears that amber- 
gris is a by-product of an inflammation of the 
intestine, which has probably been started by 
the "beaks" of the cephalopods which it has 
swallowed, for these are the invariable and 
characteristic ingredient of all genuine amber- 
gris. He further states that the whalers are 
convinced that the cachalot feeds only on 
squids, which, when unmutilated, must be of 
great size. One whaler reported a case where 
the whale in its death-throe rendered a single 
tentacle, which, though incomplete from 
having been partially digested, still measured 
29 feet in length, and he held that this justifies 
the common saying of the whalers that the 
squids are the biggest fish in the sea. 

The work of the Prince amongst the toothed 
Cetaceans has had an interesting sentimental 



towed in and beached on 
what is now the hew 
harbour of Monaco. 

Not far from the Orca 
is a skeleton, Fig. 4, of 
the best known of the 
toothed Cetaceans, the 
cachalot or sperm-whale. 
It wgs not taken by the 
Prince himself, but he 
was present at its cap- 
ture, and his' scientific 
instinct enabled him to 
seize an opportunity 
which would probably 
have been missed bv 
another. The cachalot 
had been struck by a 
crew of whalers from Ter- 
ceira, one of the islands 
of the Azores. The 
Prince followed the chase 
in his yacht, and was 
close to the animal when 
it became evident that 
its end had come. .At 
this moment these ani- 
mals always charge what- 
ever they see, and in 
their death agony they 
usually render whatever 
they have last eaten. 
This animal charged the 
charge did not get home. 



■1 


WK..^ ^^fl 


^Hi 






^^^^^H 


Ji^ 


„^*^ 


iifJiHM 


H 







Fig. 3. — Skeleton of the great Crca killed by the Prince of Monaco near Monaco. 



Princesse Alice, but the 
The animal stopped, and 



result. The combat of the " thrasher " and 
whale,' so dear to the nautical mind, seems to 



the 
be 



NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



November 3, 19 10] 



NATURE 



•9 



nothing but the violent and desperate resistance of 

the giant squid to being- swallowed when brought to 

the surface by the cachalot. 

The whalebone whale, shown in Fig. 6, was struck 

\- the Prince in May, 1896, not many miles from 




Fig. 4. — Skeleton of the Cachalot which furnished th: fragments of gigantic Cephalopods 



Monaco, but it escaped. Its carcase was washed 
^hore in September of the same year, near Pietra 
Ligure, on the Italian Riviera. A remarkable feature 
of this skeleton is the evidence of fracture and repair 
of a number of ribs of its left side. This has been 
ascribed to collision with a steamer, but it is very 
unlikely that such an experi- 
ence would leave its mark 
in nothing but a number of 
perfectly repaired ribs. It 
would seem to point to a 
type of accident to which 
whales are certainly exposed, 
and from which they per- 
haps not infrequently suffer. 

The habitat of the whale 
is the air and the water, and 
its functional economy has 
to be adapted to life in both 
elements, or rath.r, to life 
sometimes in the one, a;: 
other times in the other 
element. 

In one of the Prince's 
recent cruises in the Medi- 
terranean the yacht was 
found to be steaming in the 
wake of a whale, which was 
evidently making a passage, 
and in a leisurely way. The 
Prince seized the oppor- 
tunity to follow the animal without pursuing it, and 
rhis was done with such skill that it remained uncon- 
-cious of being followed. It kept a steady course, 
and, t6 "keep station" with it, the Princesse Alice 
had to steam at a spesd of about ten kpots. In 

NO. 2140, VOL. 8.^1 



these conditions the whale came up to breathe at 
regular intervals of between ten and eleven minutes, 
the intervals between the spouts being the same almost 
to a second. This experiment supplies an important 
constant in the natural historj- of the whale. It 

looks very simple, but it 
will not be readily re- 
peated, except perhaps by 
the Prince himself. As the 
whale was on passage, it 
is unlikely that it went far 
i)elow the surface, but 
there is abundant evidence 
that, in the search for food 
or to escape enemies, it 
penetrates to very consider- 
able depths. In these ex- 
cursions its body is exposed 
tO rapid and considerable 
variations of pressure. 
These have to be borne by 
the structural frame of the 
animal, of which the ribs 
are an important part. 

It is generally assumed 
that, before sounding, the 
whale fills its lungs with 
air. but this, being at 
tmospheric pressure, is 
uf no use in assisting the 
body to resist the external 
pressure of a column of 
water equivalent, it may 
be, to many atmospheres. 
How the power of resist- 
ance is, in fact, provided, 
I am not anatomist enoug^h 
to know, but it must be 
finite, and it is easy to imagine conditions in which the 
animal, whether in the pursuit of prey or in the endea- 
vour to escape being- made itself a prey, may strain 
it beyond its limits, and the ribs of one side, whichever 
is the weaker, may give way. In such an accident, 
beyond being broken, the ribs need nort be seriously 




Fig. 5. — The principal ngxaeaxs, oS Lepidoteuihis Gritnaliil, 1ov^\ 



disturbed, and with the return to the surface or more 
moderate depths, they would fall into their places 
again, and that all the more easily because there is 
little or no pressure of one part on another, every 
part of the body of a totally immersed animal being 



lO 



NATURE 



[November 3, 1910 



water-borne. In such conditions recovery would be 
rapid and the joints perfect, as can be seen to be the 
case in the skeleton in the museum. 

The accident to this whale is very suggestive. In 
a well-known experiment, Paul Bert reduced the pres- 
sure of the air in the lungs of a dog^ by a not very 
large fraction of an atmosphere, when the thorax 
immediately collapsed, every rib being broken. When 
a whale is struck and sounds, if only to a depth of 
one hundred metres, the pressure on its body is in- 
creased tenfold in a few seconds. How does its body 
stand it? 

It is certain that the cachalot finds its prey in 
water of considerable depth. When it has seized it, 



of meteorology, a science which, especially as 
regards its application to the higher regions of 
the atmosphere, owes much to the participation 
of the Prince in its development. Until he 
directed his attention to it, the hallons-sonde, carry- 
ing their freight of valuable instruments, vyere very 
frequently lost. Now, thanks to the method of keep- 
ing the "dead reckoning" of the balloon, developed 
and brought to perfection on the Princesse Alice, if it 
is followed for a few minutes during its ascent, it 
may disappear in the clouds, and its recovery, when 
it descends at sea, is almost a certainty. This de- 
partment of investigation has been prosecuted outside 
the Mediterranean, and in the Prince's cruises of the 




Fig. 6. — Skeleton ji whalebone whale the ribs of which have been brolcen and mended. 



can it swallow it in situ, in a medium of water under 
very high pressure? The dentition of this animal, a 
formidable row of teeth in the lower jaw fitting into 
corresponding sockets in the upper jaw, makes it 
certain that, when it has seized its prey it can hold it 
indefinitely. It has been observed that the cachalot 
sometimes takes its prey to the surface and swallows 
it there. Is this accidental or habitual? If habitual 
is it not another link with the far-back time when its 
habitat was the air and the land ? These are some 
questions suggested by an attentive visit to the 
Museum of Monaco. 

In the museum, room is provided for a department 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



last two or three years it has been carried from the 
Cape Verde Islands in the heart of the tropics to 
the north of Spitsbergen, within five hundred miles 
of the Pole. 

Besides the collections of animals and the instru- 
ments for their capture and study, there is in the 
lower part of the museum an aquarium, remarkable 
for its size and the completeness of its installation. 
This already commands a constant flux of visitors, 
chiefly the curious, but it is also frequented by men 
of science for serious study. It is already proposed 
to enlarge it considerably. The storey above the 
aquarium is divided into separate laboratories, fitted 



November 



O' 



1910] 



NATURE 



II 



w ith a service of both fresh and sea water, and every- 
ing else required for chemical, physical, and 
^logical study. In these laboratories the occupant 
has all that a laboratory can supply, and at any time 
tresh material from the sea, collected by one of the 
small steam tenders of the museum. 

Anv notice of the museum of Monaco would be 
incomplete without an acknowledgment of what it 
owes to its director, Dr. Richard. None of the many 
men of science who have enjoyed the hospitality, either 
of the museum or the yacht, will require to be re- 
minded of this, nor will they forget what they indi- 
viduallv owe to Dr. Richard's never-failing courtesy 
ind helpful aid. Personally, I have more thanks to 
ler than I can express for the countless services that 
has rendered me during our friendship of twenty 
ars. The Prince was fortunate in being able to 
lach him to his service in the early days of the 
Ilirondelle. Since that time Dr. Richard has been 
'lis never-failing aid and assistant. It is not too 
uch to sav that without Dr. Richard's strenuous and 
selfish work during these many years the museum 
■ , ith its rich collections and complete equipment would 
not be, as it is now, the greatest Institution of the 
kind in the world. J. Y. Buchanan. 

ENVIRONMENT VERSUS HEREDITY.^ 

'T^HE question of the assimilation of immigrants 

■*- under American conditions has long been looked 

■ ion as of vital importance, and it has been much 

^cussed, but heretofore with little accurate informa- 
lon. Speaking from general personal observation, 
people have thought that under the influence of the 
existing educational, social, and political conditions 
the immigrants gradually change their habits of 
life and their ways of thinking, and thus become 
Americans. The statement is often made that 
American citizens tend to resemble the American 
Indian, meaning thereby some generalised tvpe of 
plains Indian, but this has never been put to scien- 
tific test. Little or no thought, however, has been 
given to the possible effect of the phvsical and social 
environment on the phvsical type of descendants of 
immigrants. The establishment by Congress of the 
Immigration Commission in Februarv. 1907, gave the 
opportunity for a thorough investigation of the 
problems of immigration, and the inquiry into the 
anatomical characters of immigrants and their 
descendants was put under the direction of Prof. 
Franz Boas, of Columbia University, than whom no 
better selection could have been made. The present 
short report deals with only a portion of the material 
collected, but results obtained are of unexpected in- 
terest and importance. 

The results so far worked out mav be summarised 
as follows : — 

I. The head form, which has always been con- 
sidered as one of the most stable and permanent char- 
acteristics of human races, undergoes far-reaching 
changes due to the transfer of the races of Europe 
ro American soil. The East European Hebrew, who 
has a very round head, becomes more long-headed ; 
the south Italian, who in Italy has an exceedinglv 
long head, becomes more short-headed; so that both 
approach a uniform type so far as the roundness of 
the head is concerned. Fig. i shows at 1 and i the 
cephalic index of foreign-born Hebrews and Sicilians; 
at 2 and 2 that of those born within ten vears after the 
arrival of their mothers In the United States ; at 3 and 
^ that of those born more than ten years after the 

" Changes in Bodily Form '^f Descendants of Immigrants." The Im'ni- 
\tion Committee, Document No. 2o3 presented to the 6ist Congress, 2nd 
-ession. (Washington, D.C., U.S..\., iqio.) 



NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



arrival of their mothers in the United States. The 
diagram shows the very rapid approach of the two 
types among children born shortly after the arrival 
of their mothers in America, and the slower con- 
tinuation of this approach among those born later. 
Fig. 2 roughly indicates the general form of (i) the 
foreign-born Hebrew, (2) the foreign-born Sicilian, 
and (3) the average form of the head of the American- 
born Hebrew and Sicilian-born more than ten years 
after the arrival of the mother in America. 

2. The influence of .American environment upon the 
descendants of immigrants increases with the time 
that the immigrants have lived in the country before 
the birth of children. 

3. The changes in head form consist in the increase 
of some measurements and in the decrease of others. 
The lentrth of the head of Hebrews is increased; the 
width of the head and the width of the face are 
decreased. Among the Sicilians the length of the 
head is decreased, the width increased, but the width 
of the face Is decreased. 

4. The differences in type between the American- 
born descendant of the immigrant and the European- 



^ 


1 










^\^2 


} 






,,—--''3 






^*-'* 








^' 2 




£0 




,,-' 






/ 







fiebretv — 
^iciliart 

Fig. I. — Comparison of head form of Hebrews and Sicilians. At i is indi- 
cated the head form expressed by the ratio between width and length of 
head of foreign-born Hebiews and Sicilians; at 2, the same ratios of 
those born wiihin ten years after the arrival of their mothers in the 
United States ; at 3, the corresponding values ot tho>e bom more than 
ten years alter the a- rival of their mothers in America. The diagram 
shows the very rapid approach of the two types among children bom 
shortly after the arrival of their mothers in America, and the slower 
continuation of this approach among children born a long time after the 
•arrival of their mothers in America. 

born immigrant develop in early childhood and per- 
sist throughout life. 

5. Among the East European Hebrews the en- 
vironment, even in the congested parts of the city, has 
brought about a general more favourable development 
of the race, which is expressed in the increased height 
of body (stature) and weight of the children. The Italian 
children, on the other hand, show no such favourable 
influence of American environment, but rather a 
small loss in vigour as compared to the average 
condition of the immigrant children ; so that it 
appears that the south Italian race suffers under the 
influence of American city life, while the East 
European Hebrew develops under these conditions 
better than he does In his native country. 

6. The type of the immigrant changes from year to 
vear, owing to a selection which is dependent upon 
the economic conditions of the country. This is 
shown by the fact that after the panic of 1893 a 
sudden decrease in the general development of immi- 
grants may be observed, which persisted for several 
years. A similar change seems to have taken place 



12 



NATURE 



[November 3, 1910 



after the panic of 1907. The significance of these 
changes is at present obscure. 

7. It has been observed that, while immigrants have 
large families, the size of the family is very materially 
reduced in the second generation. This reduction of 
the size of the family goes hand in hand with the 
improvement of the physical development of the indi- 
vidual, as is demonstrated by the fact that children 
belonging' to small families are considerably tallei 
than children belonging to large families. 

In connection with this last statement it is worth 
noticing that Prof. Boas points out that statistics 
taken on the school children of Toronto, Ont., and 
Oakland, Cal., show that there is a decided decrease 
in development of the individuals according to the 
increasing size of the family, and the Toronto material 
proves that the decrease in stature with increasing size 
of family takes place on every economic level. This 






Flc. 2. — Sketches of head forms. Showing (i) the average form of the head 
of the foreign-born Hebrew ; (2) the average form of the head of the 
foreign-born Sicilian ; (3) the average form of the head of the American- 
born Hebrew and Sicilian born more than ten years after the arrival of 
the mother in America. These sketches are intended only to give an 
impression of the change in proportion. They do not represent the head 
iorms in detail. 

does not seem to be due entirely to inherited physio- 
logical causes nor to differences of nutrition. The 
fact, however, comes out with greatest clearness that 
reduction in the size of families goes hand in hand 
with the improvement of physical development. 

The data upon which these conclusions are based 
are given in tables of measurements, and synthesised 
in curves. Their trustworthiness depends upon several 
conditions being carefully investigated. The wide ex- 
perience of Prof. Boas as a physical anthropologist 
and his mastery of statistical methods give us con- 
fidence that his conclusions are well founded. He 
acknowledges that the problem is an exceedingly com- 
plicated one, and he describes the various ways in 
which he has endeavoured to arrive at trustworthy 
results ; for these the reader is referred to the report. 

One of the most important problems of physical 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



anthropologv is to determine what effect environment 
has upon the human species. In his address to tht 
Anthropological Section of the British Association al 
the Dublin meeting in 1908, and again in his pres_ 
dential address to the Royal Anthropological Institute 
on "The Influence of Environment on Man," delivered 
on January 25, 1910 (which will shortly be published),' 
Prof. W. Ridgeway has directed attention to this 
question. Reference may also be made to Dr. R. 
Humphrey Marten's presidential address to the South 
Australian Branch of the British Medical Association 
(Adelaide, 1900), on "The Effects of Migration from 
the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere." The inves-: 
ligations Prof. Boas is now undertaking are of prime 
importance, as they are based on careful measure- 
ments, but many more similar studies must be made- 
before general conclusions can be drawn. It is also 
obvious that this is not a matter of purely anthropo- 
logical ^ interest, but is of significance to the 
sociologist, and should not be neglected by the states- 
man. A. C. Haddon. 

PRESENT CONDITION OF AMERICAN BISON 

AND SEAL HERDS. 
T7ROM the third annual report of the American 
■*■ Bison Society, recently published at Boston, we 
learn that the condition and prospects of the three 
herds of bison maintained by the Government of the 
United States are all that can be desired, and that, 
in the opinion of Dr. Hornaday, the future of the 
species is now secured. These herds comprise one in 
the Yellowstone Park, with ninety-five head, a second 
in Wichita, with nineteen head, and a third in Mon- 
tana, with forty-seven head, the total number of 
animals thus being 161. Of these herds the one in 
Montana, which occupies a tract of twenty-nine square 
miles, has only recently been brought together (as 
described in the present report), and promises to be 
the best of the three. Indeed, Dr. Hornaday is of 
opinion that this herd alone would be suflficient to 
safeguard the species against extinction, since, owing 
to the extent of the area on which it is established, it 
is secure against any ill-effects from in-breeding. Re- 
garding the Yellowstone herd. Dr. Hornaday is less 
confident, as the relatively small tract on which it is 
kept may lead to deterioration. The Wichita herd, 
on the other hand, is as well situated as the one in 
Montana. 

In another part of the report is given a census of 
the total number of pure-bred bison living in. captivity 
in America on May ist, 1910. This total is 1633, 
against 1592 in 1908, and loio in. 1903, thus showing^ 
a well-marked and progressive increase. Out of the 
1633, 626 are in Canada, and the remaining 1007 in' 
the United States. In 1903 Canada possessed only 
forty-one head, the enormous increase being appar- 
ently due to the transference of the Pablo herd from 
the United States. Of wild bison the total number 
is estimated at 475, of which twenty-five are in the 
Yellowstone, and the remaining 450 in Canada. In 
1908 the number of wild Canadian bison was esti- 
mated at 300. The grand total of pure-bred animals 
living in North America is thus approximately 2108, 
against 1917 in 1908. 

A considerable portion of the Montana herd was 
purchased from Mrs. Conrad, of Kalispell, in that 
State, who also presented the magnificent herd-bull 
shown in the foreground of the illustration herewith 
reproduced. 

The selected portion of the Conrad herd was driven 
bv cowboys, without any noise, to the nearest railway 
siding. Here "each animal was driven singly into 
the corral that communicated with the loading chute. 



November 3, 1910J 



NATURE 



i3< 



. . The chute of a railway cattle-yard is a long, 
irrow canon with wooden walls, sloping upward 
ther steeply, and ending in the open door of a 
ittle-car. ... A crate was placed in the middle of 
L' chute; the sliding door at the outward end of the 
r>ox was lifted high and carefully poised for a quick 
drop. .\n animal specially fitting the crate was then 
cut out from the bunch, driven into the chute, driven 
on into the crate, and shut in with a bang. After 
that the crate was hauled and shoved into the stock- 
ear and settled in its place." 

In Nature of July 28 appeared a paragraph relat- 
ing to the danger threatening the Alaskan fur-seals 
owing to unrestricted pelagic sealing by the Japanese. 
Since that paragraph was written the editor has re- 
ceived a copv of an "open letter" addressed bv th'' 
Camp-Fire Club of America to the people of the United 
States, together with certain letters addressed by the 
committee of the club to Mr. Secretary Nagel. and 
the replies to the same. From a covering letter it 
appears that the Camp-Fire Club comprises about 350 



95 per ceat. of the younger male seals are annually 
killed the "surplus bulls" will fight with "the breed- 
ing bulls" ov^r tne lemaies, and seriously retard 
the breeding of the herd. To this the committee, 
after indicatin<r their opinion of the experts concerned 
by printing the word with inverted commas, make 
tne toUovving reply : — " .As if a wild species does not 
know how to breed and multiply successfully without 
the help of man ! The excuse is most inadequate, 
and in any event it is no excuse whatever for not 
dealing squarelv with Congress, and in accordance 
with a very plain understanding." 

From this it will be manifest that the controversy 
has entered a somewhat acute and embittered stage, 
th? details of which I have neither space nor inclina- 
tion to discuss. If, however, pelagic sealing weighs 
heavily, as I understand it does, on female seals, 
there may be something in the contention that a 
certain number -of young males should be annually 
killed off, although 95 per cent, certainly seems a 
heavv toll. On the other hand, there is no doubt 




The Best Bull Bison in the Montana Herd. (From the Third Annual Report of the American Bison Society.) 



members, all interested in the preservation of 
American big game, and the opinions of whom ought 
therefore to carry considerable weight. According to 
the "open letter," the Pribilov Islands, when pur- 
chased from Russia about the year 1867, were the 
resort of at least 4,500,000 fur-seals, or sea-bears ; at 
the present day the number is only from 30,000 to 
50,000. Formerly the islands yielded a large revenue 
to Government ; now they involve a heavy expendi- 
ture. The Camp-Fire Club is of opinion that all 
slaughter of seals on the islands should be prohibited 
for ten years, in order to permit of the recuperation 
of the herds to a point when they will yield an annual 
revenue of 2oo,oooi., and at the same time to make 
treaties with the British, Canadian, Japanese, and 
Mexican Governments for the suppression of pelagic 
sealing, the latter being an even more urgent matter 
than the former. 

The secretary to Government, on the other hand, 
acting apparentlv on expert advice, demands a re- 
newal of a killing licence on the ground that unless 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



whatever that unrestricted pelagic sealing should be 
stopped, this being a matter, not of .American, but 
likewise of world-wide interest. R. L. 



THE FUTURE OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH 
IN GREAT BRITAIN.' 

'T^HE announcement recently made to the effect 
^ that the Board of .Agriculture has applied for a 
large sum of money from the development grant for 
the purpose of aiding agricultural research lends a 
peculiar interest to two publications just issued, the 
report of the Board of .Agriculture on the grants made 
for the last two years for agriculture education and 
research, and the statement of the British Science 
Guild recently submitted to the Prime Minister in an 
influentially signed memorial. The report may 

1 Report on the Distribution of Grants for Agricultural Education and 
Research in the Years igo^-q and 1909-10. Board of Agriculture and 
Fi=herie«. Cd. 5388. Price yid. 

The British Science Guild. '1 he Present Position of Agricultural Research 
in the United Kingdom. 



H 



NATURE 



[NOVEMBZR 3, I91O 



be taken as an indication of the official attitude, and 
the memorial as the attitude of the professed man 
of science, towards agricultural research, and it is 
interesting to compare them, to see what they have 
in common and how far their differences are funda- 
mental. 

From the fact that both publications, after a few 
preliminary statements, come straight to one and the 
same point, we may take it that this is regarded as 
the real issue : Does Research pay ? The position of 
the Board of Agriculture is thus set out : — 

A pviblic department when authorising the expenditure 
of money on research is bound to take into consideration 
the probable value of the work to the State. It cannot 
rest satisfied with the assurance that sooner or later all 
accessions to knowledge will benefit the country. The 
taxpayer of to-day naturally wishes to see a return for 
his contribution, if not in his own lifetime at least in that 
of his children. It is obvious therefore that, as a matter 
of elementary justice, the question of time must receive 
consideration from any department entrusted with the 
expenditure of State funds on research. 

On the other hand, the memorial states : — 

The committee of the British Science Guild would urge 
very strongly that the value of investigation can rarely be 
translated directly into terms of pecuniary gain. The 
benefits lie more in the method of thought that is induced 
among the farmers and those concerned in advising them, 
in the stimulus it gives to a more exact conduct of the 
business of farming, in the confidence with which men 
take up the fresh resources which science and the indus- 
tries are always putting at the disposal of agriculture, than 
in any sudden revolutions effected by research. The fact 
that the countries whose agriculture has made the greatest 
advances in recent years are those which pay the greatest 
attention to research is itself sufficient justification for 
the action of the British Science Guild in urging the 
British Government to move in this direction. 

Between these two positions there is a great gulf, 
but one may hope that it will not prove impassable. 
The Board of Agriculture has recently appointed a 
committee, including several distinguished men of 
science, to advise on questions dealing with research, 
and doubtless a broad view will be taken of "the 
probable value " of a piece of really good research 
work. The memorial gives several instances where 
research has directly resulted in financial gain to 
farmers. An outstanding case is the use of super- 
phosphate, which w'as discovered by Sir John Lawes, 
and has been of enormous benefit to farmers. Den- 
mark affords at least two good illustrations. Sonne's 
work on barley has resulted in the general adoption 
of a particular type of malting barley, so that the 
yield has gone up three or four bushels per acre, and 
the malting quality has become more uniform. The 
whole butter industry is founded on scientific control. 
Nilson's work in Gothland, Sweden, is also mentioned. 
More than 30,000 hectares of this island consisted 
of sterile swamps. Nilson proved by careful investi- 
gations that the factor causing sterilitv was deficiencv 
of phosphates ; when these were supplied the richest 
crops of corn, rape, and sugar-beet could be 
secured. He further devised a suitable phosphatic 
manure out of a rather poor phosphatic mineral in 
the north of Sweden. Coming to our own Colonies, 
the control of live stock diseases in the Transvaal 
furnishes an illustration. 

At the end of the war the whole country was ravaged 
by various diseases, which had reached the country at an 
earlier period, but had been distributed broadcast by the 
movements of horses and stock during the war — rinder- 
pest, redwater. East Coast fever, in succession had 
attacked the cattle, until few were left in the colony, and 
importations died as rapidly as they were introduced. 
Sheep and horses were equally affected, until stock raising 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



of any description seemed an impossibility. The invest, 
gations, however, conducted by Dr. Theiler for the Trani 
vaal Department of Agriculture into the causes of thes. 
diseases have resulted in a number of methods of immuni 
sation, which, coupled with veterinary regulations as 
the movements of stock, are now rendering the countr 
habitable by cattle again and the business of agricultui^ 
once more possible- 
Many other instances might have been given, but! 
the memorialists very wisely do not allow themselves 
to be drawn into a false position, and repeatedly urge 
that the results of research work cannot usually be 
translated direct into terms of general practice. They! 
decline, in short, to regard the probable financial value 
of a particular piece of work as the only criterion of 
its usefulness. This is, of course, the position one 
expects from the British Science Guild, but it must 
also be remembered that the attitude of the Board is.] 
unquestionably that of a large body of the public. 

In reading the two publications it becomes evident,! 
that the word "research" is used in rather a different 
sense in each of them. The Board's report states that 
"research must satisfy one or both of two conditions 
(i) it must, as a result of observation or experiment, 
result in the collection of fresh facts ; (2) it must 
involve an examination of the facts collected, or 
phenomena observed, and the reduction of them to a 
form in which they constitute an addition to know- 
ledge." This definition is not adhered to, and work 
that is primarily educational, such as demonstration 
trials and tests, is apparently classed as research. 
The memorial recognises the difficulty of drawing a 
hard and fast line, but adopts this as a working 
definition: — "Work which is published only in the 
annual reports of the institution may be regarded as 
educational, work also published by one of the learnedj 
societies or in the Journal of Agricultural Science 
may be treated as research." 

This difference of view explains why the memc 
rialists only put the number of colleges where researct 
has been done at seven, whilst the Board consider 
that research is being done at all the colleges. So fai 
as the demonstration trials are concerned the Board's 
position is sound ; such demonstrations are intended 
to improve practice, and must obviously be judged on 
their profitableness. Only in regard to researchj 
proper is there any difference of opinion, and here the 
difference is fundamental. It would, however, be 
premature and ungracious to labour this point ; the 
Board's advisory committee is only just appointed^ 
and it is clear that an open mind prevails : — " It is noti 
usually a difficult task to distinguish research from 
spurious imitations, on the other hand it may at times, 
be difficult to say whether a particular piece of re-' 
search is, or is not, entitled to receive aid from agri-^ 
cultural funds. One may be permitted to express the 
hope that the public interested will not take a narroV 
view on this point." 

The object of the British Science Guild memorii 
was to urge the necessity of "granting adequate^ 
assistance for the continuous conduct of scientific 
investigations having for their object the development 
of agricultural production." No scheme is fore- 
shadowed ; indeed, any attempt would have been out 
of place, 

. The report of the Board of Agriculture, whilst it 
does not set out a scheme, discusses the general lines 
on which one might be based. In the first instance, 
"At the present time the number of well-qualified 
men engaged in agricultural Investigation in this 
country is relatively small and one of our chief aims 
in expending additional funds should be to establish 
a system which will bring agricultural science suit- 
able recruits." But when we come to inquire the 
meaning of " suitable recruits," we learn that " the 



November 3, 1910] 



NATURE 



I 



lief demand of the present time is for 'spade 

orkers ' and * quarrj-men ' to prepare foundations 

-:d material." It is to be h<^)ed that on this point 

: least the Board ^ill allow itself -to be converted. 

nless men of outstanding ability can be attracted to 

.:• research stations and agricultural «rfleges, there is 

c much hope that the taxpayer will see anything 

<e the return he ought for the money expended. 

his., indeed, is the \-ital question ; if the right sort 

: men are got to do the work all tfie other questions 

: administration sink into insignificance. But here 

so the Board is m what appears to be the safF> 

ound. The idea of a central experimental station 

dismissed, and a wider policy is suggested : — '" It 

uld probably be advisable, therefore, to use part of 

e Develc^ment Fund in making such grants to 

iversities and imiversity cc^eges as would induce 

em to make provision fw agricultural research." 

At no period in its history has agricultural science 

vl a greater opp«-tunity than at present. It is no 

"ger hampered by lack of funds or by apathy on 

■? part of the farmer. The problems are more 

imerous and more interesting than ever they were. 

ut unfortxmately the workers are few. and fresh 

rkers are not readily forthcoming. The hopeful 

ature is that a number of eminent men of science are 

ving up time and thought to the organisation of the 

■X work, and, further, that the Board of Agriculture 

:.d the large agricultural societies are manifestly and 

. nuinely anxious to render all die help they can. 

RATS AND PLAGUE. 

ALTHOUGH the recent epidemics of bubonic 
plague in China, India, and other parts of the 
world have been always associated with outl»-eaks of 
die same disease amongst rats, the historical study of 
plague throughout the world reveals the singular fact 
that previous to 1800 very few references to a coin- 
cident mortality amongst rats have been put on record. 
Many excellent accounts of the older outbreaks, 
notably of the Black .Death in Eurc^ in 1347, and 
the Great Plague of London in 1665, are in existence, 
but careful research into these documents by nkidem 
historiographers — Haeser, Hirscfa, Abel, and Sticker — 
has shown that for reascms difficult to discover very 
scanty mention of associated rat mortality has been 
made. 

The earliest recorded instance is perhaps that given 
in the Bible in the account of the pestilence amongst 
die Philistines, which they ascribed apparendy to 
"the mice diat marred the land." Avicenna refers 
to the assooadmi between rats and plague in his 
description of the epidonic in Mesopotamia about the 
year 1000 a.d. Nicephorus Gregoras, writing of the 
Great Plague of 1348, which entered Europe by way 
of Constantinople, makes a similar reference. Rats 
are mentioned in connection with the plague in Yun- 
nan about 1757, and later in 1871-3. In India an 
association between rats and plague is noted in the 
Bhagaeata Purana. by the Emperor Jefaangir in the 
plague epidemic of 1615, and in a report of the Pali 
plague in Rajputana in 1836. Lastly, Orraeus refers 
definitely to rat mortality in his account of the 
epidemic of 1771 in Moscow. 

• The identity of the disease in rats widi that affecting 
man was established hv die discovery in 1894 of B. 
Pestis by Yersan and Kitasato. 

Within the next few years the relationsfaip between 
rat and himian plague was investigated in manv parts 
of the world— by Thompson and Tidswell in Svdnev, 
Clark and Hunter in Hongkong. Snow, Weir, Hankin 
and James in India, and bv Kitasato in Japan. In 
tqo=i die Plague Research Commisaon was appmn^ed 
to investigate plague in India, and the reports of this 
NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



Commission represent the results of the most exhaus- 
tive inquiry into the subject that has yet been carried 
out. 

The JCommission early turned its attention 10 the 
relationship of rat plague and human plague, and 
instituted an extensive examination of the rats in 
Bombay and elsewhere for the presence of plague in- 
fection. The maps and charts, representing graphic- 
ally the results of this examination, clearly show ihe 
correlation between the epizootic and the epidemic — 
the rat epizootic preceding the epidemic by an interval 
of ten to fourteen days. Every outbreak of bubonic* 
plague, -«'hen .adequately investigated, was found to 
be associated with the disease amongst rats. The 
conclusion must be drawn that e\'ery epidemic of 
bubonic plague is caused by the ccmcomitant rat 
plague. 

In Bombay the rat population is an enormous one, 
Mus decumanus (the brown or grey rat) swarming in 
the sewers, gullies, and outhouses in the cit\', and 
Mus rattus (the black rat) living in countless numbers 
in the houses of the people. The latter species is of 
especial importance in plague epidemics, because it is 
essentially a house rat: it may almost be said to be 
a domesticated animal. The severity of the epizootics 
in the two q>ecies will be appreciated when it is stated 
that during mie year die examination of 70,789 M. 
decumanus, taken frmn all parts of BcMnbay city, 
proved that 13,277 were plague-infected = 18^8 per 
cent., and that out of 46,302 If. rattus examined 4,381 
were plague-infected =9*4 per cent. The heavier 
incidence of plague in If. decumanus is explicable ty 
the circumstance that the flea infestation of diis species 
is more than twice that of M. rattus. 

Some interesting observations on the distribution of 
different ^)ecies of rats in India have been made 
recendy by Captain R. E. Lloyd, I. M.S. The most 
commcm rats in India are M. rattus, M. decumanus, 
and Gunomys {Nesokia hengalensis). M. decumanus 
is common both in Bombay and Cakrutta, but is 
absent from the city of Madras. It is significant diat 
Madras is the one port in India which has never been 
seriously infected with plague. \l. rattus appears to 
be universally distributeid in India, whereas JJf. decu- 
manus does not seem to occur in India except in sea- 
ports. Nesokia hengalensis is found in even' part of 
India. 

The qutetion of the transportation of plague by 
ship rats is an extremely important one, but has not 
so far been thoroughly wcMlced out. It would appear 
that M. decumanus is the spedes most commonly in- 
festing ships, although Af. rattus is also found. 

Sticker, in his history of plague epidemics, quotes 
the statonent that M. decumanus got into Europe 
from Persid about the year 1725. In England Af. 
rattus was displaced bv the inva^on of If. decumanus 
about this time. At the present day the predominat- 
ing species in this country' is undoubtedhr M. decu- 
manus i M. rattus is, however, becoming increasingly, 
commcm in the seaports. 

.^n important question in plague epidemiolf^ is the 
mode of convCT-ance of the infective organism from the 
plague rat to man. It is impossible even to sum- 
marise here the numerous experiments and observa- 
tions on this subject, but it may be said that from 
many sides, and espenally from e x per im ents in the 
laboratory and in actiial plague^infected houses, a mass 
of evidence has been raised whidi incriminates and 
indeed convicts die rat flea as the transmitting agent 
of the infection. 



_^ , , I*«re fc ks »Bde of spread. 

'*_o«»«'_P*^'^ r wi ■■!■■ I ocean, dbe ie fa liw e orenr m< 

dncctif HUM caat to rase hr oaagjhiBK ami infciliiiiiii It •$ 

diat Ae anal ftmmat iafc i i ju a m tkc fine caw oftbe scries 

oocaniag ia a fatieat vilb st f t t iej rm i c 



i6 



NATURE 



[November 3, 19 10 



In India the rat flea, Loemopsylla cheopis, which 
closely resembles the human flea, Pulex irritans, in 
appearance, is by far the most commonly found 
species. In England the common rat flea is Cerato- 
phyllus fasciatus ; a single specimen only of L. cheopis 
has been found up to the present time. 

L. cheopis, especially if hungry, will bite man ; C. 
fasciatus does not take to man with any readiness, 
but will undoubtedly bite on occasion. This diff^erence 
in the appetite of the two species for human blood 
may be of significance in determining the likelihood 
of the spread of rat plague to human beings. 

G. F. Petrie. 



PROF. D. P. PENHALLOW. 

WE regret to announce that Prof. D. P. Penhallow, 
D.Sc, F.R.S. (Canada), president of the American 
Society of Naturalists, and professor of botany in 
McGill University, Canada, died on October 20, in 
consequence of an apoplectic seizure, whilst on board 
the ss. Lake Manitoba, on voyage to Liverpool. His 
remains were brought to Liverpool, and were, in 
accordance with his wishes, cremated at Anfield 
Cemetery on Friday, October 28. Prof, and Mrs. 
Penhallow were about to begin a year's vacation, and 
had intended spending the winter in the south of 
England. In consequence of the severe strain of 
work which Prof. Penhallow had undergone during 
the last few years, his previously excellent health "lad^ 
shown signs of giving w'ay, and under medical advice 
he was about to take a prolonged rest, when the 
lamentable event of his decease occurred.. 

Prof. D. P. Penhallow was born in 1854 at Kittery 
Point, in Maine, where his parents had a summer 
cottage, but their home was in New Hampshire, and 
Prof. Penhallow always regarded himself as a New 
Hampshire man. His family were in the direct line 
of descent from Governor Wentworth, of pre-Revolu- 
tionary days, and Prof. Penhallow was a splendid 
embodiment of the best tj^pe of New Englander. He 
received his scientific education in Boston University, 
and after graduation he was offered the post of 
professor of botany in the Imperial College of Agri- 
culture in Japan. In the same year (1876) he married 
Miss Sarah Dunlap, who, like himself, could boast 
of a distinguished New England ancestry, and the 
first four years of his married life were spent in Japan. 
He thus enjoyed the distinction of being one of the 
group of Western students who were chosen by the 
Reformed Japanese Government to inaugurate the 
epoch of Meiji (intellectual enlightenment) in Japan. 

Returning to America in 1880, he undertook work 
in connection . with the summer school of botany in 
Harvard University, and in 1883 he was offered the 
newly-created chair of botany in McGill University, 
Montreal, where the rest of his professional life was 
spent. He had a very uphill fight in Montreal, which 
he manfully fought. There was no botanical labora- 
tory and there were no funds to provide one ; but as 
Prof. Penhallow gained the respect and esteem of the 
community help was forthcoming, and before he died 
the botanical laboratory was exceedingly well equipped. 
When he was appointed obscurantist views prevailed in 
Montreal, both in the city and in the University, and 
Prof. Penhallow was one of the very first to teach 
evolution, and may thus be said to have helped to 
inaugurate the epoch of "meiji" in Montreal. In his 
own science he devoted special attention to the 
anatomy of woods, both recent and fossil ; on this 
subject he publis'hed many valuabTe~~papers, and in 
his great work on " Gymnosperms," which appeared 
in 1908, he summed up the results of twenty years' 
labour. His eminence in his special department was 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



cordially recognised by the American scientific world, 
and when he died he was not only president of the 
American Society of Naturalists, but vicerpresident of 
the American Society of Botanists. 

But Prof. Penhallow's activities were by no means 
limited to teaching in his special subject. He threw 
himself into every movement calculated to bring a 
wider intellectual outlook into Montreal and Canada 
generally. He instituted courses of lectures to 
teachers, which had for many years a beneficial effect 
on those engaged in instruction in the public schools 
of the city. He was a leading member of the Canadian 
Royal Society, and in 1897, when the British Asso- 
ciation met in Toronto, he was appointed a member 
of a committee to impress on the Canadian Govern- 
ment the desirability of founding a marine biological 
station. The Government acted in accordance with 
the advice of this committee, and in 1899 ^ small 
floating station was started, which was moved from 
placed to place in eastern Canadian waters. 

When in 1907 the Government was persuaded to 
give a grant towards the foundation of a permanent 
station at St. Andrews, Prof. Penhallow was deputed 
by the Biological Board to supervise its erection. 
When he arrived at St. Andrews it was found to be 
necessary not only to build the station, but to cut a 
road through a mile of forest and to build a wharf. 
No one was ready to undertake the contract for this 
work, and those who were ready to undertake part of 
it, when they discovered that it was to be paid for by 
"Government money," would only do so at exorbitant 
prices. With characteristic American energy and ver- 
satility. Prof. Penhallow threw himself into the 
breach, became contractor himself, and constructed 
the road, the station, and the wharf in one-third the 
time he was told it would require, and at a great] 
saving in cost. Next year he superintended the activi- 
ties of the station, but a political crisis at Ottawa! 
temporarily stopped supplies, and the anxiety andl 
financial strain which he underwent undermined his] 
health, and, in the opinion of his friends, constituted' 
the first link in the chain of causes which led to his 
death. 

Prof. Penhallow is survived by his wife and 
by his son. Dr. P. Penhallow, who is engaged in 
medical practice in Boston. By his death McGill 
University loses one of its most distinguished pro- 
fessors, the city of Montreal one of its most public- 
spirited citizens, and the science, not only of botany, 
but of marine biology generally, a devoted supporter 
who could ill be spared. E. W. M. 

NOTES. 

We learn with great regret that it has been found 
necessary to postpone the festivities arranged to take place 
at Leyden to-day (November 3). On this date Prof, van 
Bemmelen completes his eightieth year, and he was to 
have received the personal congratulations of friends and 
disciples from all parts of the world. Owing to his illness, 
the ceremony is to be confined to the formal presentation 
of the jubilee volume by Prof. Lorentz, if, as is hoped, 
Prof, van Bemmelen is sufficiently recovered to receive 
him. The jubilee volume is a remarkable testimony to 
the regard which is felt throughout the world for the dis- 
tinguished second founder of colloidal chemistry. It con- 
tains a portrait, together with a biography and a biblio- 
graphy of the professor's published works. Sixty papers 
on subjects connected with the colloidal state have been 
contributed by workers from all parts of the world. 
Amongst the authors are le Chatelier, Duhem, Zsigmondy, 
Liesegang, von Wiemarn, Hissink, Freundlich, Biltz, 
Spring, Hardy, Svedborg, Jordis, Wolf. Ostwald, Lotter- 



November 3, 19 10] 



NATURE 



17 



nioser, Nietzk, Spiro, Bechold, Tamman, Barus, Bredig, 
Lorenz, Malfitano, &c. The volume is published by 
C. de Boer, Helder, Holland. 

The Allahabad Pioneer Mail of October 7 contains a 

melancholy review of a resolution recently passed by the 

Punjab Government regarding the prevention of plague. 

This resolution records that, in the opinion of a com- 

rttee consisting of plague experts and district officers of 

perience, " no remedy has been found for the disease ; 

ihat the people generally will not go to plague doctors to 

b^» treated when suffering from plague ; that disinfection 

of houses by means of chemicals, or even by heat, as a 

means for checking or preventing an epidemic is useless ; 

that rat destruction by poison or trapping is almost equally 

useless ; and that inoculation, though a splendid means 

of individual protection, cannot be used to check the 

epidemic owing to popular prejudice." As the result of 

this, the Punjab Government propose, while keeping on 

the field the establishment of plague doctors, to reduce 

the cost if possible, and make suggestions as to how this 

can be done. It is not easy from this report in the 

Pioneer Mail to analyse the evidence upon which the 

Punjab Government acts, but the paper must cause 

melancholy reflections among the friends of India. Is it 

not true that the words non possumus are somewhat fre- 

ently heard from the mouth of the Government of 

Ha? We have just listened to them in connection with 

alaria prevention, and we have heard them over and 

r again in connection with the prevention of cholera. 

rhaps a complete reform in the sanitary service of the 

untry, with much more attention to sanitary investiga- 

in and a more generous employment of trained scientific 

.vorkers, would not only save the Government the waste of 

much money on fruitless efforts, but would also do more 

to ensure success in the future. 

CoLONFL W. C. GoRGAS, who has done such splendid 
tvork in removing mosquito-borne diseases from the 
Panama Canal zone, sends a short letter to the Times of 
October 28 in which he gives the death-rates for that 
area ; and they are so remarkable that we here reprint 
his facts. Colonel Gorgas says : — " For the years since 
our occupation the statistics for the city of Panama have 
been as follows : — 

Xo. of deaths Death-rate per 1000 
1,447 •.. 65-82 
1,142 ... 4475 
1,156 ... 34-45 
. 1,292 ... 34-83 
. 1,038 ... 25-44 
The rates for the Canal Zone, under American jurisdic- 
tion, including the cities of Colon and Panama, are as 
follows : — 



Vear 


Population 


1905 . 


21,984 


1906 


25,518 


1907 . 


33,548 


1908 . 


37,073 


1909 . 


40,801 



Year 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 



Population 

56,624 

73,264 

102,133 

120,097 

135,180 



No. of deaths Death-rate per looo 



2,828 
3.544 

3,435 

2,983 

2,459 



49 94 
48-37 
33-63 
24-83 
18-19 



Among employes the rates have been as follows : — 

Ys*r Employes Death-rate per 1000 

1905 16,511 25-86 

1906 26,475 4173 

1907 39,343 28-74 

1908 43,890 13-01 

1909 47,167 1064 

There has been no case of either plague or yellow fever 
on the Isthmus since 1905. We admitted to our hospitals 
for malaria in the year 1905, 514 cases for each thousand 
NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



employes; in 1906, 821 cases for each thousand employes; 
in 1907, 424 for each thousand employes ; 1908, 282 for 
each thousand empksy^s ; and 1909, 215 for each thousand 
employes." 

^ There seems little doubt that the four deaths reported 
recently at Freston, in Suffolk, were due to plague. To 
prevent any further development of the disease, active 
measures are being adopted to effect a general destruction 
of rats in Freston and the neighbourhood. The southern 
part of rural Ipswich has been systematically explored, 
and large quantities of poison laid down. The Samford 
Rural District Council has issued a warning notice point- 
ing out that it is dangerous to touch dead rats with the 
naked hand, and urging their burial without delay. The 
public has been requested not to eat rabbits or hares 
killed in the district. The notice also urges a general 
campaign against uncleanliness and insects. The ques- 
tion of destroying rats over a wider area than that pro- 
posed has been raised, as many dead rodents have been 
found north of the Orwell. It is pointed out that the 
increase of rats can be traced to the practical extinction 
of their natural enemies — owls, kestrels, and hawks, which 
are now seldom seen in the localit}-. The origin of the 
disease is still uncertain, but there is reason to believe, 
in view of the plague at Odessa, that grain vessels from 
the Black Sea to the River Orwell may have brought over 
plague-stricken rats. The position of knowledge as re- 
gards the relation between rats and the spread of plague 
is described in an article elsewhere in this issue. 

Is the gardens of the Zookagicaf Society of London, 
Regent's Park, there is now in flower a specimen of Agave 
Americana. The Agaves are popularly known as 
" American " Aloes ; but there are no true Aloes in 
-'\merica, the genus being almost entirely confined to South 
Africa. Agave is a member of the natural order 
Amaryllidaceae, and Aloe of the natural order Liliaceae. 
Another popular fallacy connected with the Agaves is the 
belief that the plants flower after 100 years and then die, 
hence the Agave is sometimes called the centurv- plant. 
The facts are these, that the plants, being monocarpic, 
are only capable of flowering once, but the age at 
which a particular specimen will flower is determined by 
many circumstances, including constitutional characters 
and the suitability or otherwise of the conditions in which 
the plant is growing. These remarks apply specially to 
.Agave Americana, for another species, namely, .4. Sartori, 
is capable of flowering from year to year. A. Americana 
has very thick leaves of from 4 feet to 6 feet in length. 
They have sharp prickles all along the margins, and each 
leaf has a stiff, sharp point i inch to 2 inches long ; these 
latter are sometimes called " Adam's needles." The plant 
contains fibre in the roots and leaves, and the fibre is 
used for commercial purposes. Agaves are cultivated for 
ornamental purposes in this country, being used frequently 
as terrace plants in large boxes or tubs. The flower spikes 
grow very rapidly when once they have formed, their 
height varying from about 15 feet to upwards of 20 feet. 
The numerous flowers are greenish-yellow, occasionally 
quite yellow, but scarcely golden as they are sometimes 
described. The plant which is now flowering at Regent's 
Park has stood out of doors during the summer, but it is 
blooming in the warm atmosphere of the reptile house. 
Ai'other specimen bloomed in the same gardens in 1906, 
and two specimens flowered in the Victoria Park, London, 
in 1902. In Mr. Smith's gardens in the Scilly Islands a 
dozen or more specimens flowered out of doors in 1875, 
and in the south of France Agaves in flower are not un- 



iS 



NATURE 



[NOVF.MBER 3, 1910 



common objects. There is a variegated variety of 
A. Aynericana which is more ornamental than the type. 

It is announced in the Revue scientifique that Prof. 
Kammerling Onnes, of the University of Leyden, has put 
his cryogenic laboratory at the disposal of Madame Curie 
for her researches on radio-activity at low temperatures. 

The daily Press has recently given currency to a vague 
report that a " vast lake " has been discovered in an 
unexplored part of north-western Canada by Indians, which 
they declare to be as large as Lake Superior. The report 
is hardly likely to be correct so far as the size of the lake 
is concerned. 

A COURSE of twelve lectures on " The Coasts of Great 
Britain and Ireland " (Swiney lectures on geology) will 
be delivered by Dr. T. J. Jehu in the lecture theatre of 
the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington, on 
Mondays and Tuesdays at 5 p.m., and Saturdays at 3 p.m., 
beginning Saturday, November 5. Admission to the course 
is free. 

A Reuter message from Vienna states that on 
October 28 the Radium Institute created there by the 
Academy of Sciences was formally opened by the Archduke 
Rainer. The new institute is to be devoted solely to 
chemical and physical research, and will be open to scien- 
tific men of all countries. The institute has at its dis- 
posal three grams of radium from Joachimsthal. 

At the annual general meeting of the Cambridge Philo- 
sophical Society, held on October 31, the following officers 
were elected : — President, Sir George H. Darwin, K.C.B. ; 
vice-presidents, Dr. Fenton, Prof. A. C. Seward, and Prof. 
H. F. Newall ; treasurer. Prof. E. W. Hobson ; secretaries, 
Mr. A. E. Shipley, Dr. Barnes, and Mr. A. Wood. The 
new members of the council elected are Mr. E. A. Newell 
Arber, Sir Joseph J. Thomson, and Mr. J. E. Purvis. 

The Chemical Society's banquet to past presidents, 
which was postponed from May 26, will be held at 
the Savoy Hotel (Embankment entrance) on Friday, 
November 11. The banquet is in honour of the following 
past presidents who have attained their jubilee as fellows 
of the society : — Prof. William Odling, F.R.S., the Rt. 
Hon. Sir Henry E. Roscoe, F.R.S., Sir William Crookes, 
F.R.S., Dr. Hugo Muller, F.R.S., and Dr. A. G. Vernon 
Harcourt, F.R.S. 

The Berlin correspondent of the Times states that the 
German Ministry of the Interior has called a meeting to be 
held within the next few days 10 consider whether the 
foundation of a special institute for aviation research is 
practicable, or whether the work can be better carried out 
by existing institutions. Delegates from the Imperial 
Government and the Federal States will be present, 
together with representatives of the German technical 
universities, of various associations connected with aviation 
and motors, and of the industries concerned. 

The death is announced of Dr. D. J. B. Gernez, member 
of the Paris Academy of Sciences and a former collaborator 
of Pasteur. From a notice in the Times we learn that 
Dr. Gernez was born in 1834. On the completion of his 
studies he filled various posts as a teacher of scientific 
subjects. While engaged upon professorial work at the 
Lyc6e Louis-le-Grand he assisted Pasteur in some of his 
researches, and was for many years an intimate friend and 
collaborator of the great French investigator. For more 
than twenty years Dr. Gernez was a lecturer at the Ecole 
Normale of Paris, a post which he held simultaneously 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



with professorships at other great educational institution-. 
and from which he retired in 1904. Dr. Gernez was th 
author of a number of treatises on scientific subjects, ami 
was an Officer of the Legion d'Honneur. 

At the general meeting of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh, held on October 24, the following office-bearer< 
were elected: — President, Sir William Turner, K.C.B. , 
F.R.S. ; vice-presidents. Prof. Crum Brown, F.R.S., Prof. 
J. C. Ewart, F.R.S., Dr. J. Home, F.R.S., Dr. J. 
Burgess, Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof. F. O. Bower, 
F.R.S.; general secretary. Prof. G. Chrystal ; secretaries 
to ordinary meetings, Dr. C. G. Knott, Dr. R. Kidston, 
F.R.S.; treasurer, Mr. J. Currie ; curator of library and 
museum. Dr. J. S. Black; councillors, Prof. J. W. 
Gregory, F.R.S. ; Dr. A. P. Laurie, Prof. Wm. Peddie, 
Prof. H. M. Macdonald, F.R.S., Prof. D. Noel Paton, 
Dr. W. S. Bruce, Prof. F. G. Baily, Dr. J. G. Bartholo- 
mew, Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S., Prof. James Walker, 
F.R.S., Prof. A. Robinson, and Dr. W. S. M'Cormick. 

A meeting of the Optical Convention executive com- 
mittee was held on October 25 in the rooms of the 
Chemical Society to consider the desirability of holding a 
second convention in the year 1912. On the motion of 
Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, C.B., F.R.S., it was resolved that 
a meeting of the permanent committee, which all members 
of the trade and others interested be invited to attend, be 
held some time in November to consider what action 
should be taken with the view of organising an optical 
convention in 1912. The time and place for this meeting 
will be announced as early as possible. The chair will 
be taken by Dr. Glazebrook, director of the National 
Physical Laboratory, as chairman of the permanent com- 
mittee, and a statement of the principal matters to be 
brought forward for consideration at the meeting will be 
published in due course. 

The magnetic survey yacht Carnegie left Para, at the 
mouth of the Amazon, under the command of Mr. W. J. 
Peters, on October 15, bound for Rio de Janeiro. This 
vessel, since leaving Brooklyn last June on her present 
cruise of three years in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific 
Oceans, had covered nearly 7000 miles up to Para, during 
which i>ortions of the first cruise were several times inter- 
sected by the introduction of loops. It is reported that the 
magnetic results obtained on the present cruise up to Para 
have fully confirmed the errors revealed by the first cruise 
in the existing magnetic charts of the North Atlantic. 
From Rio de Janeiro the Carnegie will proceed to Monte- 
video and Buenos .Aires, and thence across to Cape Town, 
where she is due towards the end of March, 1911. At the 
latter port the director, Dr. Bauer, expects to rejoin the 
vessel, and be with her on the portion of the cruise in the 
Indian Ocean. En route to Cape Town, Dr. Bauer is to 
visit certain magnetic institutions in Europe in order to 
perfect arrangements for cooperative magnetic survey 
work. 

The Morning Post National Fund .\irship made a flight 
from Moisson to Aldershot on October 26. The airship 
left Moisson at 10 a.m. (French time), the coast of Fran( 
near St. Valery en.Caux at 12 noon, passed over th' 
English coast-line near Rottingdean at 2.18 p.m., and 
reached Aldershot at 3.28 p.m., being brought to earth at 
4.5 p.m. The distance of 197 miles was accomplished in 
5h. 28m. The rate of speed was about 36 miles an hour, 
including partially adverse wind conditions. The airship 
carried a crew of eight. During the journey 528 lb. of 
ballast were used ; 400 litres of petrol were consumed by 



November .3, 19 10] 



NATURE 



19 



the engines, and at the moment of landing there were 
RSo lb. of water ballast, 990 lb. of petrol in reserve, in 

icJition to at least 200 litres in the reservoirs. The 

^ines started at 850 revolutions; they then worked up 
qoo revolutions, and fell again to 850, and only finally 

:ring the landing worked at their full power of 1000 

solutions. The highest altitude reached was 2120 feet, 
and throughout the sea passage there was a steady level 
of about 200 feet. The overall length of the airship is 
;;7-75 feet, and the water- and gas-proof envelope has a 

pacity of 353,165-8 cubic feet. 

Ax appeal is made for funds to erect a new building for 
the Royal Society of Medicine. Of the sum required, the 

riety has already provided 17,000/., and it asks that not 

-s than 26,000/. may be contributed from without, so 
:hat it may not be crmpelled to curtail its very valuable 
"Liblic and scientific work. Towards the money in hand 

:'X>/. has been subscribed by members of the medical pro- 

-^ion. The Lord Mayor has become chairman of a 

' insion House committee formed to promote the raising 
upwards of 30,000/. for the new building. The governor 
the Bank of England has opened an account for the 

ceipt of donations, which may be sent to the Bank of 
England, payable to " The Royal Society of Medicine 
Building Fund," or to the Lord Mayor at the Mansion 
House. The society now has 3200 fellows and members, 
and possesses a library- of nearly 100.000 volumes. It was 
originally founded in 1805, under the name of " The Royal 
Medical and Chirurgical Society. " A new charter was 

anted it in 1005 under the new name of " The Royal 

ciety of Medicine." 

Several of the Parisian hospitals entertained their 
isitors last Christmas to kinematograph exhibitions, in 
which very realistic phases in the life-histor>- of various 
pathogenic organisms were thrown on the lantern screen. 
On October 28 Messrs. Path^ Fr^res, of Paris, gave the 
-r-^mbers of the Medical Society of King's College Hospital 
opportunity of seeing some of their most successful 
applications of thf- kinematograph to bacteriological photo- 
micrography. The films shown represented (i) the experi- 
mental production of sleeping sickness in a rat, and the 
movements of the irypanosomes in the blood ; (2) the 
spirochjita of recurrent fever, and the ticks which convev 
the parasite ; (3) the spirochieta of fowls, some of which 
were seen imprisoned and revolving within the red cor- 
puscles ; (4) the movements of the infusoria from the intes- 
tine of a mouse ; (5) Trypancroma lewisi of the rat ; 
(6) Spirochaeta pallida, which, although only i /2000th of 
a millimetre in width, could be followed in its movements 
across the field of the microscope. Other films were shown 
representing involuntary movements of the embn.o of the 
Axolotl and its emergence from the egg, and the move- 
ments of the human stomach as seen during an X-rav 
examination of a patient. There can be no doubt that 
these films are a triumph of technique, but the gain at 
present is rather in favour of the public entertainer than 
of the worker in science. The main advantage from a 
scientific point of view is that rapid movements may be 
slowed and analysed, while slow movements may be 
accelerated, and thus realised. Such films will become an 
essential part of the equipment of every physiok)gical and 
medical workroom. 

Three years ago the council of the Royal College of 
burgeons, England, instituted demonstrations in connection 
with the museum. .At one of these, given in the theatre 
of the college on October 28, the conservator, Dr. .Arthur 
Keith, showed a series of specimens illustrating irregulari- 
ties in the differentiation of sexual characters. The 
NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



museum is peculiarly rich in specimens of this nature 
owing to the fact that John Hunter, its founder, had pre- 
served many preparations which illustrated tfie influence 
of the sexual organs in determining the growth and 
features of many parts of the body. Amongst these are 
I the specimens which show the assumption of the male 
plumage of aged pea-hens and hen pheasants. Prepara- 
tions added to the museum by Mr. S. G. Shattock show 
that such an alteration of secondary sexual characters is 
accompanied by a change in the sexual glands, usually of 
an atrophic nature. A- Leghorn fowl, in which the 
external characters were those of a cock rather than of a 
hen, had genital glands of an ovo-testicular tjpe. The 
Hunterian preparations, illustrating the sexual organs of 
the " Free-Martin " — a form of ox born as the twin of a 
perfect bull calf — were also exhibited. Although these 
specimens had been preserved for more than 150 years„- 
their tissue was in perfect condition for microscopical > 
examination. In one case Hunter was of opinion that 
both testes and ovaries were present in the same individual 
(a true hermaphrodite), but on microsc<^ical examination ^ 
it was found that the " ovary " was really a mass formed 
by a remnant of the Wolffian body. .A higher vertebrate 
• with both testes and ovary has not yet been seen. Hunter 
explained all irregularities in the development of the 
accessory sexual organs and of " secondare* " sexual 
characters as the result of an " imperfection " in the 
development of the testis and ovar}'. .AH museum speci- 
mens an>l recent experiments are in favour of his inter- 
pretation. 

The third part of the fourth volume of Memoirs of the 
Peabody Museum is devoted to an account by Mr. Teobert 
Maler of a series of adventurous journeys starting from 
the north of Yucatan and extending to the great lake of 
Peten-itza, in Guatemala. The value of the memoir would 
have been enhanced by a sketch of the routes, which are 
not traceable on ordinary maps. Several important sites 
representative of the Maya-Toltec culture were identified, 
such as ^^otul, where a remarkable stela depicting a pair 
of dancing priests was found, Tubusil, Silbituk, and the 
remarkable island city of Itza-Flores. When the country 
passes under the control of a decent government the great 
lake of Peten will be brought into connection with the 
sea, and vast economical resources of this region will be 
developed, with the result that the remarkable ruined 
cities connected with the career of Cortes will receive 
adequate examination. 

Ix the Oxford and Cambridge Review for Michaelmas 
term Dr. .A. Smythe Palmer concludes his study on the 
luck of the horse-shoe. He arrives at the conclusion that 
it is derived from the cult of the new moon, which was 
adopted by primitive races as a symbol of recoverv and 
good fortune. Incidentally, he has collected some curious" 
examples to show that the symbol was regarded as possess- 
ing magical power among the prehistoric people of" 
Europe, as is proved by various records of the discovery 
of horse-shoes in ancient interments, by the shape of 
many tumuli, and by the ring of trilithons at Sione- 
henge. He further points out that, following Babylonian 
precedent, the rising moon lying on her back was believed 
to be a silver boat. He thus disposes of the controversv 
between two sets of people who use the talisman in our 
days — one preferring to fix it with the heels upwards, the 
other downwards — in favour of the former. 

Ix the Field of October 22 Mr. Lydekker points out 
that the new antelope described in N.ature of September 29 
(P- 397) as Strepsiceros buxtoni, with the alternative name 
of Tragelaphus buxtoni, should be known by the latter title." 



20 



NATURE 



[November 3, 1910 



In the Zoologist for October Mr. F. J. Stubbs adduces 
further evidence, especially an Act of 1564 (2 Eliz. c. 15), 
to show that egrets were formerly common in England. 
" At the middle of the sixteenth century England was the 
liomo^ of an egret that was highly esteemed for the table. 
It nested with us, and was protected by law; and the 
same, or an allied, species inhabited an adjacent part of 
the Continent, and was brought to this country alive for 
food. Probably the bird was not altogether white, thus 
•differing from any existing European egrets or herons, and 
resembling species now found in America." 

Variation in the oyster-boring whelk (Urosalpinx 
cincreus) forms the subject of an article by Dr. H. E. 
Walter in the October number of the American Naturalist. 
This mollusc is a native of the Atlantic coast of North 
America, but was unavoidably introduced when oysters 
were transplanted to the Pacific shore. It was the original 
object of the article to compare these introduced Cali- 
fornian whelks with their Atlantic prototypes, but com- 
parisons were extended to a wider basis. As the result 
of the investigation, it appears doubtful whether 
Urosalpinx is more variable in its new than in its original 
home. 

As fossilised birds' feathers have hitherto been recorded 
from only some fourteen localities — with one exception of 
Tertiary age — brief reference may be made to Mr. F. 
Chapman's description in vol. xxiii., part i., of the Pro- 
■ceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, of a fossil of 
this nature from the Tertiary ironstone of Redruth, 
Victoria. No definite determination of the genus of the 
specimen, which is in the form of impressions on the two 
halves of a split nodule, is attempted, although it is 
suggested that it may have belonged to one of the smaller 
waders, such as the ibises. 

The third botanical number of the current volume of 
the Philippine Journal of Science contains a compilation 
of new or noteworthy Philippine plants, and a sixth part 
of an index to Philippine botanical literature, both pre- 
pared by Mr. E. D. Merrill. Among the new plants, 
about a hundred in number, mostly trees or shrubs, there 
are eleven additions to the genus Ardisia, ten to Ixora, 
and six to Hiptage ; also new genera, Astrocalyx and 
Cephalomedinilla, are proposed under the family Mela- 
stomacese, Curraniodendron under Saxifragaceae, and 
Pygmaeopremna under Verbenaceae. With reference to 
Ixora, it is noted that Ixora coccinea does not grow wild, 
but a closely allied species, I. philippinensis, is abundant 
and widely distributed. 

An enumeration of twenty-eight flowering plants and 
ferns growing on a London building site, about half an 
acre in extent, in Farringdon Street that has been vacant 
for two years is communicated by Mr. J. C. Shenstone 
to the Selborne Magazine (October). As the author points 
out, the chief interest lies in the methods of distribution 
by which the plants have reached the spot, and he has 
classed them as wind-distributed, kitchen refuse weeds, 
and forage or packing weeds. It is extremely puzzling 
to find a growth of bracken fern, since the plant is very 
difficult to transplant, and the appearance of Ficus Carica 
is not immediately explicable. Three casuals, that is, 
plants not indigenous to Britain, are provided by 
Epilohium angustifolium, Senecio viscosus, and Erigeron 
canadense. 

Of the flowers which undergo marked changes after 
feitilisation, tropical orchids afford some striking examples. 
For instance, it frequently happens that after the poUinia 
reach the stigma the flowers fade prematurely, the column 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



swells, the stigmatic surface becomes enclosed, and eventu- 
ally the ovules begin to develop. It would generally bi- 
assumed that these changes can only be induced by the 
stimulus of the pollen on the stigmatic surface, and the 
subsequent growth of the pollen tube. It has, however, 
been observed by Dr. H. Fitting, as is pointed out in the 
Gardener's Chronicle (October 29), that certain of these 
effects can be produced by inorganic means. Thus scratch- 
ing the stigmatic surface suffices to cause premature 
withering, and the application of dead pollinia or an 
extract therefrom may bring about swelling of the column ; 
but apparently development of the ovules does require the 
stimulus induced by the pollen grains penetrating the 
ovary. 

Among the numerous articles now appearing in agri- 
cultural publications on the growth of sugar-beet in 
England, one, by Mr. Chas. Bathurst, M.P., in the 
Agricultural Students' Gazette (vol. xv., part i.) deserves 
some attention. The importation of beet sugar into 
Great Britain is steadily increasing, and amounted in 1908 
to nearly eighteen and a half million pounds sterling in : 
value. Much of this could be produced in England, but 
the ojjeration of the sugar bounties rendered the industry 
financially impracticable. Now that the bounties are 
abolished by the Sugar Convention, active steps are being ! 
taken in several counties to start factories, which, in Mr. 
Bathurst 's view, should prove distinctly profitable unless 
an excise duty is placed on the sugar. An average crop. 
is given as 18 tons per acre, selling at the factory for i8s^ 
per ton, or 16I. 45. The cost of production, including 
the rent of the land, should not exceed gl. per acre, leav^j 
ing a profit to the cultivator of yl. 45. per acre. 

The summary of the weather issued by the Meteor-^ 
ological Office shows that for the eight weeks of autumi 
as yet expired the aggregate rainfall has been largelj 
deficient over the entire area of the British Islands. The 
greatest deficiency occurs in the north of Scotland, where 
the total rainfall is only 2-89 inches, which is 6-24 inche 
less than the average of the corresponding period for the 
last twenty-five years. In the west of Scotland the 
deficiency is 5-13 inches, the aggregate rainfall being onlj 
3-10 inches. In the north of Ireland the deficiency i^ 
3-98 inches, and in the north-west of England 3-60 inches^ 
In the south-east of England, which comprises London, 
the deficiency amounts to i-i6 inches. The duration 
bright sunshine for the period is deficient, except in a fev 
northern districts, the greatest deficiency being fifty-eigli 
hours in the east of England and fifty-six hours in thf 
Midland counties. The mean temperature was not ver 
different from the average, but its maximum readings werfl 
lower than usual, the absolutely highest temperature since 
September 4 being 76°, in the Midland counties. Frost al 
night has, as yet, only occurred in a very few districts^ 
The aggregate rainfall since the commencement of the yea 
is not very different from the average, but there is an 
excess, except in a few of the northern districts. Th«| 
duration of bright sunshine as yet this year is generally 
deficient, the deficiency exceeding one hundred hours ir 
the eastern districts of England. 

In the Proceedings of the Amsterdam Academy 
Sciences of June 25 Dr. W. van Bemmelen and Dr. Cj 
Braak give a preliminary report upon the investigation 
of the upper air, begun at Batavia in 1909. The observa^^ 
tory is now equipped with registering balloons and suitable 
instruments, but it was thought advisable to procee 
cautiously in using them so near to the sea before obtain^J 
ing more knowledge of the drift of the upper currents by'' 
means of pilot balloons. The following data showing the 



November 3, 19 10] 



NATURE 



21 



in decrease of the temperature gradient per lOO metres 
lie lower 2 kilometres were obtained (i) above the land 
1 a captive balloon and light wind; (2) above the 
i with a moderate westerly wind, with kites; and (3) 
ve the sea (January 14-20), weather rainy, with kites; 
the results are not strictly comparable, owing to 
rences of time of day : — 

Metres IOO-5CO 500-icco 1000-1500 

Balloon ... o 77- C. ... 0-37- ... — 
Kite(lan«^)... 087 •■ 072 ... 044 (<I500M) 

Kite (sea)... O 91 ... 059 ... 0-]l 

Further kite observations over sea gave for 1500-2000 m., 
0-34°; 2000-2500 m., 050°; 2500-3000 m., 0-46°. At 
about 1000 m. the gradient shows a sudden decrease, prob- 
ably due to the formation of cumulus clouds. The observa- 
tions of wind direction for the period September-May show 
that the upper air-current has easterly components up to 
the greatest heights attained (10-15 km.). The average 
altitude of the west monsoon was 5-4 km. The upper 
easterly, as well as the lower westerly, winds were some- 
times affected by strong northerly or southerly components. 
It is mentioned that diagrams of a registering balloon sent 
up on May 19, during the passage of the earth through 
tfie tail of Halley's comet, showed no other noteworthy 
feature than an inversion of temperature between 6 and 
7 km. ; the balloon burst at about 7 km. 

The various methods of finding the height of an airship 

are discussed by Captain Paul Renard in the Revue 

scientifique for September 17. Of the several methods of 

observing the height from the airship itself. Captain 

Renard considers that the use of the barometer affords 

only practicable one. Of the methods of observing 

height from the ground the large majority involve 

- niultaneous measurement of several angles, and this is, 

general, impracticable. Captain Renard considers that 

best methods are by observation with a telemeter, 

.;pled with a determination of the altitude, or by two 

•ultaneous observations of the altitude at the instant 

airship is in the vertical plane joining the two 

-•?rvers. , 

The Builder for October 29 contains an illustrated article 
'i-scriptive of the fine building now being erected in London 
: the Y.M.C.A. This building occupies an island site of 
ne 33.000 square feet, bounded by Great Russell Street, 
dford .Avenue, Tottenham Court Road, and Caroline 
r-»et. Reinforced concrete plays an important part, and 
^ been employed for the solution of various structural 
roblems of considerable magnitude. The building is not 
•:- of the reinforced concrete skeleton class merely 
athed in masonry-, but rather is a combination of 
isonry with reinforced concrete, the latter material 
king the duties hitherto very generally assigned to 
uctura' steel-work in modern architecture. Thus we 
d reinforced concrete columns, beams, and wall lintels 
rming the backbone of masonry features, and bearing a 
rge proportion of the loads to be supported, yet without 
\olving any noticeable departure from the familiar aspect 
masonry. In some important respects reinforced con- 
.-te is exclusively adopted, as in floor, roof, gallery stair- 
vay, and swimming-bath construction, and in the form 
of exceptionally large girders. The details of the rein- 
forced concrete work were prepared by Messrs. L. G. 
Mouchel and Partners, in accordance with the Hennebique 
system. 

-An article by Mr. Fullerton L. Waldo on recent pro- 
gress in the construction of the Panama Canal appears in 
the Engineering Magazine for October. Rapid progress 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



has been made in the great lock-works and the huge dam 
that is rising at Gatun. The three lock flights divide the 
vertical distance to the 85-foot level between them, whereas 
the locks of the Pacific division have lifts of 33 1 feet and 
54§ feet respectively. The usable dimensions of the locks, 
are 1000 feet by no feet, giving ample margin for even 
the new White Star liners, the overall dimensions of which 
are 890 feet in length and 92 feet in width. It is calcu- 
lated that the lock-stair at Gatun will require about 
I J hours for the transit ; the Pacific locks will detain the 
vessels for about the same length of time. The total 
passage across the Isthmus wilj take about 10 to 12 hours. 
The train takes about 2 J hours, so that passengers will 
probably prefer this method of transit. About 15 minutes 
are required to fill the lock chamber, but in case of need 
for haste the process can be completed in about half this 
time. The available water supply will allow of 48 ktckages 
per day, which might mean an average of something like 
80,000,000 tons of traffic annually as compared with- 
21,000,000 tons in the case of the Suez Canal and the 
40,000,000 tons of the Sault Ste. Marie. 

We have received the first five numbers of a leaflet 
entitled Hygieia, which is published by the Bureau of the 
International Congress of Hygiene, which is to be held in 
Dresden in 191 1. It contains notices with regard to the 
congress and brief abstracts of papers dealing with sub- 
jects appertaining to hygiene, e.g. sugar as a food-stuff, 
taverns as hospitals, cleansing of towns, &c. 

Messrs. Newton .\sd Co., Fleet Street, London, have 
issued a supplementary list of lantern-slides for the present 
session. .Among many others, we notice numerous astro- 
nomical slides dealing with Halley's comet, the moon, and 
Greenwich Observatory ; a set of slides showing Sicily and 
Messina after the earthquake ; sets to illustrate eight lec- 
tures on India, drawn up by Mr. H. J. Mackinder for the 
Visual Instruction Committee ; and slides showing aerial 
experiments and aeroplanes. 

The Penny Science Lectures at the Royal Victoria Hall. 
Waterloo Road, S.E., during November include : — 
November 8, " Early Men in Britain," W. Lower Carter,, 
and November 22, " Liquid Air," Dr. R. Whittan Gray. 

Mr. H. K. Lewis, of Gower Street, London, has pub- 
lished a catalogue of new books and new editions added 
to his well-known medical and scientific circulating library 
during July, August, and September of this year. 

OUR ASTROXOMICAL COLUMN. 

FiREB.\i.L OF October 23. — Mr. W. F. Denning writes : — 
" The fireball of Sunday, October 23, Sh. 12m., was 
observed at Kenley (Surrey), llford (Essex), and in Wales, 
as well as at other places. It appears to have passed over 
thj sea N.E. of the mouth of the Thames at heights 
of 84 to 40 miles. The length of the luminous course was 
about 75 miles, and the velocity 19 miles per second- 
Radiant near o Arietis. 

" The observation of the meteor from stations in Wales 
is interesting, and it is probable that the object was seen 
from a great many towns in England, for it appeared at 
a time when many people would be out of doors. The 
sky was, it is true, cloudy at some places and veiled the 
brilliant light of the meteor, but it was a very fine one, 
and gave several flashes as it slowly sailed along the 
E.N.E. as seen from the neighbourhood of London. It 
is important that if any further observations of an exact 
character were made they should be published, so that the 
flight of the object may be investigated accurately." 

The Motion of Molecules in the Tail of Halley's 
Comet. — In a recent note in these columns (September 29, 
p. 404) attention was directed to some results published 



22 



NATURE 



[November 3, 1910 



by Prof. Lowell in which he showed that particles repelled 
by light-pressure along the tail of Halley's comet travelled 
with accelerating velocities. An important addition to 
these results is now published in No. 48 of the Lowell 
Observatory Bulletins. By comparing the images shown 
on direct ' photographs with those shown on contem- 
|X)raneous objective-prism spectrograms, taken under con- 
ditions which permit the comparison, Prof. Lowell has 
educed evidence that the gaseous molecules of the tail 
were repelled by light-pressure. 

A series of spectrograms, taken during April and May, 
shows that the constituents of the tail varied consider- 
ably from one date to another. But the evidence indicates 
that on May 23 about 70 per cent, of the radiations repre- 
sented on the spectrograms was due to emission, the re- 
maining 30 per cent, being taken up by the continuous 
spectrum. That is to say, that the knots previously 
measured, on the direct photographs for May 23, were 
composed chiefly of gaseous molecules. As these knots 
showed, by their accelerating velocities, the action of a 
repulsive force exerted from the sun, it follows that light- 
pressure is competent to repel gaseous molecules. 

Confirmation of this important result is derived from a 
similar comparative study of the direct and spectral 
images of the tail of Morehouse's comet. The spectro- 
scopic evidence in that case indicated that practically all 
the light recorded on the plates was emitted by gaseous 
particles, yet the direct photographs afforded evidence of 
the action of light-pressure. 

The Dark Band surrounding the Polar Caps of 
Mars. — Readers of these columns will remember the dis- 
cussion raised by M. Antoniadi's contention that the dark 
band seen circling the polar cap on Mars is simply a 
contrast effect. In support of this contention M. 
Antoniadi stated (see Nature, December 23, 1909, vol. 
Ixxxii., p. 227) that photographs of the planet, taken in 
America, did not show the dark band, although at the 
same time they showed that the cap was not brighter than 
the continental areas, and therefore irradiation could not 
be adduced as the reason for the absence of the band. 
Prof. Lowell, in a note appearing in No. 4448 of the 
Astronomische Nachrichten, emphatically states that the 
photographs do show that the polar cap is brighter than 
the " continents," and actually irradiates in consequence 
beyond the confines of the disc. Further, the screen 
through which the photographs were taken was such that 
the relative brightness of the caps would be considerably 
modified. 

The Spectrum of Nova Sagittarii No. 2. — The nova 
recently announced by Mrs. Fleming appears on sixteen 
photographs taken at Arequipa between March 21 and 
June 10 ; the magnitude varied from 7-8 to 8-6 between 
those dates. The spectrum is quite faint, but shows the 
hydrogen lines, H/3, H7, H5, He, Hf, and Hrj, bright ; a 
trace of Hy as a dark line is seen on the less refrangible 
edge of the bright Hy line. 

The star does not appear on seventeen photographs 
taken between July 23, 1889, and October 7, 1909, 
although stars down to magnitude 12-0 are shown on the 
majority of the plates ; one plate shows the fifteenth 
magnitude or fainter. 

A visual observation by Mr. Leon Campbell, using the 
Harvard 24-inch reflector on October 3, showed the magni- 
tude of the nova to be 10-5. 

Prof. Millosevich, on October 15, determined the position, 
reduced to 19100, as i7h. S4m. 26-28s., —27° 32' 521", 
and the magnitude as 10-4 (Astronomische Nachrichten, 
No. 4448). 

A New Variable Star or a Nova, 971910 Cygni. — In 
No. 4448 of the Astronomische Nachrichten Mr. Hinks 
records the discovery of what appears to be a new star, 
or an unrecorded variable, on plates taken by him on 
August 7, 10, and 12, 1909. The position of the object 
is R.A. = i9h. 49m. S5-OIS., dec. = 4-36° 46' 57-4* (1900), 
and the approximate magnitudes on the dates named were 
104, IO-2, and 10-5 respectively. 

Plates taken on August 17, 19, and 26 show no 
trace of an object in this position, although those of 
August 17 and 26 show stars down to magnitude 12-5 ; 
nor could the star be found visually on September 19 and 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



26, when it should have been visible if brighter thai; 
mag. 130. 

Mr. Hinks publishes a chart of the region around tb. 
object, and asks for any available information as to iis 
appearance on photographs which may have been taken 
elsewhere. 

New Variable Stars in Harvard Map, No. 52. — In 
Circular No. 162 of the Harvard College Observatory 
Prof. Pickering announces the discovery, by Miss Cannon, 
of twenty-two new variable stars on No. 52 of the Harvard 
maps. The region of the plate is i8h. —60°, and 
altogether thirty-five variables were found. Some of the, 
new variables have ranges of three or four magnitudes, 
one, D.M. —57° 8613, varying from 76 to 100 ; this is 
of the Algol type, and has a spectrum of the fifth class. 

ANTHROPOLOGY AT THE BRITISH 
ASSOCIATION. 
'T'HE Anthropological Section at the Sheffield meeting was 
presided over by Mr. W. Crooke, whose works dealing 
with the ethnology of India are well known and highly 
valued by all anthropologists. His address has already 
appeared in Nature (September 29) and need not be alluded 
to here, except to refer to the tribute that was paid to the 
work of Dr. Tylor, who has so lately resigned his pro- 
fessorship at Oxford, and who presided over the department 
(as it then was) of anthropology at the last Sheffield 
meeting, held thirty-one years ago. 

A feature of the section's work was the joint discussion 
with Section L (Education) on the measurement of in- 
telligence in school children, to which Dr. Spearman, Dr. 
Lipmann, Dr. Myers, and Messrs. Burt, Brovirn, and Gray | 
contributed. A report of this discussion will be given in I 
the account of the proceedings in Section L. 

Beyond this the work of the section ran on the usual 
lines, the number of archaeological papers being again a 
prominent feature. The section, as usual, had the advan- ! 
tage of hearing reports on their work by members of the 
British Schools of Archaeology at Athens, Rome, and in 
Egypt, and also from gentlemen who have been excavating 
and exploring in the British Isles. 

In the following summary the papers are broadly grouped 
together under the various subjects with which they dealt. 

Archaeology. ^^ 

Mr. T. Ashby described the excavations which have taken 
place at Caerwent, the site of Venta Silurum. These have 
consisted of the uncovering of several more houses, and of 
the excavation of the central insula to the north of the city, 
which contains the Forum and Basilica. This latter had no 
apses, and from its S. aisle at each end were entrances into 
the streets. The Forum was surrounded by an ambulatory 
and shops. Numerous skeletons were found in another part 
of the city, but were not contemporary, being obviously of 
post-Roman date. Closely akin to this paper was Prof. 
Bosanquet's account of the excavations at Caersws, under- 
taken by the Liverpool committee for excavation and 
research in Wales and the Marches. 

Mr. H. D. Acland presented a paper on some prehistoric 
monuments in the Scilly Isles, which consisted of a 
description of two groups of menhirs. Several of those of 
one group have a constant orientation differing 4° from a 
normal bearing. A group of intersecting banks was also 
described, which have a similar variation as the menhirs. 

The excavation of a broch at Cogle, VVatten, Caithness, 
was described by Mr. Alexander Sutherland. The building 
had been overgrown with vegetation, and five successive 
layers of ashes and pavement were found. Among the 
Neolithic remains were several stone pestles, discovered in 
the lowest stratum ; these were of a basalt-like stone and 
were originally of oval or oblong shape, but had been worn 
down by constant pounding until some of them had become 
circular. The broch was 30 feet in diameter. 

The Rev. Dr. Irving read a paper on the prehistoric 
horse, found some little time ago at Bishop's Stortford. 
Careful comparisons have been made with other skeletons, 
and the conclusion seems warranted that it represents a late 
Pleistocene race, which has survived into Neolithic, Bronze, 
or the Early Iron period, the age of the deposit being 



November 3. 19 10] 



NATURE 



23 



difficult to judge, as stone, bronze, and iron have all been 
found. The site, however, shows promise of proving to be 
of some importance, and a committee has been appointed 
by the association to assist in its c xamination. 
A suggestive paper was contributed by Mr. George 
linch on some unexplored fields in British archjeology, m 
iiich he directed attention to the amount of destruction 
ot antiquities which is occurring annually, urged the estab- 
lishment of regular and systematic oversight of great 
I engineering works which involve excavation and removal 
of soil, and directed attention to certain promising forms of 
archaeological exploration, such as blown sands, peat 
iposses, marshes, and dried river sites. 

The committee appointed to investigate the lake villages 
in the neighbourhood of Glastonbury reported the results 
of the work carried out at Meare, on two distinct groups of 
low circular mounds. The excavations included the 
examination of three dwellings and trenching with the 
object of finding the palisading, but although the ground 
was examined for some loo feet from the mounds, no such 
border protection was discovered. The relics found were 
all of the j'reatest interest and importance, and show 
clearly that the Mearc people lived under similar physical 
■ rinditions and civilisation as did their neighbours at 
astonbuiy. 

In what may be termed Mediterranean archaeology four 
pers were presented. Messrs. A. M. Woodward and 
;. A. Ormerod described a group of prehistoric sites 
' xcavated by them in south-west Asia Minor. Nineteen 
prehistoric mounds were examined, extending from the 
plains of Elmeli in N.E. Lycia to Lake Kestel in Pisidia. 
The potsherds found were mainly of a red hand-polished 
ware, assignable to the Bronze age, but fragments of a 
black polished ware were also discovered, some of which 
ii;ay possibly be of Neolithic origin. Painted pottery show- 
ing affinities to Cappadocian and Early Cypriote Iron age 
; fabrics were also discovered, but this pottery appears to be 
'pdependent of /Egean influence or importation. The 
nains of a megalithic rectangular house were found. 
A paper on excavations carried out in Thessaly in 1910 
15 submitted by Messrs. A. J. B. Wace and M. S. 
ompson, the sites chosen for the season's work being 
~ ingli and Rachmani. On the first of these, remains of 
olithic houses were discovered, square in plan with 
...ternal buttresses. Celts and vases were found, and also 
terra-cotta statuettes, of which the male figures, rare in 
'■ Thessaly, showed markedly phallic characters, while the 
female were steatopygous. 
At Rachmani houses were discovered, and a considerable 
i amount of pottery and a few figurines. A comparison of 
I the two excavations enables the prehistoric age in Thessaly 
1 to be divided into four periods : — (i) Neolithic, with red and 
white painted pottery; (2) Neolithic, with Dhimini and 
kindred vases ; (3) sub-Neolithic, to which period belongs 
; the remarkable encrusted ware ; and (4) Chalcolithic, in 
1 which period the pottery is unpainted, and the latter part 
of it is apparently contemporary with Late Minoan II 
and III. 

Dr. T. Ashby, the director of the British School at Rome, 

! described the excavations carried out by him at Hagiar Kim 

I and Mnaidra, Malta, under the auspices of the Maltese 

' Government. The object of the work was to discover 

! whether the excavations carried out many years previously 

had completely reveakd the ground plan and to endeavour 

to find sufficient pottery to enable the date of the structures 

' to be determined. In both respects the action was justified 

by results. \ large, hitherto unknown, roughly paved area 

was discovered at both places, and at Mnaidra subsidiary 

buildings, perhaps devoted to domestic uses, were disclosed. 

The small objects found, fragments of pottery and flint, 

corresponded absolutely with those from the hypogeum at 

Halsaflieni, so that it seems clear that Hagiar Kim and 

, Mnaidra are also of the Neolithic period. 

1 Some cup and ring markings and spirals from the 
I hypogeum at Halsaflieni were described by Dr. Dukinfield 
I Astley. The markings are done in red paint on two of the 
roofs of the buildings. 

Prof. Petrie gave an account of the work carried on by 

I the British School in Egypt at Meydum and Memphis. 

At the first place the archaic sculptured tombs were 

removed, owing to the damage they had sufTered from 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85I 



native plunderers. Two of these chambers are unique, the 
colours being inlaid in deep undercut hollows. The burial 
chamber of the largest tomb was excavated, in which was 
found a sarcophagus of red granite, the oldest known, 
di-ting about fiftv years earlier than that in the Great 
Pyramid. In the' course of the work at Meydum quarry 
marks were found on many of the blocks. As these name 
Ihf months of quarrying, it makes it possible to fix the 
shifting months of the Egyptian calendar, as the season of 
quarrying is closely fixed by the inundation. The result is 
the fixing of the reign of Sneferu at 3200 or 4700 B.C. 

kx. Memphis work was begun on the temple of Ptah 
The main result has been the discovery of a large shrine 
built by Amenhotep III, and a portrait head of King 
Amasis. Sealings were found on the palace site, while 
pottery kilns were also carefully explored. 

Dr. Seligmann contributed a paper on a Neolithic site ii> 
the southern Sudan, at which hammerstones, pygmy imple- 
ments, and implements of hornstone were found, all on the 
surface. 

.\ description of the archaeological activities in the United 
StiJtes, as carried on by the various universities and public 
bodies, was given by the well-known American anthropo- 
logist. Miss .Alice Fletcher, who was appointed a vice- 
president of the section for the meeting. 

Ethnology and Ethnography. 

Several papers on general ethnology and ethnography- 
were presented to the section. Mr. E. Torday described 
the Bu-Shongo of the Congo Free State, a tribe inhabiting 
the district between the fork of the Kasai and Sankuru 
rivers. The nation is composed of a number of subtribes 
all under one paramount chief. The most famous of the 
chiefs was Shamba Bolongongo, who has become the 
national hero, and is venerated because he was a man of 
peace and a great lawgiver and philosopher. The organisa- 
tion of government now existing is that remodelled by this 
chief, although it has become greatly weakened. In theory 
the king is absolute, but his power is limited by two 
bodies, somewhat analogous to two houses of parliament. 
Above all is the king's mother. There is a form of 
totemism. The people are great wood-carvers, amongst the 
most interesting products of this art being portrait statues 
of their kings. Five of these are known and three of these 
are now in the British Museum, amongst these being that 
of Shamba Bolongongo himself. 

Mr. Mervyn W. H. Beech contributed a paper on the Suk 
of east Africa. These people, who live to the north of 
Lake Baringo, are akin to the Nandi, but with a large 
aboriginal element. This is especially seen in their lan- 
guage, which, although it contains a large percentage of 
Nandi and a little Turkana, has a considerable amount of 
what is probably aboriginal. The tribe is divided into 
totemic and exogamcus clans, and the social system re- 
sembles the Nandi ; but, on the other hand, the dress, 
ornaments, and dances are like those of the Turkana and 
differ entirely from those of the Nandi. 

Mr. G. W. Grabham read a paper on native pottery 
n'ethods in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. He described the 
various kinds of pots made, the most interesting, perhaps, 
being the gobanas, or coffee-pots. Two cup-shaped saucers 
are made and roughly dove-tailed together ; the join is then 
smoothed down, a handle and spout added, and the whole 
is then scraped, polished, ornamented, and baked. 

Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, in his paper on kava drinking in 
Melanesia, explained that manv facts point to this custom 
being indigenous and not an importation from Polynesia, 
or, if introduced, that it has a far greater antiquity than 
other Melanesian customs to which a Polynesian origin has 
been ascribed. In the southern New Hebrides the method 
of preparation resembles the Polynesian, and the name is 
the same, so that here the practice may have been in- 
fluenced by the Polynesians ; but in the northern New 
Hebrides, Banks and Torres Islands, the name is indi- 
genous, and the whole ceremonial of making and drinking 
the infusion differs fundamentally from that of Polynesia. 
In many cases its use has a clearly religious and social 
character. The occurrence of the practice in the Fly River 
region of New Guinea suggests that the distribution of the 
custom may have been very wide, and that in New Guinea 
and northern Melanesia kava has been replaced by betel. 



24 



NATURE 



, [November 3, 19 10 



In his paper entitled " A Search for the Fatherland of 
the Polynesians," Mr. A. K. Newman endeavoured to prove, 
partly by the evidence of place names, that the first home 
of the Polynesians was in the Ganges Valley. 

Two papers of general ethnological interest were contri- 
buted by Miss Fletcher and Mr. E. S. Hartland. In the 
former — a sidelight on exogamy — the author directed atten- 
tion to the exogamic character of the Omaha social 
■organisation, while in the latter Mr. Hartland discussed 
the origin of mourning dress, and held that mourning was 
worn not so much as a disguise, as suggested by Dr. 
Frazer, but as a means of typifying the union of the dead 
-and as an expression of sorrow and abasement, so as to 
deprecate the malice of a spirit, naturally annoyed at 
finding itself disembodied. 

It is particularly gratifying to record that the committee 
appointed at Winnipeg to consider the feasibility of starting 
an ethnographic survey of Canada reported that, owing to 
-representations made by the council of the Association and 
by a deputation of the committee and others, which waited 
upon Sir Wilfrid Laurier, the Dominion Government has 
included in its estimates the sum of 420Z. to establish a 
department of ethnolog}' under the Geological Survey. This 
most gratifying result may be considered as entirely due to 
Xhe initiative taken by the Association at the Winnipeg 
meeting. 

Two ethnological papers of great interest were those by 
Prof. Elliott Smith on the people of Egypt, and by Prof. 
H. J. Fleure and Mr. T. C. James on the people of 
Cardiganshire. The latter of these should perhaps be 
classified under physical anthropology, as the survey was 
largely an anthropometrical one. 

Prof. Elliott Smith began by urging the impossibility of 
reconstructing the history of man in Egypt unless the work 
is based on the study of physical characters, as apart from 
mere measurements, of accurately dated human remains 
from the three great divisions of the Nile Valley — Lower 
and Upper Egypt and Lower Nubia. Of the origin of the 
■predynastic Egyptians, all that at present could be safely 
said was that they showed affinities to both the Mediter- 
ranean race and to the Arabs. Although just before the 
end of the predynastic period some slight change in the 
character of the population can be seen, it is not until the 
Third Dynasty that the significance of the change can be 
fully appreciated. At this date it becomes clear that each 
-of the three divisions of Egypt had its own distinctive 
population : Lower Nubia, a people identical with the pre- 
dynastic but tinged with negro ; Lower Egypt, the de- 
scendants of the predynastic peoples, mixed profoundly 
with white immigrants, who came in by way of the Delta, 
while Upper Egypt, though not directly affected by either 
•of these alien stocks, was yet indirectly affected by both, 
through the intermingling of its people with those of the 
two other districts. 

In the time of the Middle Kingdom this white and 
Nubian influence became more marked in the Thebaid, and 
thus the gradual gradation of physical characters, from the 
"black of Nubia to the white of the Levantine population 
in the north, began to set in, a gradation which has 
-persisted to the present day. 

Messrs. Fleure and James pointed out in their paper that 
the basis of the population of Cardiganshire appears to be 
-the Mediterranean tvne, that is, a type marked by con- 
siderable dolichocephaly, dark hair, slight prognathism, and 
-a stature a little below the average. But as the type 
■becomes fairer these marked characteristics disappear, 
prognathism ceases to exist, and the head becomes shorter. 
Amongst this population there is also a fair type, in which 
•the heads become still shorter and the stature higher, while 
the face becomes opisthognathous. 

Physical Anthropology. 

In purely physical anthropology two papers only were 
presented, there being still the marked decline in papers of 
this nature which has been noticeable during the last five 
years. It is very much to be regretted that the anatomists 
and other workers in the field of physical anthropology 
"have ceased from presenting the results of their work to the 
Association, and it is to he hoped that a turn in the opposite 
-direction will soon set in. 

Prof. C. J. Patten described a rare form of divided 
•parietal in the cranium of a chimpanzee. Cases of this 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



kind are extremely rare, and the one under consideration 
appeared to be an example of complete division of both 
parietals, each by a horizontal suture, running the entire 
length of the bones and joining the coronal and lambdoid 
sutures. The case is of further interest owing to the way 
in which the upper segment of each bone is again sub- 
divided. Correlated with this condition there is a thinning 
out of the bones of the cranial vault and a reduction in the 
size and strength of the zygomatic arch and of many of 
the processes at the base of the skull. 

Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth exhibited a microtome, made 
by the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company, which 
provides a means of preparation of anthropological material 
possessing great interest. Some of the preparations thus 
made were mounted as lantern-slides and exhibited ; for 
example, in a section of the leg of an adult man, tissues so 
distinct in consistency as bone, tendons, and muscles could 
be seen. Other specimens exhibited were sections of the 
larynx and tongue. 

Finally, the report of the committee to conduct archa;o- 
logical and ethnological researches in Crete contained long 
reports on Cretan anthropology, by Mr. C. H. Ilawes, and 
physical observations, viz., head form and pigmentation, 
of Cretan school children, by Dr. Duckworth. Both 
these reports contained a mass of detailed measurements 
and observations which it is impossible to summarise. One 
point may, however, be mentioned. Dr. Duckworth is of 
opinion that the general physique of Cretan chiWren is 
frequently, if not always, poor, being markedly inferior to 
that of British children of the same age. 



AGRICULTURE AT THE BRITISH 
ASSOCIATION. 
T N drawing up the programme for the Sheffield meeting 
-*• the organising committee of the Agricultural Sub- 
section adhered to the lines laid down last year. Certain 
problems of current interest and importance were discussed 
at joint meetings so far as possible, and attention was 
directed particularly to those aspects of the problems on 
which men of pure science could throw much needed light. 
There were, therefore, very few general papers, and such 
as were read were regarded rather as preliminary accounts 
of work that must come on later for discussion. 

The chairman's address has already been printed in 
exfenso in these columns (September 8). It dealt with 
fertility, the eternal and fundamental problem in agri- 
culture, and traced the history of the views that have been 
held since the early experimenters of the seventeenth 
century began their 'work. Fertility depends on several 
factors, any one of which may at a given time become a 
limiting factor and determine the growth of the plant. 
The amount of available mineral food, the supply of water, 
and the supply of nitrates all enter into the problem. All 
that science can do as yet is to ascertain the existence of 
these factors one by one, and bring them successively under 
control ; it is not Vet possible to disentangle all the inter- 
acting forces the resultant of which is represented by the 
crop. . . . 

Dr. Crowther and Mr. Ruston discussed the impurities 
of the town atmosphere and their effect on vegetation. 
Rain water falling within the industrial section of Leeds is 
highly charged with mineral and tarry matter, and also 
contains a good deal of acid. The rain of the residential 
districts is much purer, but still not as pure as country 
rain. Pot experiments, and observations made in gardens, 
parks, &c., showed that the effect of the impurity was 
complex; the stomata'of the plants were blocked, especially 
if they happened to be sunk as in the conifers; the soil 
also suffered. These actions produced marked results on 
vegetation ; in extreme cases the plants were actually 
killed, and even those surviving were much affected. The 
case of grass was examined in some detail because of its 
technical importance. It was found that the impure rain 
reduced the yield and the protein-content of the herbage but 
increased its fibre-content. The feeding value was therefore 
much diminished. 

Prof. Berry followed with an account of the ether extract 
of the oat kernel. It has long been known in a general 
wav that the ether extract is not all fat, although so 
labelled as a matter of convenience. Prof. Berry has 



ll November 3, 1910] 



NATURE 



25 



unined the extract in detail, and the great value of his 
rk is that he is dealing with definite varieties of oats 
\vn under known conditions. It is understood that the 
research is being continued, and some interesting con- 
clusions may be looked for. 

Mr. A. S. Home gave an account, illustrated by photo- 
phs, of a bacterial disease of potatoes. Not long ago 
was supposed that plant diseases were caused by fungi, 
but cases are steadily accumulating where bacteria are 
the active agents. Several cases have been worked out at 
Newcastle, and it was felt that on a future occasion more 
time will have to be devoted to this important branch of 
study. 

The second day was given up to a discussion of two 

subjects now coming much into prominence. Sugar-beet 

growing was dealt with by Mr. Sigmund Stein and Mr. 

; G. L. Courthope, M.P. Later in the day nitrogen fixation 

was discussed by Mr. Golding and Prof. Bottomley. It has 

. always been known that sugar beet could be grown in 

England, but the industry never had an opportunity of 

development by reason of the Continental sugar bounties. 

The Brussels Convention, however, has so altered the 

-:iion of affairs that a reasonable prospect of success 

:!s assured ; already factories are springing up in 

(iinerent parts of the country, and farmers are contracting 

to supply the necessary beets. For many years Mr. Stein 

Hie; advocated beet-sugar production, and in his paper he 

a summary of the various experiments he has made to 

t the objections that have from time to time been 

raised. He claimed that the practical difficulties, both in 

; the field and the factory, are now overcome, and the time 

is ripe for active development. Mr. Courthope dealt with 

' the financial aspects of the question, and gave a number of 

carefully prepared statistics showing that the new industry 

1 has every probability of success. This paper created a 

jvery favourable impression, and the speakers that followed 

: agreed that a good case had been made out. There has, 

as usual, been a good deal of exaggeration about the 

possible effect of a new rural industry. If sugar beet is 

grown, some other crop will have to go out ; the gain to the 

country will therefore be the difference between the new and 

the old, and not, as is commonly stated, the whole amount 

; that the new crop will bring in Still, there is no doubt 

that a new industry and a new market would have a useful 

! steadying effect on agricultural prices. 

I Nitrogen fixation was the next subject. Prof. Bottomley 
I brought forward the evidence in favour of his proposition 
•that .Azo:obact('r, in coniunction with Pseudomonas. both 
obtained from the root tubercles of Cycas, will " fix " more 
I nitrogen than either alone. He further argues that this 
j mixed culture will grow in soils and " fix " nitrogen to 
' form compounds readily transformable into plant food. 
Some discussion arose as to the interpretation of the 
results ; the quantities involved are small, and the experi- 
mental errors known to be considerable. The great diffi- 
culty arises, however, in the absence of a satisfactory 
: standard by which one experiment may be compared with 
I another. 

I Mr. Golding dealt with his subject in a more general 
way, his researches having been directed to the whole 
question of nitrogen fixation in the root nodules of 
leguminous plants. This fixation is brought about by 
bacteria which invade the root hair as infection threads, 
pass through a rod-shaped stage, and finally assume the 
bacterojd (Y) form. Mr. Golding is steadily overcoming 
the difficulties of working with the organisrn in artificial 
media, and is succeeding in making it pass through the 
changes that it undergoes in the plant. During the period 
of active nitrogen assimilation an alkaline substance is 
formed ; after a time, if the products are not removed, 
assimilation stops, the alkali disappears, and the medium 
becomes acid. Dr. Russell pointed out that this change 
from alkaline to acid reaction indicated that the organisms 
were now utilisine: the nitrogenous base alreadv formed, 
and therefore setting the acid free, a change known to go 
on in other cases. 

On Monday. Seotember 5, a joint meeting was held with 
the Zoological Section to discuss the effect of partial 
sterilisation of soils. Dr. Russell read a paper which he 
and Dr. Hutchinson had orepared, giving an account of 
the work they have been doing at Rothamsted during the 
past three years. There is a notable increase in productive- 
NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



ness when a soil is heated or treated with volatile antiseptics- 
like toluene. This was traced to an increase in bacterial 
activity, which, in turn, was shown to be the result of 
removing some factor that had in the original soil limited 
bacterial activity. By drawing up a systematic plan of 
experiment it was possible to find what processes would, 
and what would not, put the injurious factor out of action, 
and so the authors had arrived at a list of properties the 
factor possessed. .According to their results it appears to^ 
be a living organism larger than bacteria, but developing, 
more slowly, killed at or below 50° or by prolonged 
drought. It might actively destroy bacteria, or, on the other 
hand, it might form a protoplasmic layer round the soil 
particles containing organic matter, and thus keep off and 
starve the bacteria. Tne zoologists present made some very 
useful suggestions. Dr. Shipley recommended sewage-farm 
soils as the best place to start hunting for the organism. 
Dr. Ashworth suggested that the amoebae or amoeboid 
organisms of the soil might be the culprits, and considered 
that methods of investigation like those used by Musgrave 
and Clegg or by Noc might with advantage be tried. Mr.. 
T. J. Evans, on the other hand, thought that the results 
indicated a mycetozoan Plasmodium, while Mr. J. J. Lister 
urged that mycetozoa would require vegetable matter, which, 
however, they would have in the soil. 

Mr. K. J. J. Mackenzie followed with an account of the 
" fKDints " prized by the breeder of high-class stock, and 
gave the results of measurements he had made to find out 
how far the " points " really are correlated with the 
characters they are supposed to indicate. So far as he has 
gone — he is pursuing the problem further — the correlation. 
is very slight, and it can only be inferred that the breeder 
arrives at his eminently successful results rather by an 
intuitive process than by any use of his "points." The ques- 
tion is of great economic importance, because England is, 
and seems likely to remain, the stud-farm of the world. 

A joint meeting with tlie Geological Section followed, at 
which soil sur\eys were discussed. .\ paper by Mr. HalL 
and Dr. Russell was read, dealing with the objects and 
methods of agricultural soil surveys. The ordinary drift 
map is not sufficient, although it makes an admirable 
starting point. It is necessary to classify the soils further, 
to studv them in their relation to the local agriculture, and' 
to ascertain the effect of manures, of rainfall, topographical 
position, &c. Illustrations were given to show that a soil 
may be sufficiently described from the agricultural point of 
view when its mechanical analysis, and its positions on 
the geological, orographical, and rainfall maps are known. 
Mr. L. F. Newman gave a preliminary account of his 
survey of the drift soils of Norfolk, which seems to indicate 
a fairly regular distribution of the various types of soil. 
Mr. C. T. Gimingham described the " teart " land of 
Somerset, on which animals " scour " badly. This con- 
dition is confined to one formation, the lower lias, and 
disappears when even the most superficial covering of 
alluvium occurs. \ large acreage is affected. Evidence is 
adduced that the cause is to be sought in the physical state 
of the soil ; if this is so, it should be capable of remedy. It 
is much to be hoped that the field trials which Mr. Giming- 
ham has drawn up to test this view will be carried out. 

The last day opened with a paper by Mr. Hall on the 
cost of a day's horse labour on the farm. This funda- 
mental problem of agricultural economics has been but 
little investigated, and Mr. Hall's estimate of 25. "jd. per 
dav must be regarded as the most complete we have at 
present. Another economic paper followed, by Mr. Turnor, 
on costs in the Danish system of dairy farming. The data 
were gathered during a tour of Denmark, and represent a 
good deal of study of the subject. Mr. Turner is shortly- 
bringing out a book in which the results of his investiga- 
tions will be more fully dealt with. 

The rest of the dav was devoted to a discussion jointly 
with the Economic Section of the errors of agricultural 
experiments. Prof. Wood opened the subject with three 
papers prepared in conjunction with Messrs. Stratton and 
Bruce. From the results it appears that many of the 
feeding trials carried out in the country are of very 
doubtful value. Agriculturalist.*; have usually neglected the 
experimental error ; in few, if any, of the numerous county 
council experiments, for instance, is it ever taken into 
account. Prof. Wood's papers, along with one by Mr. Hall 
and Dr. Russell on field trials, have emphasised the import- 



26 



NATURE 



[November 3, 1910 



ance of the matter, and steps are being taken to distribute 
these papers among agricultural experimenters. 

A paper by Mr. Collins on the errors of milk analysis 
concluded the session. 

The position of agriculture at the British Association is 
not yet settled. Whatever the council decide to do, it is 
hoped they will continue to give a separate organisation to 
agriculture, and thus afford to workers in agricultural 
science an opportunity — the only opportunity for some of 
them — of meeting their fellow workers in pure science and 
discussing their problems. It is necessary to get help from 
several sides and not simply from one, as from the chemical 
or the botanical, which seems to be the theory of a sub- 
section. However, whether lawfully or not (it appears to 
have been unlawfully) the organising committee has 
hitherto enjoyed the fullest liberty, and has succeeded in 
arranging a series of meetings that have proved extremely 
helpful to agricultural investigators, and promise to play 
no small part in the encouragement of agricultural research. 

TUYSIOLOGY AT THE BRITISH 
ASSOCIATION. 

T N addition to the presidential address, which has 
■*■ appeared already in Nature, there were a number of 
interesting papers communicated to the section. Physi- 
ology was unique in that it was the only section that 
met at the University ; and thus, although somewhat 
isolated from the other sections, enjoyed the advantage 
of the laboratories for demonstrations. 

There were two joint meetings, one with Chemistry 
(Section B) and Botany (Section K) on the biochemistry of 
respiration, and the other with Education (Section L) on 
speech ; the latter will be reviewed in the proceedings of 
the section of Educational Science. In addition. Dr. 
Leonard Hill, F.R.S., gave an interesting address on the 
prevention of caisson disease. The individual papers will 
be reviewed, as much as possible, so as to form groups 
in a logical sequence. 

The discussion on respiration, held in the meeting-room 
of Section K, was opened by Dr. F. F. Blackman, F.R.S., 
who dealt with the subject under three headings. 

(i) The series of chemical reaction which take place 
during oxidation. He took glucose as a typical example, 
of which the final products are carbon dioxide and water, 
but the intermediate steps are difficult to follow. 
Buchner's zymase produces alcohol and carbon dioxide 
from glucose, but it has been shown that alcohol cannot 
be oxidised by plants, and hence it must be surmised that 
some other substance, before the breakdown has reached 
the alcohol stage, is what is actually oxidised. There are 
probably many of these fugitive compounds, amongst 
which- may occur lactic acid and di-hydroxy acetone. An 
alkaline sugar solution, as the result of exposure to sun- 
light, gives rise to substances which are easily oxidised. 
He then dealt briefly with oxidases, peroxide formation, 
and Palladin's hypothesis of respiratory chromogens, 
which are oxidised by oxidases to peroxides, and then 
pass on the oxygen to oxidisable material. 

(2) The physical chemistry of the processes involved in 
oxidation. Influence of temperature on velocity of re- 
action (usually shows a coefficient of about 2-5 within the 
limits of temperature at which living processes can occur) ; 
the uniformity of the respiratory quotient (O^/CO,) at 
different temperatures and the effect of the concentration 
of the reacting substances were discussed. He illustrated 
these points by referring to his experiments with green 
leaves and potatoes (starchy and rich in sugar). The 
output of carbon dioxide by green leaves is reduced to 
zero by exposure to sunlight. The potatoes rich in sugar 
show a greater rate of oxidation than the starchy ones. 
The conclusion is arrived at that there is a minimal tissue 
respiration and an excess of respiration depending on the 
supply of respirable material. 

The influence of accelerators, paralysators, and other 
substances was mentioned. 

(3) Special influences of colloidal nature of cell proto- 
plasm. Oxidation and reduction take place side by side, 
and death of the cell mixes up these two processes. 
Alterations of permeability of protoplasmic septa may 
account for changes in physiological oxidation processes. 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



Dr. H. M. Vernon referred to Dakin's work on oxida- 
tion of fatty acids and amino-acids by hydrogen peroxide 
and traces of ferrous salts. If zymase is allowed to act 
upon glucose for a short time, then the solution is boiled 
and oxidase and hydrogen peroxide are added, there is 
almost complete oxidation to carbon dioxide and water ; 
this suggests that oxidases may act in living cells if 
organic peroxides can replace hydrogen peroxide. His 
own experiments on survival respiration (kidney) point to 
the presence of oxidases, and that certain poisons act by 
combining with aldehyde or similar groups. Some sub- 
stances act especially on the " high-grade " process (forma- 
tion of carbon dioxide) and not so much on the " low- 
grade " process (oxygen absorption), and thus the respira- 
tory quotient is lowered. In relation to minimal proto- 
plasmic and excess respiration, he directed attention to 
the fact that minced tissues show at first a greater out- 
put of carbon dioxide than when intact, but that the 
respiration soon falls to a much lower level. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong pointed out that in many respects 
oxidases differed from the other kinds of enzymes (they 
are heat stable and not specific in action), that their 
action can be imitated by colloidal suspensions of inorganic 
matter, and that traces of inorganic material are usually 
present in them. There are, however, specific oxidases. 
He then demonstrated the blackening of laurel leaves by 
the action of toluol (other chemically inert substances with 
little affinity for water act similarly), which he ascribed 
to a general breakdown of the protoplasm with liberation 
of oxidases. 

Mr. D. Thoday spoke about the result of experiments 
on anaesthetised leaves. Small doses of chloroform cause 
a temporary increase of oxidation. A large dose causes 
a diminution in the output of carbon dioxide ; with 
Helianthus and cherry laurel there is a great increase in 
oxygen intake, which quickly falls off, but with 
TropaK)lum the oxygen intake falls at once. It was sug- 
gested that tannins oxidise first, and as there are no 
tannins in Tropaeolum there is no initial increase of oxida- 
tion. Probably the result is brought about by an increase 
of permeability. 

Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S., referred to Leathes' 
work on the splitting of fats at intermediate points in 
the carbon chain, and to the formation of peroxides by 
manganese and iron with hydroxy-acids. Oxidation may 
take place by decomposing water with liberation of 
hydrogen ; in plants the hydrogen may be used to reduce 
carbon dioxide to formaldehyde. The leaf surfaces show 
a permeability similar to that found by Adrian Brown for 
barley grains. 

Prof. Waller and Dr. Reynolds Green spoke, and Dr. 
Blackman replied. 

Dr. Leonard Hill, F.R.S., reviewed the work done in 
relation to the prevention of compressed air illness. 
Whilst exposed to high pressure the body dissolves a 
larger amount of gas than at ordinary atmospheric 
pressure, and when the pressure is reduced bubbles of gas 
may be set free in the blood vessels. The solubility of 
the gas follows Henry's law; owing to the capacity of the 
tissues to absorb oxygen it is only the nitrogen that is 
set free in the vessels. The symptoms depend on the por- 
tion of the circulation which is stopped by the nitrogen 
embolus. Different portions of the body saturate at 
different rates, but work, by increasing the circulation, 
increases the rapidity with which the body takes up and 
gives off nitrogen. By analysis of the gases in urine it 
can be shown that it takes an appreciable time for the 
body to get into equilibrium with the pressure of the 
nitrogen in the atmosphere, or, in other words, the blood 
does not get into equilibrium with the gas on passing 
once through the lungs. 

The relative merits of uniform decompression and de- 
compression by stages were discussed. Long shifts are 
better than short, as there are fewer decompressions for 
the same amount of work, and the danger is due to 
decompression. When symptoms occur they can be 
abolished, or the danger minimised by recompression to 
the original pressure. 

He recommended that, during decompression, occasional 
inhalations of oxygen should be taken (to lower the 
partial pressure of the nitrogen in the lungs, and thus 



November 3, 19 10] 



NATURE 



27 



-ten the removal of nitrogen from the blood) and that 
• \' rcise should be taken to increase the circulation, and 
thus remove the nitrogen from the " slow " parts more 
c'.iickly. 

Prof. F. S. Lee, of Columbia University, read two 
)ers. (a) "The Cause of the Treppe." During the 
use of the staircase the excitability of the muscle 
leases. Clamping the trachea causes a second treppe. 
ihlich states that the treppe is due to slowing of relaxa- 
1, so that the increase in height of contraction is only 
larent, as the contraction starts at a higher level ; but 
one stage of the treppe the contractions are not pro- 
ged, while there is no delayed relaxation during fatigue 
mammalian muscle. {Jo) " Summation of Stimuli," 
h Dr. M. Morse. Repeated subminimal stimuli can 
■ ause contraction. Traces of lactic acid, carbon dioxide, 
and other substances that are formed during fatigue in- 
crease the excitability of muscle. Gotschlich finds that 
muscle becomes acid as the result of repeated subminimal 
stimuli. Prof. Lee suggested that the treppe and summa- 
tion of stimuli are both due to traces of fatigue substances. 
Prof. C. S. Sherrington and Miss S. C. M. Sowton 
presented two communications dealing with the constant 
current as a stimulus of reflex action, and the effect of 
the intensity of the current on the response to stimula- 
tion. The preparation used was the isolated extens'jr 
of the knee in decerebrate rigidity. Non-polarisable 
electrodes were placed on an afferent nerve of the limb. 
.A weak stimulation caused a reflex increase of tonus. 
' '.is is a nearer approximation to the artificial produc- 
! of reflex tonus than has hitherto been obtained, 
iierwise the result of artificial stimulation is a reflex 
: iiibition, as indeed it is with this stimulus when 
- 'onger. .\ stronger stimulus causes an increase of tone, 
owed by inhibition. A strong stimulus abolishes the 
liminary increase of tone, and only inhibition results, 
fact, the results obtained are exactly the same as 
-e long been known for the direct stimulation of the 
ning muscle of .'\stacus claw. Stimulation occurs at 
make and break of the constant current, and not 
lally during its passage. With a strength of current 
which gives a reflex increase of tone, chloroform converts 
the response to inhibition, and as the chloroform passes 
off the response to the stimulus again becomes an increase 
of tone. 

Dr. J. Tait : (i) " The Conditions Necessary for 
Tetanus of the Heart." Refractory period of heart 
consists of absolute and relative refractory stages. The 
former lasts during systole, and the latter gradually 
diminishes from the end of systole. The stronger the 
stimulus the earlier it can be made effective in the relative 
refractory period. If the stimuli are sufficiently strong 
they can be effective at the end of systole, and tetanus 
results. Very strong stimulation causes electrolysis, which 
produces a series of contractions that gradually die away. 
(2) " Neurogenic Origin of Normal Heart Stimulus." 
Excised frog's heart-beat sometimes shows grouped beats 
(Luciana groups). These are probably due to waves of 
excitation from rhythm-producing centre. The tendency 
to grouped beats is increased by lack of oxygen, and the 
rate and rhythm correspond to that seen in tracings of 
Cheyne-Stokes respiration ; hence the normal heart-beat is 
regulated by some mechanism similar to that which is 
affected in Cheyne-Stokes respiration. A constant 
stimulus with waves of increasing and diminishing strength 
would, as the strength increased, become effective earlier 
in the relative refractorj- period, and hence the increase 
of rate of beat. 

Dr. H. M. Vernon reported the results of some experi- 
ments on the combination of poisons with the contrac- 
tile substance of cardiac muscle. He used the tortoise 
heart, and perfused it with the various solutions. 
Alcohol, chloroform, and ether all cause effects propor- 
tional to their concentration, and recovery occurs on re- 
moval of the drug by fresh saline. Hydrocyanic acid and 
sodium fluoride cause a marked effect in small concentra- 
tions, but the action does not increase much when the 
strength of solution is increased. Recovery is not good, 
and is less with the stronger strengths. On removal of 
the sodium fluoride the heart-beats show remarkable 
oscillations of amplitude. The vitality of the heart is 



NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



always permanently injured, as a second test with the 
same strength causes a greater effect than at first. The 
season and condition of the heart cause minor differences 
in the result. 

Prof. C. S. Minot, of Harvard University, gave his 
views on the morphology and nomenclature of blood 
corpuscles. Present nomenclature not satisfactory. Both 
red and white cells originate from the primitive wander- 
ing cells (mesamoeboid). Leucocyte = white cell, and can 
be subdivided into lymphocyte (>oung leucocyte), finely 
granular, and coarsely granular. Erythrocyte = red cell, 
and they can be subdivided into ichthyoid stage (cells like 
those in fish with a nucleus showing chromatin network), 
sauroid stage (like birds and reptiles, nucleus homo- 
geneous, usually called normoblast), and plastid (non- 
nucleated or mammalian type). 

Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S., Dr. E. E. Laslett, and 
Miss F. Tozer communicated the results of some experi- 
ments indicating the existence of afferent nerves in the 
eye muscles. The sensory nerve-endings maintain a 
primitive reptilian type; many "brush" and "creeper" 
endings are found in the region where muscle and tendon 
join. No muscle-spindles are found, but a clasping form 
of ending, which is probably a simple form of spindle. 
The eye muscles have a greater nerve supply than any 
other muscles. By cutting the nerves and examining the 
muscles after the nerves had degenerated it was proved 
that the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves contain 
sensory fibres in addition to the motor fibres, which are 
usually stated to be the only kind present. These nerves 
are therefore afferent-efferent nerves. No sensory fibres 
to the extrinsic eye muscles were traceable from the first 
division of the fifth nerve. There are a few small 
medullated nerve-fibres which do not degenerate after 
section of all of the foregoing nerves ; these are apparently 
vasomotor, and come from the otic ganglion. 

Dr. Dawson Turner and Dr. T. George recorded the 
results of the X-rays in therapeutic doses on the growing 
brains of rabbits. The development of the exposed side 
of the brain was slower than the other side. Fatty 
degeneration of the irides and loss of weight occurred 
during treatment. The subject is important, as X-rays 
are frequently used on children in the treatment of ring- 
worm. 

Prof. k. B. Macallum, F.R.S., read three papers : ' The 
Origin of the Inorganic Composition of the Blood 
Plasma," "The Inorganic Composition of the Blood 
Plasma in the Frog after a Long Period of Inanition," 
and " The Microchemistry of the Spermatic Elements in 
Vertebrates." 

The first two deal with the relative amounts of the 
inorganic salts in the blood. The ratios of these to each 
other are fairly constant throughout, and agree with the 
relative amounts of the same substances in sea-water ; but 
there are some variations, and the total amounts of in- 
organic material are different in the different species. He 
explains the distribution of the salts as reflecting the 
composition of the ocean at that epoch when the blood 
plasma of the species in question ceased to respond to 
changes in the salts of the ocean. The vertebrate kidney 
is the factor that maintains the ancestral composition of 
the blood. 

The third paper dealt with the distribution of iron and 
potassium in the spermatic elements. The iron in the 
nucleus diminishes through the series spermatogonia, 
spermatocyst, spermatid, and is absent from the head of 
the sperm itself. Mode of elimination masked. Potassium 
abundant in spermatic elements, gathered at anterior and 
posterior ends in frog, and only in posterior region and 
in bands in man. No potassium in the head itself. 

Prof. W. H. Thompson spoke on the nutritive value 
of beef extract. Dogs were fed on a constant amount of 
dog biscuit until their weight was steady. The addition 
of beef extract caused an increase of weight ten or twenty 
times as great as the amount of extract added. Boiled 
egg-white was not nearly so efficacious. Nitrogen appar- 
ently not retained, and when beef extract was discontinued 
the dogs returned to their former weight. The increase 
in weight is not due to retained water, but to an increased 
digestion and absorption of the dog biscuits, as the 
nitrogen and total amount of faeces were diminished. 



28 



NATURE 



[November 3, 19 10 



The reports of research committees were, as usual, of 
a technical nature. They often briefly referred to papers 
which have been published elsewhere, and thus are not 
suited for detailed description here. Arising out of the 
report on anaesthetics was a brief discussion on the advisa- 
bility of legislation to improve the training of those who 
are destined to administer anaesthetics, and to prohibit 
unqualified persons from administering them. Prof. A. D. 
Waller, F.R.S., in connection with the report on electro- 
motive phenomena in plants, read a paper describing the 
method used to estimate hydrocyanic acid in plants and 
animals, with an application of the method to medico- 
legal purposes. The committee on ductless glands report 
on a considerable number of researches, the results of 
some of which have already appeared. The reports on 
body metabolism in cancer and on mental and muscular 
fatigue each contain instructive and suggestive material. 

Some interesting photomicrographs of muscle fibres were 
shown by Dr. Murray Dobie, who published his first paper 
on the structure of muscle in 1848. 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald exhibited the respiration calori- 
meter on two separate occasions. The heat production of 
a resting man was compared with that of a man riding 
a bicycle. 



A SUGGESTED RESEARCH FUND FOR 
TROPICAL DISEASES. 
nTHE Times of November 2 publishes the subjoined appeal 
which Lord Northcote has addressed to the Lord 
Mayor in favour of the allocation of a part of the fund 
raised for a London memorial to the late King to the 
establishment of an Edward VIL Tropical Research Fund. 
The proposal has received the support of leading repre- 
sentatives of many national interests, including Lord 
Crewe, Secretary of State for the Colonies, Lord Elgin, 
Lord Kitchener, and Mr. Joseph Chamberlain. 

Letter to the Lord Mayor. 
My Lord Mayor, — Having noted that you are taking 
steps to form a representative Mansion House Committee 
for the purpose of raising a fund to provide a memorial 
of the late King in London, and that you are receiving 
numerous suggestions as to the form which that memorial 
should take, we desire respectfully to offer the following 
suggestion for your earnest consideration. 

(2) The late King, in his beneficent activity for the 
welfare of his people, was inspired by two ideals — peace 
for mankind and war on disease. His work in the 
former of these directions has been recognised by the 
world at large ; it is in following his lead in the second 
that we think that a fitting tribute to his memory will 
be found. 

(3) Only recently, but now unmistakably, has the nation 
become alive to the vital importance of its tropical 
possessions. Their development proceeds apace, but at a 
heavy cost in human life and vital energy. Rarely does 
a mail arrive which does not bring sorrow into at least 
one home in these islands. 

(4) For generations mankind have been willing to 
accept in a fatalistic spirit the death toll levied upon 
them by what was vaguely known as "the climate." 
Now this is no longer so. Thanks to the devoted labours 
of scientific men — -among whom our own countrymen hold 
an honoured place— we know in many instances what the 
enemy is and how it is to be met. 

(5) Those who are not conversant with the subject will 
be surprised and almost startled to hear the effect on 
human life of measures taken as the result of such 
investigations. We give three illustrations, drawn from 
the history of three of the greatest scourges of the 
tropics : — 

(a) Malaria. — In Klang and Port Swettenham, two 
towns within the protected Federated Malay States, 
remedial measures were commenced in 1901. The deaths 
from malaria were in 1901 368 and in 1905 45. In the 
surrounding districts, where no measures were taken, the 
'deaths for these years were respectively 266 and 351. 
In Hong Kong remedial measures were commenced in 
1901. In that year the admissions to hospital were 1294 
and the deaths 132. In 1905 the admissions were 419 and 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



the deaths 54. In 1904 the United States took over the 
administration of the zone of the Panama Canal ; the 
deaths from malaria, which in 1906 were 821, had sunk 
in 1908 to 282. 

(b) Yellow Fever.— In the city of Havana 35,952 per- 
sons perished of yellow fever between 1853 and 1900. The 
United States Government commenced remedial measures 
in 1900, and in 1907 only one case of yellow fever was 
reported. 

(c) During the last three years steps have been taken 
in Uganda to stamp out sleeping sickness, an epidemic 
which in one district alone had destroyed some 200,000 
people out of a total population of 300,000. In 1907 th<- 
deaths in the kingdom of Uganda numbered less than 
4000, and in 1908 they fell to 1700. 

(6) I: will be seen that, tested by results, these figures 
are full of promise, and prove conclusively that the 
measures taken have proceeded on sound lines. 

(7) It will naturally be asked : How have these results 
been achieved? The answer, so far as this country is 
concerned, is by private effort in close cooperation with 
the Government. Leaving out of account the Liverpool 
School of Tropical Medicine, which has been generously 
endowed by the citizens of that city, the bodies which are 
responsible for sustaTiied an4 organised effort are the 
Royal Society, the London School of Tropical Medicine, 
the Sleeping Sickness Bureau, and the African Entomo- 
logical Research Committee, all of which are associated 
with the metropolis. The first of' these enjoys no direct 
Government support, and has carried out its work by a 
committee which includes some of the most eminent names 
in the profession of tropical medicine, who have given 
their services freely and gratuitously. The London School 
of Tropical Medicine at the Albert Dock, which owes its 
establishment, in part, to private generosity, receives an 
annual grant from Government of 1300!!. The Sleeping 
Sickness Bureau is supported entirely by Government, the 
annual cost being some 1200Z. The African Entomological 
Research Committee has recently been established to 
investigate the insects which convey disease to men, 
animals, and plants in the tropics, and includes among its 
m.embers the best authorities on the subject. It receives 
a Government grant of 2000Z. a year, and it is working 
in close cooperation with the Natural History Museum. 
In addition to the foregoing grants, a grant of 750Z. a 
year is made to the University of London for. the pur- 
pose of assisting work which has an important bearing on 
tropical medicine. 

(8) The three cases which we have mentioned above 
are those in which the most striking results of scientific 
research have hitherto been obtained, but it is hardl\ 
necessary to say that they cover only a small portion oi 
the field. Notwithstanding the rapid advance of know 
ledge in tropical diseases, there are many as yet unknowr. 
or imperfectly understood. The causation of blackwatir 
fever, of dengue, of beri-beri, and of many other diseases 
still calls for investigation. 

(9) We submit to your committee that no more appro- 
priate memorial to our late Sovereign could be proposed 
than the establishment of a fund to carry on and extend 
the work of research into tropical disease. We further 
submit that it is eminently appropriate that London, the 
metropolis of the Empire, should take the lead in a move- 
ment for giving the full benefit of British administration 
to these outlying portions of the King's dominion, which 
have contributed in no small measure to her prosperitv 
in the past, and will, by their development, give still 
ampler ground for her gratitude in the future. 

(10) There can be no. class in this great cit\' to which 
the scheme will not appeal. To the rulers, the mission- 
aries, the philanthropists, and all those who concern 
themselves with the welfare of the millions of coloured 
races whom Providence has committed to our charge it 
will appear of transcendent importance. To those whos' 
kith and kin have gone out to bear their part in th' 
work of civilising our tropical possessions, in whatever 
station of life, it will appeal no less strongly. To the 
man of business, in whose profit and loss account the 
dangers to the health of his employes figure so largely, 
our proposal will need no further recommendation. The 
ultimate aim is the creation of a Tropical Britain whose 
peoples are freed from the scourge of sickness, and where 



November 



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1910J 



NATURE 



29 



work of civilisation moves forward without the present 
of life and health. It is impossible to overestimate 
results, both moral and material, that such a con- 

:nation would entail. 

i) We suggest that a fund should be established — to 

hcnown as the Edward VII. Tropical Research Fund — 
interest of which should be devoted to furthering the 

cts which we have indicated. We think that the 

- which we have at heart will be best served by not 
inpting to define too strictly the way in which this 
nue should be appropriated. It is probable that in 
first instance, and to a large extent, it would be most 
ally expended in subsidising the efforts of the institu- 

- to which we have already referred, being administered 
.1 body whose composition will be a guarantee to the 
>cribers that their moneys are being wisely and 
lomically applied. 

We are, my Lord Mayor, yours faithfully, 

NORTHCOTE. 

!5 St. James's Place, S.W., October 27. 



MODERN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.^ 
T? ESEARCH is a word much used in newspapers and in 
public discussions nowadays, but few people outside 

: ely scientific circles have any clear idea as to its mean- 
Of course, the dictionary tells us that it signifies 

-marching again or a careful search, but the question 

1 arises. What is the object of the search and are there 
rules to guide? 

1 he object ma}- be purely visionary, as was the object 

<i! the early chemists and alchemists, whose operations, 

nding through the dark centuries of the Middle Ages, 

behind practically nothing but an extensive, though 

ren, literature, the witness of the credulity and ignor- 

■^ of those times. The lesson to be derived from the 

ole of this strange history is one which needs to be 
continually revived and set in the new light of modern 
discovery and invention. The lesson is simply that until 
men began to observe and interrogate nature for the sake 
of learning her ways, and without concentrating their 
attention on the expectation of useful applications of such 
knowledge, little or no progress was made. In other 
words, until a sufficient foundation of pure science has 
been successfully laid there can be no applied science. 
Real progress comes from the pursuit of knowledge for its 
own sake. 

I say, again, this truth needs to be continually reiterated, 
for there are still too many people who think that the 
true and only business of science is to find out useful 
things, and who regard all the rest as waste of time. 

The first qualification for research is undoubtedly that 
kind of inspired curiosity which can never be eradicated, 
and which we know by many examples is not defeated by 
such obstacles as poverty, or ill-health, or pressure of other 
necessary occupations. Another qualification is some 
knowledge of the subject chosen for inquiry. As to this 
latter qualification considerable differences of opinion have 
been expressed. Priestley, whose statue stands near the 
Town Hall in Birmingham, and many of the chemists of 
his time, had very little preparatory instruction, but some 
of them made discoveries of fundamental importance. 
Priestley seems to have been of opinion that very little 
preparation is necessary, and the discoveries which might 
result from experiment were regarded by him as largely 
the result of chance and to be compared with the game 
which might fall to the gun of a sportsman in a new 
country, and whether fur or feather cannot be foretold. 
But though this might have been partly true in Priestley's 
time, it is certainly very far from true in our day, when 
the« apcumulation of knowledge, however imperfect, is still 
immense. 

Every great discovery is the culmination of a long series 
of discoveries each of which is a necessan," step, and ignor- 
ance of these preliminaries stands in the way of advance. 

It will be worth while to examine a few cases by way 
of illustration, \o better example can be found than the 
establishment of the great principle in chemistry commonly 
called the periodic law. According to this law, the proper- 

1 Presidential address delivered to the Vesey Club, Sutton Coldfield, on 
October 13, by Sir William A. Tilden. F.R.S. 



NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



ties of the elements and of their compounds stand in a 
definite relation to their atomic weights. 

Modern views concerning the constitution of gases afifords 
another illustration of the way in which the possession of 
one kind of knowledge leads to more knowledge. Fort>- 
years ago students were led to believe that there were two 
kinds of gases, namely, on the one hand, those which by 
the action of cold, or pressure, or both together could be 
liquefied, and on the other hand some half a dozen which 
could not be reduced to the liquid state. This was 
attributed to some fundamental difference of constitution 
in the two kinds of gas. 

If we look for an example drawn from the domain of 
biology there is the doctrine of evolution, now universally 
accepted, which is based on the results of the patient 
collection of facts by Darwin and Wallace. But those facts 
would perhaps not have been collected, and they would 
certainly have been without meaning, but for the results 
of the study of comparative anatomy by previous genera- 
tions of naturalists and palaeontologists, as well as the 
recognition of the great doctrine of uniformitarianism in 
geology proclaimed and established by Lyell. 

The examples cited will not appeal to the practical man 
in the same way as some instance taken from a direct 
application of science to business or practical affairs. If 
it is really necessary to consider a case of that sort, nothing 
could be better than the dynatfio, which, as a transformer 
of energy, comes into prominent daily use in connection 
with lighting, traction, and as a general motive agent. 
The detailed history of the evolution of the dynamo would 
Be a long story, and on this occasion it is only necessary 
to point out one or two facts. For the fundamental prin- 
ciples involved we must go back to Benjamin Franklin, 
and Galvani and \'olta, all in the eighteenth century, and 
later to 183 1, when Faraday discovered the generation of 
induced currents by moving a conductor in a magnetic 
field. But doubtless the experiments made by Franklin 
with the kite, by Galvani on frogs' legs, and by Volta and 
Faraday with bits of wire, were by the people of their day 
looked upon with a mixture of amusement and contempt, 
just as some people even at the present time are apt to 
exclaim, " Who cares whether there is oxygen in the 
sun? " 

It is obvious, then, that whatever may have been possible 
in Priestley's time, the wholly uninstructed person cannot 
expect to meet with much success in these days in the 
discovery of new facts ; and although the exceptional man 
may acquire in a very short time some knowledge of a 
special part of a subject, he is in perpetual danger of fall- 
ing into great mistakes. It seems to me that a consider- 
able amount of knowledge, skill, and experience is an 
indispensable equipment for anyone who enters seriously 
into the practice of scientific research. Not that these 
qualifications alone serve as inducements to such a career, 
for it would be quite easy to point to examples of learned 
people who have added nothing new to the branch of 
knowledge with which they are best acquainted. This is 
not necessarily due to indolence, nor to ignorance of the 
methods of research, but is merely the result of peculiarity 
of temperament which lacks that divine curiosity which 
alone supplies the stimulus. 

I am speaking now only of real scientific research, the 
inquiry into the secrets of nature, not of the occupation 
of those who have only practical ends in view. 

Looking back over the great principles of natural science, 
we see that in every case they have been established by 
the efforts of the amateur, and by amateur I mean all 
who have undertaken the work for the pure love of it. 
This includes, not only men of independent position like 
Cavendish, Lyell, and Darwin, but a large number of men 
who have held the office of professor or teacher, but who, 
in this country at any rate, are neither paid to do such 
work nor required by the conditions of their appoint- 
ments to undertake it. So far as I know, there is but 
one institution in this country- in which the professors are 
not required to teach, but only to press forward into the 
unknown, and that is the Royal Institution in London. 
But the character which that famous place has assumed 
during the last hundred years is not that with which it 
began its career. It was started at the end of the 
eighteenth century by Count Rumford with purely 
utilitarian purposes in vieWj namely, for teaching the 



\o 



NATURE 



[November 3, 1910 



applications of new discoveries in science to the improve- 
ment of arts and manufactures and to " facilitating the 
means of procuring the comforts and conveniences of life"; 
and while retaining that character and those pretensions 
it soon came to the verge of collapse. But Davy's lectures 
and discoveries changed all that, and Faraday's genius 
consecrated the laboratories for all time to the service 
of pure science. 

Let us review very briefly the great principles on which 
physical science is based. 

First, of course, there are the fundamental principles 
of the conservation of matter and of energy, the latter 
finally established on a quantitative basis by Joule in 1843. 
There is the principle of uniformitarianism introduced into 
geology by Lyell now extended so as to include, not only 
the phenomena of this earth, but of the whole cosmos, 
such -extension being mainly due to the use of the spectro- 
scope by Kirchoff and Bunsen, and only a little later by 
Huggins. The principle embodied in the so-called periodic 
law of the elements, already referred to, has led to a 
general belief in the evolution of matter from one primary 
material, and physicists and chemists are vying with each 
other in the endeavour to gain evidence as to the details 
of the process. I need scarcely say that the principle of 
evolution as applied to living beings is associated indis- 
solubly with the names of Darwin and Wallace. 

Notwithstanding the discovery of radium and its allies, 
and the discoveries by J. J. Thomson as to the disintegra- 
tion of atoms into corpuscles a thousand or more times 
smaller, all ordinary chemistry is built up on the concep- 
tion of atoms introduced by John Dalton just a hundred 
years ago. The consolidation of this theory has proceeded 
as a consequence of the discoveries begun in 1872 by 
Wislicenus, developed by van 't Hoff and Le Bel in 1874, 
and confirmed by an army of other workers down to the 
present day. We now not only suppose it probable that 
atoms are placed within a molecule in definite positions 
relatively to one another, but in a great many cases their 
order and arrangement in space can be positively traced. 

Suppose all these great laws and principles never to 
have been discovered — science and its applications would 
jiot exist, and the world would have remained in about 
the same condition as it was in two hundred years ago. 
Railways, electric light and traction, telegraphs, dyes, 
explosives, antiseptics, anzesthetics and many other drugs, 
metals such as sodium, aluminium, magnesium, tantalum, 
and even modern steel would be unknown. 

But these things are merely the results of the recogni- 
tion, development, and application of the principles already 
indicated as fundamental, and the immediate corollaries 
from them. And so it seems that there are two fields for 
research which are equally necessary to civilisation and 
progress. In the one the worker watches the operations of 
nature and puts questions in the form of experiments solely 
with the desire to find out her ways ; in the other atten- 
tion is given only to those laws, facts, and phenomena 
which can be made serviceable to man. There is much 
more public anxiety in regard to the latter, and consider- 
ing how entirely ignorant are most people about the 
principles of physical and natural science this is not greatly 
to be wondered at. 

Some people are under the impression that there is an 
art of scientific discovery which can be communicated from 
one person to another. That is not my belief. I think 
the history of scientific discovery shows that each successful 
pioneer has invented methods for himself, or has at least 
known how to select from the tools ready to his hand. 
And with regard to personal qualifications, I do not think 
it possible to create that combination of mental powers 
which is called insight. Hence I have very grave doubts 
about the advisability of spending time and energy in try- 
ing to evoke and cultivate the capacity for research in all 
students in colleges and universities. If this were possible 
we ought to see greater results in those cases in which it 
has already been tried. The judicious teacher will, of 
course, be careful to avoid any appearance of indifference 
toward ardour and enthusiasm whenever they appear, and 
Tie should ever be on the look-out for indications of the 
kind of capacity which alone repays cultivation, and give 
it all the encouragement in his {xiwer. But the clamour 
which has of late been raised as to the supposed desira- 
bility of extending instruction in the principles and methods 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



of research, down to the very beginners, indicates, to m. 
mind, a lack of judgment on the part of some of tl 
agitators. It seems to be forgotten that in every bran, 
of experimental science, and especially of applied sclent 
there is a great deal to learn, and it is necessary ■ that ;■. 
the end of his career as a student a young man should 1 
able to do things practically and usefully. The theory • 
music and the laws of harmony are very desirable for tl 
musician, but if he is to be a performer he must devo 
tKe greater part of his time to practice on his instrumer 
whether piano or violin. The case of the student of scien 
is analogous, and if he does not devote a good deal ■ 
time to learning the technique of his business he will n 
be ready for research or anything else. At the prest : 
time too many students who can write at length on th- 
retical questions of a most recondite character, and \v' 
boast that they have been engaged in research unci 
eminent teachers, are yet incapable of choosing a subj 
for themselves or of handling successfully a subject fou;. 
for them by their teachers or someone else. 

With the object of testing the influence exercised by 
methods of education in science on the development of the 
faculty of research, I have lately had the curiosity to 
compare the results indicated by the lists of Doctors of 
Science of the University of London. Up to 1886 this 
degree was awarded on the results of a very severe 
examination. From 1887 onwards it has been obtainable 
only on the production of a thesis supposed to embody the 
ideas and the work of the candidate on some subject 
selected by himself. The examiners are at liberty to 
impose an examination with the object of assuring them- 
selves of the candidate's knowledge of his subject, but as 
a matter of practice the examination has been reduced to 
a mere formality. It was expected that this change of 
system would be followed by indications of much greater 
fertility in the fields of research. Owing to the complete* 
ness with which chemical literature is indexed, I have 
been able to make a comparison between the number and 
character of original papers published by the chemists in 
these two lists within the ten years following graduation 
in each case. I have not been able to make so strict a 
comparison among the physicists owing to the distribution 
of their work through so many media of publication, but 
I have been led by a careful survey to the same conclusions 
as in the case of the chemists. In both classes, the 
Examinees and the Researchers, if they may be so dis- 
tinguislied, there are cases in which the doctor, after 
taking his degree, has done no original work — or at any 
rate none that was fit for publication — and his name does 
not appear in the literature of his science. On the other 
hand both lists contain famous names. I will only men- 
tion in passing that the names of Larmor and Lodge 
appear among the examined. On the whole, I see no 
indications that the procedure by thesis has had any effect 
whatever on the character of the graduates. If anything, 
the list of examined is of somewhat higher quality than 
the list of graduates by dissertation, for there are nine 
out of fiftv-four who have become Fellows of the Royal 
Society, while among the others there are only eight out 
of lifty-nine who can write themselves F.R.S. 

In the latter list there may be one or two who may 
achieve this distinction hereafter, but there are no indica^ 
tions that in the long run the amount and quality of the 
contributions made to science by the graduates who are sup- 
posed to have been trained to research will surpass those 
of the men who had to face the ordeal of examination. 

Does this not seem to justify my original contention that 
the researcher is born, not a product of educational manu- 
facture, and that his disposition to research will survive 
all sorts of adverse condition's, including those which are 
by some people supposed to be inherent in examination? 

' I feel convinced that most of the great discoveries of 
th? future will be made, as in the past, by the inspired 
amateur, working usually alone and often on apparently 
insignificant beginnings, and with results which may not 
at first receive any attention from the world. 

It is, however, necessary in these days to provide for 
some form of cooperation in research, partly for the 
reason that the cost of some kinds of investigation is quite 
bevond the means of most private persons, and partly 
because of the unfortunate separation which still prevails, 
chiefly in this country, between science and industry. * 



November 



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1 910] 



NATURE 



3^ 



iirst, then, science may justly look for assistance from 

State. In England this is given in a grudging way. 

irliament allots 4000Z. to the whole range of the physical 

\ natural sciences. The fund is administered by the 

ival Society, and the biggest slices out of it are taken 

n the form of contributions to the expenses of expeditions. 

Then there is the National Physical Laboratory, with an 

■xpenditure of about 25,000/. a year, of which 7000/. comes 

rom the Treasury. This seems to be all that comes 

lirectly from the national purse ; but science is endowed 

o a certain extent by her friends. This assistance is 

epresented by the equipment of certain schools and 

!!eges by the Guilds of London, and by the small re- 

rch funds of the Chemical Society and the British 

^ociation. 

Something more systematic is, however, wanted, and I 

1 strongly that some of the rather large funds given 

the form of scholarships to young students could be 

rt advantageously used if applied to the maintenance of 

. :oved investigators to make them independent of the 

i-essity to earn a living by teaching or other professional 

rk. I recognise, however, the difficulties which would 

nd any such scheme. In the first place, discoveries 

not be made to order. An able, industrious, and 

iscientious man might work for many years without 

ducing definite results, and a few cases of that ^kind 

J Id destroy or shake public confidence. It would also 

necessary to provide incomes large enough to retain the 

- .-vices of the most able men available. 

With regard to the application of science to industry, I 

■nk our manufacturers have made some progress during 

last thirty years. But they still suffer from delusions. 

mistake most commonly made arises out of a mis- 

rehension of the methods, powers, and promises of 

nee. It still seems to be too often supposed that a 

ntific man. called into hurried consultation, can at once 

:come a diliiculty in a manufacturing process or can 

se an improvement which, if adopted, would represent 

ly thousands of pounds profit to someone. If this 

e so scientific men would be better off than thev usually 

are. What is wanted is a general recognition of "the prin- 

•riole that improvements can be expected onlv as the result 

the use of scientific methods, which are simply the 

hods of reason applied to the materials provided bv 

^^rience. 

\ hat every manufacturer wants is to begin with a 

ntific education, if not for himself then for his sons 

successors, so that those who are at the head of affairs 

\ understand fully the problems before them and in 

•^hat direction to look for help towards improvement. 

Failing this he will be dependent on the services of paid 

-■^tants, and those services cannot be expected to pro- 

^ the desired results unless thev are paid for on a 

_-al scale. In this country there has not hitherto been 

sufficient attraction to draw into the field of technologv 

a due share of the best brains of the nation. The prospect 

of ultimately reaching a salary of two or three hundred 

a year at the utmost is not sufficient to induce a voung 

man of first-rate ability to spend several vears of his life 

and a thousand pounds or so of capital in scientific and 

technical studies; and so the supplv of the highest class 

of scientific assistance is at present far from what it ought 

to be. *• 

But suppose conditions to improve, a question arises as 
to the best way of turning such assistance to account. 

A suggestion has latelv been made that a new societv 
should be formed, to be' constituted of trade committees 
associated with experts in various divisions of science, to 
carry on experiments confidentiallv in the interests of the 
manufacturers who become members of the society. It 
seems to me that any suggestion is better than none if 
It results in the closer association of industry and science: 
but I think this particular proposal would' not be found 
to work in practice. The requirements of different indus- 
tries are too numerous and complicated to be met by an 
arrangement so simple, for each committee would ' find 
Itself occupied with so many different problems that 
nothing would be accomplished, unless, indeed, the staff 
were very large. In my judgment each manufacturer 
must endeavour to work out his own salvation. More- 
over, the experience of the German manufacturer, and 
to some extent also of the American, shows that it can 
NO. 2140. VOL. %^ 



be done effectively. The most famous example known to 
me is the case of the great Badische colour works at 
Ludwigshafen, on the Rhine. There is a factory which 
employs some 5000 men, and which pays, and has always 
paid, 25 to 30 per cent, or more on its ordinary capital. 
The great feature of its organisation is to be seen in the 
direct association of manufacture with research conducted 
by a staff of highly skilled scientific men. 

In England arrangements so complete are unknown, and 
the number of highly qualified chemists and physicists 
employed in works is very small. I say nothing about 
engineers, with whom I am not so well acquainted, but 
the greater number of the chemists are merely testers 
doing routine work, and because such men, receiving the 
wages of a clerk, have not been able to advance the indus- 
tries with which they are connected, their employers have 
in too many cases in the past come to the conclusion that 
science is of no use. In the meantime many things have 
happened. The neglect of organic chemistry in England 
forty years ago led to the complete removal of the ooal- 
tar dye industry to Germany, where since that time has 
sprung up the equally important manufacture of synthetic 
drugs. The saccharin, the antipyrin, the artificial per- 
fumes consumed in England are not made here, and it 
now looks as if the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in 
the form of nitrate, so imp>ortant from the agricultural 
and industrial points of view, was going to be taken 
possession of by Germany and America acting together, 
England being left out. 

Such things have been said over and over again for 
the last thirty y«ars or more, and I am not aware that 
such statements have been shown to be fundamentally 
mistaken, nor has there ever been any public excuse or 
explanation of the indifference so commonly displayed. 

The link between science and industry must be estab- 
lished by the masters of industry themselves. I do not 
believe in the efficacy of much of the technical instruc- 
tion which is talked about, and I fear that much money 
is being wasted in the attempt to imitate industrial opera- 
tions in schools and colleges. What is wanted is the 
highest and most complete kind of instruction in pure 
science, following a good general education conducted on 
such lines that the fittest only are passed forward to the 
university or scientific school. Young people educated in 
this way form the material which should be utilised by 
the manufacturer. But he must not expect that a man 
so prepared is going to earn his salary the first year or 
two. He has got to learn his business, and must have 
facilities for doing this, or such talent as he has cannot 
be turned to account, and this can only be done by taking 
him into the works. This is a subject on which a great 
deal might and should be said, but such a discussion is 
not suited to the present occasion. 

In conclusion, I may perhaps be allowed to give a few 
minutes to a glance at the future — not that I can pretend 
to descry very much. 

We must remember that there is no finality in physical 
science. The farther we go the wider does the horizon 
before us become, but every discovery of a new fact or 
principle gives us a new instrument to help on to higher 
things. Hence we may reasonably suppose that, wonderful 
as the past has been, the future will be more wonderful 
still. 

Here I will venture to draw a distinction between inven- 
tion and discovery, and to invention there is probably no 
limit. It may be said to consist in making new combina- 
tions and permutations in the elements of knowledge 
already acquired. Among the inventions which have 
affected the condition of mankind, those which are con- 
cerned in locomotion stand first. It may truly be said 
that life is lengthened, not only by years, but by oppor- 
tunities, and from this point of view quick travelling, pro- 
vided by steam and electricity, is a great advantage. It 
would be unwise to utter any predictions as to what may 
hereafter be done with big ships and aeroplanes, only the 
old-fashioned type of nervous system — already shrinking 
from the increased noise and bustle of the town — shudders 
at the thought that neither distant valley nor mountain 
top, from the tropic to the pole, can now be expected to 
provide an asylum where peace secure from intrusion is 
to be found. 

In Samuel Butler's " Erewhon," a remarkable book 



NATURE 



[November 3. 1910 



published about forty years ago, a country was pictured 
in which moral delinquency was treated with sympathy 
and condolence, while bodily disease of all kinds was held 
to be a crime, and was punished by fine or imprisonment. 
I suppose it will take a good many generations to reach 
that condition of enlightenment, but the time cannot be 
far off when the propagation of infectious disease will in 
all civili?-3d countries be abolished. 

The habitability of the planet Mars has of late been a 
subject of much revived discussion. The possibility or 
probability of the existence of intelligent beings in other 
parts of the universe, long a subject of debate, is a ques- 
tion of profound interest, but whether communication 
with them from the earth can ever be established, who 
can tell? 

But as to discovery in physical science, as already said, 
the horizon widens as we go on ; but it seems not improb- 
able that there is a limit set, though as yet very far off, 
by the capacity of the human intellect. " Nature's ways 
used to be thought simple, but now we know that she 
is not only mysterious, but complex. However, there is 
every reason to expect that great strides are possible, even 
in the immediate future. The sort of problems which 
remain to be solved are represented by such questions as 
the following : — What is the cause and nature of gravita- 
tion and other sorts of attraction? What is the difference 
between positive and negative electricity, and what is 
the relation of electricity to matter? What is the nature 
of chemical affinity, and is it really electrical? What is 
the constitution of the elements, and is the transmutation 
of metals a dream or a physical possibility? 

The penetration into final causes seems as we proceed 
to be further and further out of our reach. The problems 
of life and mind are, up to the present, inaccessible to 
man in his present state, and, notwithstanding the hopes 
and beliefs of some physiologists, it is safe to say that 
they will remain so for a long time to come, if not 
always. 

And even in regard to common matter and the phvsical 
forces, all we know about them is derived from the per- 
ception of phenomena through the agency of our senses. 
Now the senses, sight, hearing, and the rest, have been 
evolved, not to provide the means of surveying nature, 
but for the protection and advantage of the body to which 
they belong. It is possible, therefore, that the human 
view of phenomena is only a partial and imperfect view ; 
at any rate, the world which is open to the sense percep- 
tion of a man must be very different from that which is 
perceived by many animals' with their highly specialised 
senses, such as the scent of the dog, the sight of the 
carrier pigeon, and perhaps other senses for which we 
have no name. 

^^ " In its ultimate nature," said Herbert Spencer, 
"matter is as absolutely incomprehensible as Space and 
Time. Whatever supposition we frame leaves us nothing 
but a choice between opposite absurdities." 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL 
INTELLIGENCE. 

Cambridge. — The Vice-Chancellor has published to the 
Senate certain letters from the clerk to the Drapers' Com- 
pany in which it is announced that the company is pre- 
pared to erect a physiological laboratory at Cambridge at 
a cost not exceeding 22,000/., and to make a further grant 
of loooZ. for the equipment of it upon the following con- 
ditions : — (i) that the site be given by the University and 
approved by the company; (2) that the architect be 
appointed and the plans approved by the company ; (3) that 
the University undertake adequately to maintain the 
laboratory when erected, and to provide the salaries of 
teachers and demonstrators. A Grace will be proposed at 
the next Congregation gratefully accepting the offer of the 
Worshipful Company of Drapers, and a syndicate will be 
appointed to discuss details with the company. 

Mr. R. S. Goodchild has been reappointed assistant secre- 
tary to the Appointments Board for three j^ears. 

Glasgow. — On Wednesday, October 26, the services of 

Prof. William Jack, who lately resigned the chair of 

mathematics in the University of Glasgow after a tenure 

of thirty years, were suitably recognised at an interesting 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



and largely attended ceremony in the Bute Hall. Si 
Henry Craik, M.P. for the University, presented to th 
Vice-Chancellor, Sir Donald MacAlister, K.C.B., a fin 
portrait of the professor, painted by Sir James Guthri. 
president of the Royal Scottish Academy, which had bet ■ 
subscribed for as a gift to the Court by a large numb' : 
of colleagues, students, and friends in all parts of th 
world. In addition, a sum of 300Z. was provided for th 
foundation of a William Jack prize, to be awarded a 
intervals of three or four years to the author of the br- 
dissertation on a mathematical subject submitted durin. 
the period in question for the degree of Doctor of Scien 
in the University. A present of plate bearing a corn 
memorative inscription was made at the same time l' 
Prof. Jack. The latter, in an interesting speech o 
reminiscence, recalled the notable teachers and student 
with whom he had been associated during the half-ccntur 
of his connection with Glasgow. His successor, Prol 
Gibson, explained the value of the new prize as a stimulus 
to post-graduate study and research. The Vice-Chancellor, 
on behalf of the Senate and Court, acknowledged its debt 
to Prof. Jack, not only for what he had done, and done 
well, but for what he had been — the trusted friend and 
guide as well as the instructor of his students, the loyal 
comrade and peacemaker among his fellow-workers. 

Mr. S. Brierley, formerly head of the Textile School, 
Stroud, has been appointed head of the textile department 
of the Huddersfield Technical College. 

Dr. J. A. EwiNG, C.B., F.R.S., Director of Naval 
Education to the Admiralty, will distribute the prizes at 
the Merchant Venturers' Technical College, Bristol, on 
Thursday, December 15. 

Mr. J. G. Stewart, of Edinburgh, has been appointed 
by the Essex Education Committee principal of the County 
Laboratory at Chelmsford. One of the chief duties of the 
office is to teach scientific farming to the agriculturists of 
Essex and Herts. 

It is announced in Science that Mr. J. D. Rockefeller 
has recently offered to give to Western Reserve University 
for further endowment of its medical department the sum 
of 5o,oooZ., provided 150,000/. additional is raised. Toward 
this 20o,oooZ. fund Mr. H. M. Hanna, of Cleveland, ha? 
given 50,000/. The trustees of the University have indi- 
cated their intention to undertake to secure the 100,000/. 
needed to complete the fund. Yale University is to receive 
the residue of the estate of the late Mr. S. H. Lyman on 
the death of the testator's brother, with the exception of 
5000/. The value of the bequest is not known, but the 
estate is said to be large. 

In Nature of October 13 a letter appeared from Mr. 
E. G. Reiss, honorary secretary of the Apprenticeship and 
Skilled Employment Association, directing attention to th. 
fact that a number of laboratory monitors in secondar 
schools, who, having reached the age of sixteen years, 
were no longer eligible for employment by the London 
County Council, wanted situations. Mr. Reiss writes to 
say that he has succeeded in placing in various suitable 
posts all the boys referred to, and points out that a number 
of girls who have been employed in a similar capacity 
also want suitable employment. As yet Mr. Reiss has 
been unable to discover posts for these girls, and would 
be glad of any suggestions as to openings for them. They 
are about seventeen years of age. The address x>f the 
association is 36 Denison House, 296 Vauxhall Bridge 
Road, London, S.W. 

The Yarrow Educational Fund of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers was established to afford assistance to 
young men who desire to become engineers, who have 
given proof of their capacity to profit by specialised educa- 
tion and training, but who lack sufficient means to obtain 
it. Grants varying between 50/. and 100/. per annum, for 
a period not exceeding three years, may be made in the 
discretion of the committee. Applicants for such grants 
must be of British birth, not more than twenty-one years 
of age, and must be prepared to qualify for attachment 
as students of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Several 
vacancies for scholarships under the fund will occur in 
March, 191 1, and the council of the institution are pre- 
) pared to receive and consider applications therefor. 



November 3, 1910] 



NATURE 



jj 



Applications should be addressed to the secretary of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, Great George Street, West- 
minster, S.W. Further particulars may be obtained on 
application to the secretary of the institution. 

In the technical schools of this country the library is 
usually a comparatively unimportant factor in the intel- 
lectual work done by the institution in question. This is 
perhaps partly due to the insistent and ever-growing claims 
of the laboratories and workshops for apparatus, plant, 
&c. As a result of this and other causes, the higher work 
of many technical institutions is seriously hampered by the 
inadequate provision of scientific and technical literature, 
works of reference, and the journals of the learned socie- 
ties. Not only is there a deficiency in the supply of books 
and journals open to the student, but in some cases the 
libraries themselves are small, badly lit, noisy, and 
crowded. This militates against fostering those habits of 
study which are essential to the progress of the student, 
especially as in some cases the technical student is unable 
to secure a quiet working place in his or her own home. 
The magnificent new library at the Battersea Polytechnic, 
recently presented by the munificence of Mr. Edwin Tate, 
and opened on October 2i by the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, is excellently adapted for study and reading by those 
attending classes at the polytechnic. The library is 70 feet 
long and 30 feet wide, and is erected at the south-western 
corner of the polytechnic, and can be approached both from 
the main corridor and the present reading-room. At the 
western end of the library is a wide bay containing a 
beautiful stained-glass window. The book-cases project at 
right angles to the wall, forming bays to seat readers, and 
the gallery runs round three sides of the librar}'. The 
total book accommodation is 18,000 volumes. The whole 
of the fittings and panelling are of oak, the floor being of 
teak. .As the building stands close to the road there are 
double casements, the inner ones being filled with orna- 
mental lead glazing. As regards lighting, there is a 
separate window to each bay. Speaking generally, the 
library is planned on lines similar to those on which all 
modern universit}' libraries are being developed, the books, 
for instance, being accessible at once to all students. The 
cataloguing is by card. Efforts are being made to obtain 
funds in order to increase very largely the technical and 
scientific portions of the libran.-. It may be mentioned 
that the library is of considerable use, not only to students 
of the polytechnic, but also to certain local firms. Some 
little time ago a circular was sent from the polytechnic 
to the local chemical firms inviting them to utilise, if they 
wished, the works of reference and technical journals in 
the library. 

At the meeting of the Education Committee of the 
ndon County Council on October 26 the question of the 
nior scholarships awarded by the council was under 
scussion. It was eventually decided to increase the 
. mber of these scholarships in 1912. Just as it was 
necessary to increase the number of int'^rmediate scholar- 
ships in 1910 when the first batch of junior scholars 
■rained the age of sixteen, so it will be necessary to in- 
case the number of senior scholarships in 1912 when the 
ime candidates reach the age of eighteen. The number 
' senior scholarships available for competition at present 
- 50; in 1912 it will be 100. The standard required for 
,e award of these senior count}- scholarships is, how- 
ver, not to be lowered in any way. It is estimated that 
e annual cost of awarding 100 of these scholarshios will 
20.oooZ. In the award of senior county- scholarships the 
ouncil has regard, in the first instance, to the past achieve- 
ments of the candidates and to the reports of the teachers 
under whom they have worked and of other responsible 
pf/sons acquainted with the candidates, and such reports 
must have reference to the character and qualifications of 
thA applicants as well as their scholastic attainments. The 
:holarships consist of a maintenance grant not exceeding 
>/. a year. This amount is in each case determined after 
■^nsideration of the requirements and the financial circum- 
ances of the candidate. Senior county scholarships are, 
as a rule, tenable for a length of time necessary for a 
<rudent to take an honours degree in the subject selTted, 
:>rovided that this period is not more than four "years When 
he scholarship has been held for four years the council 
ay, in a limited number of cases, continue the scholar- 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



ship for a fifth year if satisfied that there are exceptional 
circumstances which render such further continuance 
desirable. At present the income of the parents or 
guardians of a scholarship holder must not exceed 400/. 
a year. A proposal to abolish this limit was referred back 
to the higher education sub-committee for further con- 
sideration. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
London. 
Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, October 19.— 
Mr. Edgar Taylor, president, in the chair. — A. J. 
Bensusan : Notes on passagem mine and works. — R. H. 
Kendall : Treatment of refractory low-grade gold ores at 
the Ouro Preto Gold Mine, Brazil. These two papers, 
which were discussed conjointly, both deal with the same 
mines from slightly different points of view, so that one 
may be taken as the complement of the other. The ore 
treated is composed of quartz, tourmaline, arsenical and 
iron pyrites, with some bismuth, and the method of high 
concentration had to be adopted in view of the diflliculties 
and losses encountered with amalgamation in the presence 
of arsenical pyrites and bismuth. The ore from the mine 
passes through grizzlies and rock-breakers to two series 
of Californian stamps, eighty head in all, and thence over 
blankets. The material remaining on the blankets is piped 
to passadores for daily concentration, and the concentrate 
passes through a second passador and thence to bateas, 
whence the gold dust is recovered, and the tailings return 
to the passador, and thence with the first passador tail- 
ings to the concentrates cyanide plant. The pulp from the 
mortar boxes passes over Frue vanners, whence the rich 
concentrates pass to the cyanide plant, and the tailings 
pass through spitzkasten and thence through the sands and 
slimes cyanide plants respectively. The papers describe 
the various processes and the plant in considerable detail, 
and give statistics as to costs, time of operations, and 
results.— J. Egerton Wood : A method of collecting gold 
from pannings. A short note dealing with a simple means 
of collecting and preserving gold values obtained in the 
field until such time as they can be be cupelled in the 
laboratory. 

P.ARIS. 

Academy of Sciences, October 24- --M. Emile Picard in 
the chair. — A. Haller : Two active alcohols and a 
third ketone contained in spirit from cocoanut oil. The 
raw material used in the investigation was a bye-product 
in the purification of cocoanut oil. Apart from acids 
separated by alkalies, possibly arising from saponification 
of fatty bodies, methyl-heptyf-ketone, methyl-nonyl-ketone, 
and methyl-undecyl-ketone were isolated, as well as methyl- 
heptyl-carbinol and methyl-nonyl-carbinol. The two 
alcohols were dextrorotatory, the optical inverse of the 
alcohols isolated from oil of rue.— M. d'Arsonval : The 
second International Congress for the Suppression of 
.Adulteration. — Henri Douviile : How species have varied. 
.As the result of a comparative study of the Lamellibranchs, 
the author is of opinion that the evolutionary- changes have 
not been continuous, but have occurred in a series of 
abrupt steps separated by periods of stability-. — MM. 
Landouzy and L. Loederich : Experimental study of 
heredity- in tuberculosis. The experiments were made on 
guinea-pigs. dogs, and rabbits, and evidence was obtained 
of direct placental infection. In the cases where there was 
no direct infection the mortality was very high from causes 
other than tuberculosis. — F. Robin : The variation of 
resistance of steels to crushing as a function of the tempera- 
ture. Relations between the static and dynamic properties 
of the steels. Data are given for copper, nickel steel, 
manganese steel, and three steels containing 007. 0-384. 
and 1-8 per cent, of carbon at temperatures ranging 
between —185° and 1400° C. — Edouard Salles : The 
diffusion of gaseous ions. Experiments were carried out 
with air, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen ; measure- 
ments were carried out with air at two pressures, 758 mm. 
and 1028 mm., and with nitrogen at four, 760 mm.. 
1000 mm., 1120 mm., and 1302 mm. — J. Duclaux : 
Refrigerating mixtures. .A lowering of temperature is pro- 
duced when carbon bisulphide is mixed with acetone. _ A 
simple apparatus is described, utilising the regenerative 



# 



34 



NATURE 



[November 3, 1910 



principle, by means of wiiich a volume of 20 c.c. can be 
continuously maintained at a temperature 70° below that 
of the room, with an expenditure of 100 c.c. of carbon 
bisulphide and 70 c.c. of acetone per hour. — Jean Villey : 
The measurement of very small displacements by means i 
of the electrometer. A condenser formed of two parallel i 
plates and charged to a suitable potential is applied to 1 
measure extremely small displacements of one of the ; 
plates. Using an electrometer giving a motion of 150 cm. \ 
per volt on a scale 350 cm. distant, with a condenser I 
formed of circular plates 65 cm. radius and 158 /t apart, ; 
a displacement of the spot of 150 cm. on the scale is i 
obtained when the condenser plate, charged to 17b volts, j 
is moved 0001 mm., or a magnification of 1,500,000. The 
sensibility exceeds that of the interference methods. — J. 
Carvallo : The electrical purification of liquid sulphur 
dioxide and its elt-ctrical conductivity. Liquid sulphur 
dioxide, already fairly pure, is further purified by the 
prolonged passage of a current at a high potential. The 
limiting values obtained for the conductivity do not follow 
Ohm's law, but laws which recall those governing the 
conductivity of gases. — Paul Nicolardot and Georges 
Chertier : The nitrous esters of cellulose. In an attempt 
to find the cause of the differences in the percentage of 
nitric nitrogen in guncotton when determined by the 
Schloesing and Crum methods respectively, the author was 
led to examine the action of the nitrogen peroxides on 
cotton in presence of glacial acetic acid. The nitro- 
products thus obtained appear to contain nitrites, and do 
not yield their true percentage of nitrogen by the Crum 
method. — MM. Magrnan and Perrilliat : An acephalous 
human monster.— Mme. V. Hcnri-Cernovodeanu, MM. 
Victor Henri, and V. Baroni : The action of the ultra- 
violet rays upon the tubercle bacillus and upon tuberculin. 
After a short exposure to the ultra-violet rays the tubercle 
bacilli are attenuated ; after a more prolonged exposure 
they are destroyed. Tuberculin, after a very long ex- 
posure (five hours), gives no reaction with tuberculous 
guinea-pigs. — A. Fernbach and A. Lanzenbergr : The 
action of nitrates in alcoholic fermentation. Nitrates are 
not prejudicial to the fermentation. — E. Roubaud : The 
influence of the physiological reactions of Glossina in the 
salivary development, and the virulence of the pathogenic 
trypanosomes. — Paul Marchal : Contribution to the bio- 
logical study of Chermes.- — M. Fabre-Domergue : The 
storage of oysters in filtered water. After remaining for 
eight days in filtered water oysters do not diminish in 
weight, and do not appear to be depreciated in any way. — 
Carl StSrmer : The situation of the zone of maximum 
frequency of the aurora borealis according to the cor- 
puscular theory. 

DIARY OF SOCIETIES. 

THURSDAY, November 3. 

Royal Society, at 4.30. — The Origin of the Hydrochloric Acid in the 
Gastric Tubules : Miss M. P. Fitzgerald. — (i) Trypano'-ome Diseases 
of Domestic Animals in Uganda. II. Trypanosoma Brucei. (Plimmer 
and Bradlord) ; (2) Trypanosome Diseases of Domestic Animals in 
Uganda. HI. Tiyjtanosomaviz'a.r {Zie.ms.nT\): Colonel .Sir D. Hruce, 
C.B., F.R.S., and others. — Further Results of the Kxperimental 
Treatment of Trypanosomiasis ; being a Progress Report to a Com- 
mittee of the Royal Society: H. G. Plimmer, F.R.S., Capt. W. B. 
Fry, and Lieut. H. S. Ranken. — On the Peculiar Morpho'ogy of a 
Trypanosome from a case of Sleeping Sickness and the possibility of 
its being a new Species : Dr. J. W. Stephens and Dr. H. B. Fantham. — 
Note upon the Examination of the Tissues of the Central Nervous 
System, with Negative Results, of a case of Human Trypanosomiasis, 
which apparently had been cured for years by Atoxyl Injections : Dr. 
F. W. Mott, F.RS. — On a remarkable Pharetronid Sponge fiom Christ- 
mas Island : R. Kirkpatrick. 

LiNNEAN Society, at 8. — Biscayan Plankton, Part XIII. The Siphono- 
phora : H. B. Bigelow. — Plankton Fishing in Hebridean Seas : Prof. 
W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 

ROntgen Society, at 8.15. — Presidential Address : Dr. G. H. Rodman. 

AtONDA y, November 7. 
Aristotelian Society, at 8. — Self as Subject and Self as Person : S. 

Alexander. 
Royal Geographical Society, at 8.30. — A Sixth Journey in Persia: 

Ancient Parthia, Nishapur, and Turshiz: Major Molesworth Sykes, 

C.M.G. 
Society of Engineers, at 7.30. — Public Slaughter Houses : S. M. 

Dodington. 

TUESDAY, November 8. 
Illijminating Engineering Society, at 8. — Recent Advances in, and 

the Present Status of Gas Lighting : F. W. Goodenough. 
Institution of Civil Engineers, at 8. — The London County Council 

Holborn to Strand Improvement, and Tramway Subway: G. W. 

Humphreys. 

NO. 2140, VOL. 85] 



WEDNESDAY, November 9. 
Geological Society, at 8.— I he' Rhaetic and Contiguous Deposits of 
West, Mid, and Part of East Somerset : L. Richardson. — Jurassic Plants 
from the Marske Quarry: Rev. G. J. Lane. 

THURSDAY, Nonember 10. 

Royal Society, at ^.ya.— Probable Papers: The Tidal Observations of 
the British Ant.irctic Expedition, 1907 : Sir George Darwin, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. —Conduction of Heat through Rarefied Gases: F. Soddy, F.R.S. . 
and A. J. Berry. — 'I he Chemical Physics involved in the Precipitation of 
Free Carbon from the Alloys of the Iron Carbon System : W. H. Hatfield. 
— On the Determination of the Tension of a recently-formed Water surface : 
N. Bohr. 

Mathematical Society, at 5.30. — Annual General Meeting. — The 
Relation of Mathematics to Experimental Science (Presidential Address) : 
Sir W. D. Niven. — Properties of Logarithmico-exponential Functions: 
G. H. Hardy. — The Double Six of Lines : G. T. Bennett. — On Semi- 
integrals and Oscillating Successions of Functions : Dr. W. H Young. — 
On the Existence of a Differeniial Coefficient : Dr. W. H. Young and 
Mrs. Young. — The Analytical Extension of Kiemann's Zeta-function : 
F. Tavani. — The Geometrical Representaiion of non-real Points in space 
of Two and Three Dimensions: T. W. Chaundy. — The Extension of 
Tauber's Theorem : J. E. Littlewood. — A Note on the Property of being 
a Differential Coefficient : Dr. W. H. Young. — The Stability of Rotating 
Shafts : F. B. Pidduck. — A Class of Orthogonal Surfaces : J. E. 
Campbell. — On Non-integral Orders of Summability of Series and 
Integrals: J. W. Chapman. — Optical Geometry of Motion : A. A. Robb. 
— Lineo-linear Transformations, specially in Two Variables : Dr. A. R. 
For.syth. — On the Conditions that a Trigonometrical Series should have 
the Fourier Form : Dr. W. H. Young. 

Institution of Electrical Engineers, at 8. — Presentation of Scholar- 
ships and Premiums. — Inaugural Address of the President : S. Z. de 
Ferranti. 

FRIDAY, November ii. 

Royal Astronomical Society, at 5. 

Malacological Society, at 8. — On the names used by Bolten and 
Da Costa for genera of Venerdise : A. J. Jukes-Browne, F.R.S. — On 
New Melaniida: from Coram and Kei Islands, Malay Archipelago : 
H. B. Preston.— On the Anatomy of the British Species of the Genu> 
Psammobia : H. H. Bloomer. — Note on Tritcn tesselatits: Major A. J. 
Peile. 

Physical Society, at 8. — On the supposed Propagation of Equatorial 
Magnetic Disturbances with Velocities of the Order of 100 miles per 
second : Dr. Chree, F.R.S.— On Cusped Waves of Light and the Theory 
of the Rainbow: Prof. W. B. Morton.— Exhibition of a Brightnes> 
Photometer : J. S. Dow. 



CONTENTS. PAGE 

Theoretical Mechanics. By W. H. M i 

Cannizzaro's Course of Chemical Philosophy. By T. 2 

Pruning of Fruit Trees 2 

Unconscious Memory 3 

The Mammals of Europe. By R. L 3 

The Science of Pathology 4 

Our Book Shelf 5 

Letters to the Editor : — 

Hehum and Geological Time.— Hon. R. J. Strutt, 

F.R.S 6 

Pwdre Ser.— Edward E. Free 6 

On Hydrogen in Iron.— John Parry 6 

Research Defence Society.— Stephen Paget .... 6 
British Mammals. — Major G. E. H. Barrett- 
Hamilton . . . 6 

The Oceanographical Museum at Monaco. {Illus- 
trated.) By J. Y. Buchanan, F.R.S -7 

Environment versus Heredity. {With Diagrams.) By 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S " 

Present Condition of American Bison and Seal 

Herds. {Illustrated. By R. L .12 

The Future of Agricultural Research in Great 

Britain I3 

Rats and Plague. By G. F. Petrie IS 

Prof. D. P. Penhallow. By E. W. M 16 

Notes 16 

Our Astronomical Column: — 

Fireball of October 23 21 

The Motion of Molecules in the Tail of Halley's Comet 21 

The Dark Band surrounding the Polar Caps of Mars . 22 

The Spectrum of Nova Sagittarii No. 2 22 

A New Variable Star or a Nova, 97 1910 Cygni ... 22 

New Variable Stars in Harvard Map, No. 52 ... . 22 

Anthropology at the British Association 22 

Agriculture at the British Association 24 

Physiology at the British Association 26 

A Suggested Research Fund for Tropical Diseases 28 
Modern Scientific Research. By Sir William A. 

Tilden, F.R.S 29 

University and Educational Intelligence 32 

Societies and Academies 33 

Diary of Societies 34 n 

J 



NA TURE 



35 



THURSDAY, NOVEMBER lo, 1910. 



VHYSWLOGY AS A SPECULATIVE SCIENCE. 
Biological Physics, Phvsic. and Metaphysic. Studies 
and Essays. By Thomas Logan, Edited by Q. 
McLennan and P. H. Aitken. Vol i., Biological 
Physics. Pp. XXX + 576. Vol. ii., Physic. Pp. viii + 
284. Vol iii., Metaphysics. Pp. vi+iio. (Lon- 
don : H. K. Lewis, 1910.) Price, 3 vols., 245. net. 
IN a prefatory note we read that Dr. Thomas 
Logan was an Ayrshire man, who received his 
■1 medical education at Glasgow and Aberdeen, and 
spent almost half a century on busy practice as a 
public health officer and general practitioner, first in 
Scotland, latterlv in Yorkshire. He died three years 
ago, at the age of sixty-nine, leaving behind him the 
manuscript of the three volumes now published. It 
is stated that his editors were not permitted to make 
alterations or excisions of any of the text, which 
therefore appears in the form the author wished, and 
is illustrated by a number of cuts borrowed from 
standard works on anatomy and histology. The first 
volume is entitled "Biological Physics," the second 
" Physic," the third " Metaphysics." 
" Dr. Logan would appear to have been very early 
impressed with the truth of the aphorism, '"Circulatio 
Circulationum omnia Circulatio," and the great bulk 
of his volumes is devoted to the repetition and ampli- 
fication of this text. He possessed a great facility 
with the pen, and was never at a loss for a word or 
words to express his meaning. Hence his sentences 
run to 10, 15, or, in favourable instances, 25 lines or 
more in length. As a philosopher, he committed him- 
self to unbridled speculation and unchastened 
teleologA, employing the deductive method that has 
found so little favour since the end of the sixteenth 
centun*-. Thus, for example, he showed (i., p. 165) 
that the axon of a nerve-cell must be — and therefore 
is — 

"a compound of at least four tubes circulating fluids 
and substances of diflferent consistence, and qualities, 
along its intra-spaces, each circulation differing from 
the other according to the consistence of its material 
and the freedom from obstacles to its onward pro- 
gress, the two inner being necessarily slow, but the 
two outer necessarily relatively quick." 

With ever\- nerve-fibre acting as a four-fold tube, 
there can be no doubt that circulation might proceed 
merrily indeed; but anatomical or microscopical 
evidence either that these fibres are tubes, or that they 
do serve as circulator)- channels. Dr. Logan offered 
none. He was, also, on purely a priori grounds, a 
firm believer in the importance and activitv of the 
pituitary gland. After describing its position in the 

skull, he went on to say (i., p. 94) : 

• Situated thus, it, the pituitary- bodv, must become 

tKe receptacle of a mixture of materials, consisting of 

eerebro-spmal lymph, endothelial cell debris, neuroglial 

jzmgs. and whatever else obtains an entrance into 

:. r.hich it must of anatomical necessitv dispose of. 

id this, we claim, must be its function; and surelv 

» mean function, yea, a function second to none in 

-e whole category- of glandular functions in its direct 

anngs on the grreat problem of life and health." 

NO. 2 141, VOL. 85I 



It may be noted in passing that he offered a solu- 
tion for one at least of these great problems, by say- 
ing what life is (i., p. 445) : — 

•• Life, therefore, is a tripartite, but indis>olubly 
united, transcendental entity, beginning with the 
vitalisation of the elements of nutrition * culminating 
in their organic incorporation, and ending with their 
devitalisation and elimination." 

Discussing the pituitary and pineal bodies, he 
did not agree that they are survivals of once important 
organs (i.. p. 97) :— 

" Surz'ivals forsooth ! *Tis nothing less than an 
insult to nature, and an impeachment of her working 
and administration of the law of ' evolution, ' to manu- 
facture and propagate this stor\- of her prodigality 
in the use of most valuable cephalic, or brain, space 
as a museum for the storage of obsole,;e organisms, 
and her persistent exhibition of a juvenile affection 
for the display of some of the works of her ' prentice ' 
hand in this, the gallen,- of her latest, best, and finest 
productions ! These structures, called pituitary and 
pineal glands respectively, are illustrations of the 
truth of this exclamation and contention, and, it 
seems to us, that their more exhaustive study will 
reveal many facts indicating that they are structures 
of the greatest functional importance in the regulation 
of the cerebro-spinal lymph circulation, a circulation 
of equal importance with the great blood-circulation, 
and a circulation, in fact, emanating from the blood- 
circulation, and the last of the great series of circula- 
tions involved in the chain of I'ital processes called by 
the names deglutition, digestion, absorption, circiila- 
tion proper, nutrition, assimilation, secretion, arid 
excretion." 

Dr. Logan was no less successful in tracing out the 
path followed bv these pituitarv- products ; speaking 
of the tongue, he said (i., p. 545) : — 

" Here, then, we claim to see the theatre of one of 
the concluding acts of the great cerebro-excretory cir- 
culation and the final disposal of the residual pituitary 
material, which finds its way through the pituitary 
gland, and which in turn finds its way through the 
lateral sphenoidal foraminal openings into the ton- 
sillar bodies, and thence into the amorphous and semi- 
adipose material matrix, in the inter-muscular spaces 
of the tongue, where it affords that semi-plastic and 
fainth-fluid material in the discharge of which the 
epithelial covering and papillan,- structures of that 
org^an are constantly engaged." 

One may doubt whether obscurantism could go 
further. Enough of Dr. Logan's writing has been 
quoted to exhibit the surge and flow of verbiage on 
which he launched his a priori theories, and floated 
his elaborate yet elusive and illusory deductions. 
Throughout his essays he was content with specu- 
lation and assertion, rarely did he come down to 
the level of simple fact and commonplace proof of 
his novel views. So little was he in agreement with 
the modern spirit or methods of scientific investiga- 
tion that one cannot but see in him a writer fared to 
live some two or three centuries after his time. His 
volumes illustrate very clearly the strength and the 
weakness of the undisciplined scientific imagination, 
so-called, and show the limitations of the arm-chair 
man of science to perfection. They should be of no 
little interest to collectors of the literarv curiosities 
of science. A. J. J. B. 

C 



36 



NATURE 



[November io, 1910 



THE COMPLETE BOTANY-TEACHER. 

The Teaching Botanist. A Manual of Information 
iipon Botanical Instruction, including Outlines and 
Directions for a Synthetic General Course. By 
Prof, W. F. Ganong. Second edition, revised. Pp. 
xi + 439. (New York: The Macmillan Company; 
London : Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1910.) Price 
$5. net. 

1"^HE first edition of Prof. Ganong's book received 
a welcome on this side the Atlantic such as is 
accorded to few elementary botanical works produced 
in America, and it has proved of the greatest value 
to many engaged in the teaching of elementary botany, 
or in training as future teachers of the subject. The 
second edition, lately published, has been thoroughly 
revised, and, indeed, re-written almost throughout, 
besides being considerably enlarged, though the 
general plan, and, above all, the animating spirit of 
the book, not to mention the very moderate price, 
remain unchanged. To all intents and purposes this 
edition is a new work, and should be in the hands of 
all botanical teachers, both in esse and in posse, 
whether or not they already possess the first edition. 

In part i., occupying, roughly, half of the book, 
the author deals in a practical, yet philosophic and 
stimulating, manner with the place of the sciences in 
education and of botany among the sciences, followed 
by a thoughtful and vigorous discussion of the per- 
tinent question, "What botany is most worth?" and 
proceeds to the consideration of the training of the 
good botanical teacher, the methods of good botanical 
teaching, botanical drawings and descriptions, the 
equipment of laboratories, and the arrangement of 
collections. A valuable chapter follows on botanical 
books and their use, with a bibliography — by no means 
exclusively American — which, with a few deletions, 
would serve as the catalogue of an ideal library for 
any institution in which the subject is taught. One 
is inclined to wonder when there will be found an 
author^and publisher — courageous enough to publish 
a 'black list" of undesirable books on botany and 
nature-study generally; but, after all, this would 
merely postpone for a time the oblivion into which 
bad books are bound to sink sooner or later. 

As is well known. Prof. Ganong has shown him- 
self, especially in his valuable "Plant Physiology," 
to be an acute critic of many erroneous facts and 
ideas, and of faulty methods of experimentation, which 
are only too common in botanical literature, not only 
in books of the baser sort, but even in standard and 
authoritative works. In the present work he ends 
part i. with a breezy and delightful chapter — only too 
short — on some common errors prejudicial to good 
botanical teaching, which will bring some discomfort 
to conscientious teachers, while pointing out to them 
the better way. Such teachers will, however, be to 
some extent consoled by the author's candid confes- 
sion that he, too, has occasionally perpetuated, and 
even originated, ideas and phrases which are " unfor- 
tunate if not erroneous." This chapter is certainly 
deserving of most careful study by all teaching 
botanists. 

NO. 2 141, vol. 85] 



In part ii. Prof. Ganong outlines a general course 
in elementary botany — not a mere skeleton or series 
of headings, but a thoroughly practical, fairly de- 
tailed, and altogether excellent syllabus of instructions 
for the carrying out of a very full year's work in the 
morphology and physiology of plants. It would be 
difficult to devise a better guide to the elements of 
botany for those who may go no farther with the 
subject, or a more suitable first-year course for those 
who intend to proceed to more advanced work in 
botany. This admirable and wisely designed course 
of instruction may be warmly commended, not only 
to teachers of botany, but to those who are responsible 
for the drafting of examination syllabuses in the sub- 
ject in this country. F. C. 



CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AND ORGANIC 
EVOLUTION. 
Die klitnatischen Verhdltnisse der geologischen 
Vorzeit voni Praecambrium an bis zur Jetztzeit tind 
ihr Einfluss auf die Entjvickelung der Haupttypen 
des Tier- und Pflanzenreiches. By Dr. Emil 
Carthaus. Pp. v + 256. (Berlin: R. Friedlander 
und Sohn, 19 10.) Price 8 marks. 

I^'HIS treatise commences with a consideration of 
the views of different authors upon the early 
evolution of the earth. Of the rocks in the earth's 
crust, Olivine rock (Dunite) is considered by the author 
to be the most primitive, its formation having taken 
place before the condensation of the water-vapour 
contained in the very earliest atmosphere. The 
gneisses, however, were formed after such condensa- 
tion had occurred. The beginnings of organic life 
were present in the original atmosphere of water- 
vapour, but the author doubts the view of Arrhenius 
that the early spores could have reached the earth 
from other heavenly bodies. The period between the 
Upper Cambrian and Purbeckian was one of little rain, 
the existence of salt deposits in the early formations 
at various places, widely separated from one another, 
and the complete absence of real freshwater calcareous 
deposits prior to the Jurassic being cited as evidence 
in support of that view. In this connection the inter- 
esting questions are propounded : Why have no re- 
mains older than the fauna of late Tertiary or 
diluvial times been found in the caves of Devonian, 
Carboniferous, Triassic, and Jurassic limestones? 
Whv did cave formation thus probably begin first in 
Tertiary times? 

The occurrence of forests of Rhizophora (Dicotyle- 
dons) in the sea of the Malay Archipelago is instanced 
as a reason against the assumption of the necessarily 
freshwater origin of the Ferns, Sigillaria, Lepido- 
dendron, Equisetites, Conifers, and Cycads of- the 
older geological formations. Great stress is laid upon 
the difference in the movements of the sea-water as 
affecting the forms of life at different times. The 
increase of these movements in later geological periods 
tended to destroy the brachiopods, the bilateral sym- 
metry of the Tetracoralla gave v^ay to the radial 
symmetry of the Hexacoralla, while the later Echi- 
noidea, as compared with the earlier, underwent 



NoVEMliER lO, 1910] 



NATURE 



changes in the number and arrangement of plates ; 
the increasing complication of the ammonite sutures 
is explained on the same ground. It is pointed out 
that the multiplication in number of the sinupalliate 
Lamellibranchiata in Cretaceous time and their further 
acceleration in company with the Heterodont forms 
in the Tertiary period correspond with the incoming 
and continuance of freshwater conditions. In recent 
times certain Lamellibranch species in the Black Sea 
and Caspian Sea have wandered into brackish and 
fresh water, and as a result there is an increase in 
length of the siphon, a gaping of the shell, and the 
formation of a mantle-sinus. 

The work has been written in the seclusion of an 
Indian hotel without the immediate advantages of 
close contact with the scientific world and its literature. 
This explains to a great extent the semi-popular nature 
of the book, and accounts, perhaps, for the omission 
of a bibliography other than rare and general refer- 
ences in the text. .\ division into chapters and the 
inclusion of a more extensive index would have been 
a decided improvement. Although controversial in 
many of its statements, the contribution has the un- 
doubted merit of arousing interest and thought. The 
author appears to be a strong believer in the inherit- 
ance of acquired characteristics, and is not inclined 
to the assumption of an indwelling tendency towards 
perfection in forms of life; the followers of Cope, 
von Baer, Naegeli, and von Eimer would, therefore, 
find much material for debate. The statement that 
land or fresh- water animals and plants older than of 
Tertiary age are not found in the earth clefts of 
primary- and secondarv* formations is certainly errone- 
ous. For instance, the teeth of Microlestes found bv 
Charles Moore and submitted to Owen in 1858 came 
from a Rhaetic breccia filling a fissure in the mountain 
Limestone, near Frome, Somersetshire. 

Ivor Thomas. 



COMMERCIAL ORGANIC ANALYSIS. 
Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis. Edited by 
Prof. H. LefTmann and W. A. Davis. Vol. II., 
Fixed Oils, Fats and Waxes, Soap, Glycerol, 
Cholesterols, &c. Fourth edition, entirely rewritten. 
Pp. x+520. (London: J. and A. Churchill, 1910.) 
Price 2 IS. net. 

\J OST analysts are aware that a fourth edition of 
■i-'J- Allen's well-known work is in course of pre- 
paration. Two of the eight volumes composing the 
edition have now appeared, and a notice of Vol. I. 
will be found in Nature of June 16 last. Two more 
are announced for publication this year, and the 
remaining four are promised without undue delav. 
The plan of having both an American and an English 
editor has been adopted, and articles are contributed 
by writers from each side of the Atlantic. This seems 
a sensible arrangement, as with comparativelv little 
modification the book is made to serve the needs of 
chemists in both countries. 

The volume now under review is much extended 

and improved as compared with its predecessor of the 

last edition. Mr. C. A. MitcheU is responsible for 

the opening section describing the general properties 

NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



of the fixed oils and fats, as well as the common 
processes of analysis, whilst the special characters 
of the individual products, and the particular methods 
of examining them, are discussed by Mr. L. .\rchbutt. 
Having regard to the scope of the book, both sections 
appear to be very well done. As much trustworthy 
information as could well be given in the space allotted 
will be found in these two sections, and no point 
of importance calling for adverse remark has been 
noticed by the present writer in looking through a 
number of representative pages. Perhaps the articles 
on arachis oil, olive oil, and the beeswax group may 
be singled out as good examples of compressed 
essentials. Sometimes, indeed, the compression is a 
trifle too marked. Many references, however, are 
given to original papers, so that fuller details can 
often be obtained. 

Certain products, including butter, soap, and 
glvcerol, are each given a special section. Messrs. 
Revis and Bolton have taken charge of the chapter 
on butter fat. The\' have studied their subject well, 
and, among other things, have grasped a fact which 
seems to have puzzled some experts on butter analysis 
— namely, that the addition of lard to butter may 
produce a distinct (apparent) increase of the " Polenske 
figure," which might be taken by the unwan,- as in- 
dicating the presence of cocoanut oil. One or two 
small errors have crept in ; thus the Zeiss values in 
the first table on p. 290 are wrongly given as being 
taken at 40° C. instead of 45°, and there are two 
misprints in the second table on the same page. A 
favourable opinion, based upon the authors' own ex- 
periments, is expressed in reference to Lallemant's 
"barium saponification" method of examining butter 
fat. How far the commendation is deserved cannot 
be judged from the particulars given. For example, 
granted that the method detects cocoanut oil in butter, 
it may yet be that the detection could be made just 
as certainly and much more readily by older pro- 
cesses. The really difficult problem is the recognition 
of lard or beef-fat when present in butter, and it is 
in the promise of this that the chief importance of 
Lallemant's process lies. It will be interesting to 
see how it stands the test of experience when applied, 
on a sufficiently extended scale, to genuine butter 
having Reichert-W'ollny values in the region of 23 
and 24. 

Of Prof. LefTmann 's chapter on soaps and the other 
special contributions it must suflRce to note that they 
contain all that an analyst will generally require to 
know on the subjects. They help to make the volume 
a distinct improvement upon the former editions. 

C. S. 

THE SEVEN L.UIPS OF BIOLOGY. 
Das System der Biologic in Forschung und Lehre. 
Eine historisch-kritische Stttdie. By Dr. Phil. S. 
Tschulok, Zurich. Pp. x + 409. (Jena : Gustav 
Fischer, 1910.) Price 9 marks. 

THE author discusses at great length some of the 
attempts that have been made to define the scope 
of biology, and to indicate the logical sub-divisions of 
the science. Starting with early workers like Ray, 



NATURE 



[NOVEMBKR lO, 1 910 



he works on to A. P. De Candolle and Schleiden (of 
whose importance he is very appreciative), and thence 
to Haeckel and Spencer, Karl Pearson, and Burck- 
hardt. This laborious historical survey, which must 
have cost the author much time and trouble, is inter- 
esting to those who care for such questions, but it 
seems to us to be robbed of some of its value by 
being overloaded and by a lack of perspective. Dr. 
Tschulok quotes classifications of the different depart- 
ments of biology from a large number of text-books, 
isome of which are rather humdrum performances, 
while others are by men who left a deep mark on 
the science, but had neither any particular interest 
in mapping out its subdivisions, nor any special apti- 
tude for so doing. 

To illustrate, a man like Burckhardt was a good 
zoologist — too early lost to science — but he was also 
a philosopher. He went the length of thinking about 
the classification of the sciences, about the relation 
of biology to other disciplines, about methodology, and 
so on, his writings sometimes reminding us of those 
of Prof. Patrick Geddes in this country. Naturally, 
therefore, we are glad to have from Dr. Tschulok an 
exposition of Burckhardt 's views, and we are espe- 
cially grateful for the unearthing of an essay on the 
history of biological " Systematiks," well-buried "an 
einem ziemlich versteckten Orte." But what we regret 
is the space that is given to what are really incom- 
petent classifications. The author wearies us with 
citations from manuals of botany, which start with 
commonplace mappings out of the science, sometimes 
beginning with a weird word like "Glossology," and 
ending up with " Fossil Botany." The last is a care- 
less usage, which in an interesting irony sometimes 
justifies itself. Our regret that the author has been 
.at such pains to expose the nakedness of the larid is 
heightened when we find that he has missed most 
of the few really illuminating British contributions 
to the subject of his book. We may refer, for in- 
stance, to well-known encyclopaedia articles by Prof. 
Patrick Geddes and Sir E. Ray Lankester. 

The author divides biology into Biotaxis and Bio- 
physik. The first has to do with the establishment of 
conceptual relations, the second with the establishment 
of real relations — causal and teleological. Classifica- 
tion, for instance, is "biotactic"; physiological 
analysis is "biophysical." He contrasts his dual 
division with others, e.g., with morphology and physi- 
ology (which is a "scholasticism," he says), or with 
biostatics and biodynamics, which expresses a different 
idea. But does Dr. Tschulok mean more than this, 
that we have in biology, as elsewhere, to discover the 
orderliness of sequences and to sum this up in con- 
ceptual formulae? 

The author's chief contribution is a scheme of the 
subdivisions of biology. His idea is that there are 
seven kinds of inquiry which are individually indis- 
pensable and collectively exhaustive. These are : 
taxonomy, morphology, physiology, cecology, chor- 
ology, chronology, and genetics. This appears to us 
to illustrate most of the vices of classification, such 
as overlapping, cross-division, and inequality of values. 
It appears to us, for instance, that taxonomy and 
NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



morphology are inseparably bound together; that 
cecology, as Semper said, is part of physiology; that 
chorology is not an independent division of the science; 
and so on. It must be noted, however, that Dr. 
Tschulok defends his seven-fold classification with 
enthusiasm and learning. J. A. T. 



A MONOGRAPH OF THE PETRELS. 
A Monograph of the Petrels (Order Tubinares). By 
F. Du Cane Godman, F.R.S. With hand- 
coloured plates by J. G. Keulemans. Part iv., pp. 
233-296; part v., pp. 297-381 + Iv, (London: 
Witherby and Co.) Price 15/. 155., bound in full 
morocco. 

'T^HE fourth and fifth parts of the " Monograph 
*- of the Petrels," completing this beautiful and 
valuable work, have been received, and the whole 
work can now be had, bound in full morocco, price 
fifteen guineas. It contains 436 pages printed on 
rag paper, and over one hundred hand-coloured plates 
by Keulemans, our best ornithological artist. In 
every respect this beautiful volume has been produced 
in the best possible style. Nor is the letterpress anv 
less excellent. The work was projected, if not 
actually begun, by the late O. Salvin, who wrote 
the "Tubinares" for the British Museum catalogue 
of birds, and the author has endeavoured to carrv 
out the work on the lines laid down by Salvin, 
taking the catalogue as his guide. The final part 
contains a masterly introduction to the order 
Tubinares, a systematic list of species, a classification 
and key to the genera and species, and an essay by 
Mr. Pycraft on the systematic position of the petrels. 

Petrels apparently belong to an ancient race of 
birds, as their remains have been found in a fossil 
state in various parts of the world, mostly in super- 
ficial deposits, one species, however, being known 
from the Red Crag of Norfolk. In external appear- 
ance the families of petrels differ in an extraordinarv 
manner, and the, species vary in size from the tiny 
storm petrel to the wandering albatross. Notwith- 
standing their wide differences, petrels mav at once be 
distinguished from all other birds by their prominent 
tubular nostrils and by .their bills, which consist of 
several horny pieces separated by deep grooves. Thev 
are dispersed throughout the oceans of the world, 
penetrating to the ice barrier at both Poles, though 
they are more numerous in the southern than in the 
northern hemispheres. They are oceanic wanderers, 
and, unless storm-driven, seldom, if ever, come to land 
except for the purpose of breeding. 

The two parts now before us comprise the rest of 
the genus Qistrelata, and the genera Pagodroma 
(the snowy or ice petrel) Bulweria, Macronectes (ihe 
"stinker or Nelly" of the sailors), Fulmarus, Daption 
(the well-known "Cape Pigeon"), Halobaena, and 
Prion, completing the family PufTinidae; the family 
Pelecanoididae comprising one curious genus ; and 
the family Diomedeidae (the albatrosses), compris- 
ing the genera Diomedea, Thalassogeron, and Phce- 
betria. Certainly the most curious and perhaps the 
most interesting of all these are the strange little 



November io, 1910] 



NATURE 



39 



diving petrels f)eculiar to the southern seas, and 
absurdly resembling the little auk of the northern 
seas both in appearance and habit — diving, fishing, 
and flying — although widely differing in structure. 
Darwin wrote of one of them : — 

"No one seeing the bird for the first time, thus 
diving like a grebe, and flying in a straight line, by 
the rapid movements of its short wings, like an 
auk, would believe that it was a member of the 
family of petrels, the ji^eater number of which are 
eminently pelagic in their habits, do not dive, and 
whose flight is usually most graceful and continuous." 

Since the completion of Salvin's catalogue the 
present monograph has derived much benefit from 
the considerable additions to the national collection 
made through the several expeditions sent to the 
Antarctic regions, among which may be mentioned the 
vof\-ages of the Discovery, the Southern Cross, the 
Scotia ; and from the cruises of the Valhalla ; as well 
as from the expedition sent to the Hawaiian Islands 
by the Hon. Walter Rothschild ; these together have 
considerably increased our knowledge of the distribu- 
tion of the petrels. A full index brings this important 
volume to a close. 



OUR BOOK SHELF. 

Eugenics, the Science of Human Improvement by 
Better Breeding. By C. . B. Davenport. Pp. 35. 
(New York: Holt and Co., 1910.) Price 50 cents 
net. 

This useful little book consists of two parts. The 
first is an account of the principles which determine 
whether a given marriage will produce fit or unfit 
offspring, the second contains suggestions for future 
eugenic research. In the somewhat limited class of 
characters and diseases for which definite Mendelian 
laws of inheritance have already been made out, it is 
possible to predict with an approach to certaintv the 
proportion of the children which will or will not be 
affected. Thus the malformation of the fingers 
known as brachydactyly is a Mendelian dominant. 

".\n abnormal person married to a normal will 
beget 100 per cent., or 50 per cent, abnormal, accord- 
ing to circumstances, and such a marriage is unfit; 
but two parents who. though derived from brachv- 
dactvl strains," are themselves normal, "will have 
only normal children . . . such a union is entirelv 
fit." 

Deaf-mutism may be due to any one of a varietv 
of defects, but in different individuals of the same 
familv the chance is large that it is due to the same 
defect. Such defects are often recessives, and jnay 
appear in the offspring ef normal parents of deaf-mute 
stocks. Interrnarriage between two such parents, 
especially of cousins, is 'unfit." .\gain, too, im- 
becile parents, whether related or not. produce only 
imbecile offspriner. a fact which should impress those 
responsible for the long delay in embodving in legis- 
lation the recommendations of the Roval Commis- 
sion on the Care and Control of the Feeble-Minded. 

In concluding his suggestions for future inquirv. 
Mr. Davenport rijihtly points out the contrast be- 
tween the difficultv of raising funds for such scientific 
inquiries, and the ease with which monev is obtained 
for charitable and humanitarian action which often 
proves to have been ill-judged. 

"One cannot fail to wonder that, where tens of 
ntillions have been given to bolster up the weak and 
alleviate the suffering of the sick, no important means 
NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



have been provided to enable us to leai'n how the 
stream of weak and susceptible protoplasm mav be 
checked." W, C. D. \V. 

The Book of the Dry Fly. By G. A. B. Dewar. 

New edition. Pp. xxvii + 277. (London: A. and 

C. Black, 1910.) Price 75. 6d. net. 
The second edition of Mr. Dewar 's " Book of the 
Dr}- Fly " follows the first after an interval of thirteen 
years. It is to be regretted that this second edition 
is, in reality, little more than a reprint of the first ; 
the art of dry-flv fishing has been developed, and 
knowledge of the natural history of the trout and of 
the aquatic creatures upon which it feeds has advanced 
during these years, and it is a little deceptive to find 
that references to "last year" in a book with 1910 on 
the title-page refer to 1896. The deception may even 
be turned to confusion by the addition of a footnote 
modifying or contradicting the statements made in 
the text. 

However much we may regret that the book has 
not undergone a more complete revision, we may still 
be glad to find that a second edition has been pub- 
lished. Mr. Dewar is a student of nature, as well as 
a fisherman, and he writes with obvious enthusiasm 
and interest of various chalk and limestone streams 
and their surroundings. He deals well with the 
elements of drv-fly fishing, and appears to touch on 
most points likelv to interest a student of that art. 

There are some matters in which we find Mr. 
Dewar hard to follow, such as his discussion of the 
modern higher education of trout, but as a rule his 
explanations are lucid and his opinions clearly ex- 
pressed. The grayling is, perhaps, treated with rather 
scant courtesv in the text, althoug^h the footnotes 
show signs of a change of view. .•\ singular misuse 
of the term " dropper " in chapter ii. is obviously the 
result of an oversight, and this should be corrected in 
anv future edition. 

.\n attractive feature of the present edition of Mr. 
Dewar's book is the series of excellent reproductions 
of water-colour sketches of typical chalk and lime- 
stone streams ; these should assist the fisherman who 
does not know the waters of Hampshire or other 
southern and Midland counties to appreciate the con- 
ditions which have brought dry-fly fishing into being 
far more easily than anv mere description in words. 

Last, but not least, there is a good index. 

Die Entu'icklunq des menschlichen Geistes. By Max 
Verworn. Pp. iv + 52. (Jena: Gustav Fischer. 
1910.) Price I mark. 
This is a lecture by the well-known professor of 
physiology in the University' of Bonn, and is a kind 
of popular sur\-ey of human development. After 
dealing with the fact that " the development history 
of the individual form is a short recapitulation of its 
race development " (Fritz Miiller) and with the 
elaboration of this by Haeckel, Dr. \'erworn g^oes on 
to emphasise the importance of child-study with rela- 
tion to pedagog:ics. A eulogy of Charles Darwin 
follows, and a curious and interesting table of sup- 
posed psychological development from the Eolithic to 
the present time. 

The British Empire in Pictures. A Geographical Read- 
ing Book. By H. Clive Barnard. Pp. 64 (London : 
.\. and C. Black, 1910.) Price is. 6d. 
The thirty-two excellent illustrations in colour which 
form the distine;uishing characteristic of this book will 
ser\-e excellently to predispose young pupils in favour 
of the study of geography. As a supplement to the 
more serious work of the class-room, the book should 
prove useful, and it should not be difficult to get 
children to read the book as a leisure-hour under- 
taking. 



40 



NATURE 



[November lo, 1910 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

[The Editor does not hold himself responsible iot opinions 
expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake 
to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected 
manuscripts intended for this or any other part of Nature. 
No notice is taken of anonymous communications.] 

Origin of Dun Horses. 

In discussing the colours and stripes of horses in 
*' Animals and Plants under Domestication," Mr. Darwin 
says : — " I have endeavoured, but with poor success, to 
discover whether duns, which are so much more oftener 
striped than other coloured horses, are ever produced from 
the crossing of two horses, neither of which are duns. . . . 
One case, however, has fallen under my own observation 
of a foal from a black mare by a bay horse, which when 
fully grown was a dark yellow-dun and had a narrow but 
a plain spinal stripe."' 

In a recent number (October 15) of the Veterinary 
Record Mr. J. B. Robertson gives the following instances 
of reversion to dun from the last eleven and first four 
volumes of the General Stud Book : — 

(1) Bay-dun filly (1907), by Ash (chestnut), out of 
Unexpected (bay). 

(2) Dun filly, Sarah Curran (1892), b\' Robert Emmett 
(bay or brown), out of Cellulites (black). 

(3) Dun colt (1897), by Sir Frederick (bay), out of 
Lobelia (bav or brown). 

(4) Light' dun filly (1886), by Lord Gough (bay), out of 
Danseuse (brown). 

(5) Dun or chestnut filly, Sancta (1884), by Exminster 
(bay), out of Halloween (chestnut). 

(6) Dun filly (1763), bv Young Cade (bav), out of Miss 
Thigh (grey). 

(7) Dun colt (1730), by King George II. 's one-eyed grey 
Arabian, out of Young Kilty Burdett (bay). 

(8) Dun fillv (1829), bv Lotterv (brown), out of Octavia 
(bay). 

Mr. Robertson also mentions (i) that a half-bred yellow- 
dun filly was obtained out of a liver-chestnut ^^'elsh cob by 
a bay thoroughbred with a dorsal band — this fill}' " during 
early foalhood was profusely striped on the face, neck, and 
quarters"; and (2) that of 45 duns given in the tables 
included in his paper, 39 cannot be traced to an original 
dun ancestor. They sprang from the union of Silver- 
locks (chestnut) and the Godolphin Arabian (brown), " and 
hence afford incontrovertible evidence that a gametic line 
of duns — which in this case extended to four generations — 
may spring from parents neither of which are dun." 

The L'niversity, Edinburgh. J. C. Ewart. 



Markings of Mars. 

I HAVE recently returned by way of Tasmania from a 
series of visits to the chief observatories in the United 
States, which included a month's stay at the Lowell 
Observatory during the past opposition of Mars. This 
visit was made with the express object of testing by my 
own observation the reality of the data on which Dr. 
Lowell has based his speculations. 

I find on my return that so much scepticism has been 
raised by the observations and arguments of M. Antoniadi 
and others that a record of my own experience may be 
of some vahie. 

When I first looked at Mars at FlagstafT (September 27, 
1909) I saw with great difficulty three streaks, presumably 
canals. The seeing was bad, and the general faintness 
of the planet's markings at that time is admitted by all. 
I continued to observe Mars on every possible night (which 
was nearly every night) until October 25, and as my eye 
became accustomed to the work I saw more and more. 
The canals were seen repeatedly better — this with the 
24-inch refractor generally stopped down to about 
18 inches. I found that with more than 20 inches the air 
was nearly always too unsteady, and with less than 
15 inches too much separating power was lost. The 
canals were seen best with a power of 390 diameters. 

Clearer they became each night until, on October 25, 

■I " Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. i., p. 62. (1872.) 

NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



the seeing being the best I ever experienced, the canals 
came out with amazing clearness and steadiness, sharp and 
clean, like telegraph wires against the sky, the oases als(^ 
being exquisitely defined. Whereas on previous nights th- 
canals could be held only by short glimpses of perhap> 
half a second at a time, they were now steadily visibl- 
for three or four seconds together, when a short flicker 
would sweep over them ; during the lucid intervals th- 
limb also of the planet was perfectly steady, as I hav 
never seen it before or since. Of the objective existenc 
of these markings in the image at the focus of the tele- 
scope there could be no manner of doubt, and Lowell ''^ 
representations of them are nearer the actual appearanc 
than any I have seen, though even in his drawings th' 
lines seem hardly fine enough. The effect produced on my 
mind by this remarkable definition, which lasted for 
upwards of one and a half hours (from about 8.30 until 
after 10 p.m.), was staggering and ineffaceable. Soon 
after ten the definition went to pieces. 

It may be relevant to mention that a few evening-^ 
previously I had obtained a fair and convincing view of 
the canals with the 40-inch reflector (full aperture and a 
power of about 700), when they had appeared hazy and 
broader, but the image had been very unsteady, and only 
obtained in very short flashes ; but nothing that I had 
hitherto seen had prepared me for the astonishing steadi- 
ness and fineness of the details visible on this superb 
night. 

There is in my mind no sort of doubt that the revela- 
tion of this night was due both to the perfection of the 
instrument (which its maker long ago pronounced to be 
the best that the firm of Alvan Clark ever turned out) and 
the atmospheric conditions which are found at Flagslaff. 
With respect to these I would mention, as pointing to 
the freedom from water vapour, that I have seen the 
thermometer fall from more than 70° F. at 3 p.m. to 
below the freezing point at 3 a.m. without a ti'pce of hoar- 
frost, and the general clearness of the air was such that 
I could see Uranus with the naked eye within 5° of the 
horizon, and could nearly every night count nine star?; 
in the Pleiades and separate e and 5 Lyrse. 

The telescope also afforded on other nights ampli 
evidence of the extraordinary clearness of the air. On 
many occasions both satellites of Mars, when not ver\ 
near the limb, could be seen, without screening the planet, 
with 18 inches of aperture ; and on one occasion with this 
aperture I picked up one of them unawares while looking 
for canals with a yellow screen. (N.B. — The importance 
of colour screens in rendering the canals visible does not 
seem to be sufficiently appreciated.) 

In the face of .ill this positive evidence, and in the 
absence of any evidence that the observing conditions at 
Mfudon, just outside Paris, ever approach these best con- 
ditions at Flagstaff, I find it impossible myself to attach 
any serious weight to the ingenious and plausible conten- 
tions of M. Antoniadi. which seem to have been much too 
hastily accepted in this country. 

.As to the deductions which Dr. Lowell has drawn from 
his observations I have nothing to. say except that the 
startlingly artificial and geometrical appearance of thf 
markings did force itself upon me. 

James H. Wortmincton. 

Wycombe Court, High Wycombe, October 31. 



November Meteors. 

The moon is full about the time when the Leonids 
become due in the present year, but that is no reason why 
these meteors should elude observation, for the Sickle h.a-; 
furnished some notable displays of shooting stars. With 
the moon in opposition in mid-November, as, for instance, 
in 1799 and 1867, though the coming apparition cannot 
be expected to vie as regards brilliancy with either of 
these historic events, yet in its way it may not prove un- 
important nor be allowed to pass unobserved. Besides the 
Leonid epoch, there are also some other meteoric events 
that occur in November, of which the following par- 
ticulars have been computed by the writer : — 

Epoch, November 11, 9h. (G.M.T.), approximately 
second order of magnitude. Principal maximum. 



November io, 1910] 



NATURE 



41 



November .12, jh. 4501. ; secondary maximuin, November 
12, 9h. 

Leonid epoch, November 17, 2ih., twenty-eighth order 
of magnitude. Principal maximum, November 16, 
i3h. 45m. ; secondary maxima, November 16, ijh. 20m. 
and i5h. 30m. 

Epoch, November 19, gh., eighth order of magnitude. 
Principal maximum, November 20, i5h. 15m. ; secondary 
maxima, November 20, 6h. 30m. and i6h. 30m. 

Epoch, November 19, gh. 30m., fifth order of magnitude. 
Principal maximum, November 20, i4h. 30m. ; secondary 
maxima, November 19, 2oh. 30m., and November 21, 
oh. 30m. 

Epoch, November 23, 22h., approximately second order of 
magnitude. Principal maximum, November 21, 2oh. 30m. ; 
secondary maximum, November 22, ih. 

Epoch, November 28, 6h., approximately second order 
of magnitude. Principal maximum, November 30, 
I4h. 30m. ; secondarj- maxima, November 30, 2h. 30m. 
and iih. 30m. 

It may be seen from the foregoing that there are four 
periods during the last three weeks of November that will 
probably be characterised by an unusual degree of meteoric 
activit)-, viz. November 12, 16, 20-21, and 30. The circum- 
stance that the moon will be eclipsed in the night of 
November 16 may favour and stimulate Leonid observa- 
tions, but the former phenomenon will perhaps have nearly 
ended before the latter may put in an appearance. 

November 7. John R. Henry. 



Early Bunal Customs in Egypt. 

It is suggested in Prof. Elliot Smith's letter (October 
27. p. 529) that the burial customs in other countries 
influenced our observation of the burials in Egypt. On 
the contrary, the occasional practice of dismemberment in 
Egypt was a surprise to myself and to others ; it is only 
gradually that the evidence for the wide distribution of 
such customs elsewhere has been brought forward as a 
parallel. 

In place of all workers in Egypt finding " precisely the 
same state of affairs," many entire differences of custom 
are found in other material facts besides dismemberment, 
as thirty years' experience has proved. 

The first principle for the archaeologist to realise in 
Egvpt is the great diversity of thought and custom which 
prevailed. With four totally incompatible beliefs about the 
future life, shown by diverse funeral customs throughout 
the history, it is quite natural that diversity should occur 
In the treatment of the body in the earlier ages. When 
the long-promised publication of Dr. Reisner on prehistoric 
Egypt is accessible, we shall be in a position to define 
some more localities where certain customs ruled. Dis- 
cussion of these local variations before the fresh facts are 
published is premature. 

W. M. Flinders Petrie. 



Stripped of all irrelevant considerations, the question at 
Issue resolves itself into this, " Is there any real evidence 
to prove, or even to suggest, that the ancient Egyptians 
ever mutilated the bodies of their dead? " 

In reply, I maintain that there is no evidence whatso- 
ever capable of being twisted into the semblance of sup- 
port to Prof. Flinders Petrie's contention. 

Of all the multitudes of so-called " dissected burials " 
recorded by him, there is only one (see " Deshasheh." 
1898) which carries conviction to those familiar with 
Egyptian conditions as a genuine case of secondarv burial. 
Prof. Flinders Petrie says he has found two more cases 
this year. That may well be so. We found more than 
a score of such cases in Nubia. 

.But they are not evidence of deliberate mutilation of 
the body. They are all of them instances of some un- 
intentional damage to the corpse— either bv unskilled 
embalmers or by accident. 

In reference to Prof. Flinders Petrie's closing remarks, I 
may state that by the time this letter is printed there will 
re published in Cairo Dr. Reisner's report (vol. i.) on the 
Archaeological Sur\ev of Nubia, containing his observa- 
tions on prehistoric Egypt and Nubia. 

G. Elliot Smith. 



Simulium and Pellagra. 

The interesting discovery by Dr. Louis Sambon that 
pellagra is due to a protozoal parasite conveyed by flies of 
the genus Simulium (Nature, October 27) is, we may 
presume, merely the prelude to an energetic campaign of 
extermination directed against the insect. 

It is well that medical men and sanitary officials should 
realise at the outset of such a campaign that the destruc- 
tion of Simulium flies in any given area is an infinitely 
harder task than the destruction of mosquitoes. The larvae 
of Simulium live in rapid streams, attached to submerged 
rocks and stones, and it is difficult to see how these 
streams can be drained drj- if they are numerous in any 
particular district. Even if it were practicable to cover the 
surface of these streams with a film of oil, such a pro- 
cedure would have no effect on the Simulium larvas, for, 
unlike mosquito larvae, the little creatures derive the 
oxygen necessary for their existence from the water bath- 
ing the gills situated at the anterior end of their bodies. 
In other words, the Simulium larva cannot be suffocated 
as can the mosquito larva. 

Finally, it may be noted that the species of Simulium 
are very small flies, consequently to exclude them from 
houses wire gauze or muslin screens of extremely fine 
mesh must be employed. Such screens are bound to 
interfere seriously with the circulation of air in a house, 
and in a warm climate the discomfort entailed will be 
almost intolerable; R. Shelford. 

Hope Department, Oxford University Museum. 



The Cocos-Kceling Atoll. 

Dlring a very short visit to these islands some years 
ago I was taken across the lagoon in a light canoe, and 
when wading to land, about a quarter of a mile distant, 
over the rough surface of fresh coral branches, I suddenly 
crashed downwards for about 2 feet into a mass of rotten 
coral which spread over an irregular area some 20 or 30 
yards across. I did not investigate this further, as a 
shark's fin appeared above the water off shore, but Mr. 
Ross informed me that a good deal of the coral in the 
lagoon had been " killed " at various times by sulphurous 
exhalations from below, and had become black and rotten 
in consequence. Mr. Ross (the owner of the island group) 
supposed that the wide and deep well-like holes and broad 
irregular patches of varying depth in the lagoon were due 
to this cause, which he compared to the sulphurous steam 
constantly roaring from the crater of the Gedeh and other 
mountains in Java. 

If this comparison be correct, as it doubtless is, the 
Cocos ring is around the submerged summit of a volcanic 
cone which has not quite lost its solfataric activity. I 
have never seen it suggested that such poisonous exhala- 
tions coming into the still water confined within the atoll 
ring might account for the slower growth of the coral, 
and the deepening of the lagoon by the degradation of the 
coral branches where the polyps had been suddenly 
poisoned. It is, however, possible that some such influence 
may cooperate to prevent the coral flourishing as rapidlv 
as it does outside the ring in the boisterous wash of the 
fresher waves that are constantly stirred by the trades. 

I have not yet read Mr. Wood-Jones's book, but it was 
the decided opinion of Mr. Ross, founded upon boat navi- 
gation, that the lagoon was shallowing, because, as he 
thought, the submerged summit was slowly rising. If 
this be so something more than slower growth is necessary 
to account for the continued existence of the lagoon, since, 
however slow the growth, it must ultimately in a rising 
area bring the summit up at least to water-level ; but if 
there is this kind of active degradation, neither slow 
upheaval nor slower growth could prevail against such 
rapid destruction, and a comparatively deep atoll with 
irregular bottom contours would result. 

Waterstock, Oxon, October 31. E. C. Spicer. 



NO. 2 141, VOL, 85] 



It would be ungenerous, after the frank admissions of 
inaccuracy on the part of the reviewer (Natlre, 
October 27), to criticise the substance of his review in anv 
more detail ; but it is necessary to make some replv to 
his assertions concerning the development of atolls. 



42 



NATURE 



[November io, 1910 



From the general trend of his first article (Nature, 
October 6) I gathered that the reviewer was an advocate 
of the " solution " theory of Sir John Murray, and by 
carefully reading his second contribution (October 27) I 
have not entirely dispelled this impression. Yet he says, 
"I do not regard the lagoon in an atoll, which was 
formed, as Darwin suggested, by subsidence, as covering 
a reef at all." 

This would seem to suggest a belief in Darwin's theory, 
and, if it is the case that the reviewer upholds this theory 
(as well as the opposed one of " solution "), it may be 
well to point out that I too would not regard the lagoon 
of an atoll, formed by subsidence, as covering a reef. I 
should not have imagined it probable that anyone would 
so regard a lagoon were it formed in such a manner. 
The essential difference between such a view and the 
one that I have attempted to uphold is that I do not regard 
the lagoon as being formed by subsidence at all ; but I 
do look on the lagoon as being a " slightly submerged 
reef " having a raised rim upon which islets are developed. 
Does the reviewer genuinely regard the lagoon as being 
formed by subsidence? If he does, why does he also 
plead the opposed theory of solution, and appeal to the 
elevated islands of Fiji? If he does not, why does he 
urge the statement as an argument against my views? 

I am glad to see that he is prepared to admit that the 
various well-known phases of development of atoll-shaped 
reefs are " indirect evidence " of the truth of what I have 
'"P.intained ; but the Funafuti bore, he thinks, does not 
support it. The reviewer states that he does not think 
"the borings in the lagoon at -Funafuti suggest a reef 
such as surrounds a lagoon." I should not have expected 
them to have suggested a reef such as surrounds a lagoon, 
for that reef is a consolidated and specialised "breccia 
platform." What might be expected is that such a bore 
would show the characters of a submerged reef — the open 
coral bankT— /);m5 the lagoon accumulations added since the 
completion of the atoll. 

When such a successful bore is driven we may look for 
such appearances ; but it is surely within the knowledge 
of the reviewer that the only bore at Funafuti which met 
with any , success was not situated iii the lagoon. The 
lagoon bore ("bore L ") penetrated only 144 feet, and then 
failed; the only successful bore (on the results of which 
alone any safe argument may be based) was situated on 
the seaward reef, far removed from the lagoon. The 
successful bore (" main bore "), which reached a depth of 
1 1 14 feet, was driven on the extreme windward edge of a 
large atoll reef. In such a situation one would confidentlv 
expect the bore to penetrate the talus slope of the out- 
wardly growing reef, and, from the description of the 
core obtained, it would appear that this expectation was 
realised. The Funafuti "main bore" tells little of the 
development of atolls save that they grow to windward 
on their own talus slopes — a fact hardly requiring a 
laborious boring for its acceptance. 

The " L bore " can support no particular theory by 
reason of its very incompleteness ; but such evidence as it 
does afford in no way contradicts, but rather goes to 
support, the supposition that it penetrated the lagoon 
debris of a submerged reef. 

Whether the reviewer regards the Funafuti boring as 
evidence supporting Darwin's theory of subsidence or Sir 
John Murray's theory of solution I cannot quite deter- 
mine ; but he next defends the solution theory in the case 
of the Fijian Islands. He says that these islands have 
reefs " which superficially appear to be of the ordinary 
coral-reef type. Such reefs cannot have existed when the 
islands were first elevated, and it seems to me that 
.'\gassiz's photographs show that high islands do crumble 
to pieces within the calm of encircling barrier reefs." I 
own that I fail to follow this argument, for, granting that 
the reef is new since the island was elevated, what proof 
— or what probability — is there that the coast erosion was 
not present before the development of the reef, when the 
same condition is seen quite apart from reefs, or any 
other coral structures, all over the world? 

The problem of the formation of coral structures (fring- 
ing reefs, barrier reefs, open reefs, atoll-shaped reefs, and 
atolls) is not, I think, to be solved bv appeals to a multi- 
tude of opposed theories, and no critic's position is likely 



to gain strength by a series of fallacious arguments based 
alternately on the theory of subsidence, the theory oi 
solution, and the results of the Funafuti bore. 

F. Wood-Jones. 
-St. Thomas's Hospital Medical School. 



NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



-As a reviewer I would point out that I do not desire 
to uphold any theory, but merely to show what is good 
and what is bad in the book which I am reviewing, what 
facts are new, how far these and other facts support any 
theories, &c. An essay on the duties of a reviewer might 
be a suitable suggestion to the Editor of Nature, but 
obviously I am not the author to present such an article. 

In the first paragraph of Mr. Wood-Jones's letter of 
October 27 I am practically accused of being an 
"anonymous destructive . critic " of, I suppose, the con- 
structions erected by the facts brought together by Mr. 
Wood-Jones, some of them new and some old. I regard r 
some of the bricks of his building as faulty, and I scarcely 
think there are enough bricks with which to .complete the 
building. I intended to indicate in my review that. I 
considered that science had gaine by the attempt to 
build, and I desired indirectly to indicate some of the 
bricks which I. thought future workers should attempt to 
collect. I do not believe any research.?r on the coral-reef 
problem will consider my review as in any way unfair if 
he regards (as I did) Mr. Wood-Jones's book as a con- 
tribution to science. . 

I. shall after this .lettc not continue this correspondence, 
not caring for Mr. VV.od-Jones's style of writing. I 
would, however, make .lyself clear on two points. Mr. 
\\'ood-Jones admits that he assumes the lagoon of an 
atoll to be a slightly submerged reef.' I point out that 
the nature of the material underlying the lagoons of 
atolls .is doubtful. I appeal to the lagoon boring at 
Funafuti as giving the most valuable facts we have as to 
its nature. ■ Do these facts, the best known geographical 
facts, support the theory of a slightly submerged reef, such 
as is supposed to exist at Cocos-Keeling? Down to 
27 fathoms the first Funafuti lagoon boring passed through 
lagoon debris, and from that depth to 41 fathoms there 
occurred some firmly compacted masses ">f coral rock. Irr. 
the second boring,, which was carried to nearly 36 fathoms, 
a similar section was obtained. I do not consider that 
these two borings are sufficient to justify ; Mr. Wood- 
Jones's assumption, and I did not consider that the 
evidence given as to Cocos-Keeling lagoon justifies it. I 
quite fail to remember any description ■ of the. material 
under the Cocos-Keeling lagoon such as; would suggest 
the open, coral bank which is mentioned in Mr. W'ood- 
Jones's letter,- while its- shallowness made it a peculiarly 
favourable place for investigation. 

The fringing reefs round the high limestone islands ia 
Fiji I certainly am inclined to . regard as platforms left 
at low tide-level when those islands were washed away. 
In this sense they are new. They formed part of the 
bases of the islands when they were first elevated. 
Possibly the edges of these platforms have extended sea- 
ward since the land Was removed by solution, and, still 
more important, by the erosion of the numerous small 
particles carried in the swirling watei-s. I consider these] 
views are amply supported by published evidence. High 
limestone islands are also being washed away within 
barrier reefs, and I think it is a fair inference frorrn 
the evidence that many of these barrier reefs were oncei 
similar shelves cut out from the land, or, to put it another) 
way, le*^*. behind when the land was removed. 

The Reviewer. 



i 

f 



Note on Winter Whitening in Mammals. 

I HAVE just seen a letter in N.ature of March 24 byl 
Miss I. B. J. SoIIas, in which, commenting on Mr.j 
Mudge's observations, it is suggested that the yellow bodyi 
produced artificially by Mr. Mudge in the fur of the albinorj 
rat is a substance similar to the yellow pigment of the! 
stoat's winter coat, and therefore probably represents a| 
stage in the reduction of the pigment to the condition in^ 
which it exists in the white hairs. 

I had previously read Mr. Mudge's observations withj 
great interest, and had suggested to him that they wou|^ 
throw light on the hitherto unexplained yellow tints inl 



November io, 1910] 



NATURE 



4:-? 



he fur of the winter-whitened stoat, as well as in the 
: :rmanently white polar bear. 1 think Mr. Mudge's 
bservations are a distinct help to us in getting at the 
leaning of these white coats. I should like to see what 
\Iiss Sollas can do with the hair of the variable hare, as 
in the whitened specimens of this animal I have never 
5een any trace of the yellow tints found in the stoat. 

Mr. Mudge's note that the white areas of a piebald 
nouse can be turned pink by immersion in 5 per cent, 
itric acid in 78 per cent, spirit, but only in summer or 
; warm temperature, is also of great interest. Does it 
r.QX. suggest a reason why pink colour in feathers is mostly 
• und in summer plumages and in warm climates? And 
- not his production of brown in the hairs of white rats 
exposed to damp warm weather comparable with the well- 
known saturated tints so prevalent in animals living 
naturally in damp but warm countries? 

While writing on winter whitening it may be well to 
direct attention to another point, which has always been 
difficult to explain on physiological grounds, namely, the 
fact that the black ear tips of the hare and the black tail 
tip of the stoat are not subject to winter whitening. This, 
however, would be explicable if, whereas the general 



THE SUBANT ARCTIC ISLAXDS OF NEW 
ZEALAND^ 

'T'HE naturalists of New Zealand have always shown 
•* themselves eager to take advantage of any oppor- 
tunity for extending our knowledge of the fauna and 
flora of their countr)'. Such opportunities are pre- 
sented from time to time by the periodical official 
visits of the Government steamer to the outlying 
islands. In November, 1907, the s.s. Hinemoa de- 
posited a large party of New Zealand men of science 
on Auckland and Campbell Islands, calling for them 
again on her return trip more than a week later. 
The expedition was undertaken at the instance of the 
Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, primarily for 
the purpose of extending the magnetic sur\'ey of New 
Zealand to the outlying southern islands, but the 
volumes before us consist chiefly of zoological and 
botanical observations, though there are also articles 
on geophysics and geology. 

The work has been issued under the editorship of 



^^^^^^^^^^^H^^^B -IflBi 






W^^^^^' 





body coat of both these animals is cast twice a year, the 
black hairs on the ears and tail are renewed only once 
a year. If they are renewed only once they must remain 
{apart from fading) of the same colour throughout the 
year. That such a single moult is possible, and even 
|MX>bable, in these two instances is shown by the fact that 
in the squirrel there are two moults of the general body 
coat, but only one of the ear tufts and tail hairs. 
Similarly in the Equidae (according to Ewart), there are 
two moults of the general coat but one only of the mane 
and tail. G. E. H. Barrett-H.wiiltox. 

Jiilmanock House, Campile, Co. Wexford, 
Ireland, November 3. 



Helium and Geological Time. 
1 MUST apologise for an error in my letter published in 
Nature of November 3. The sixteenth line and onwards 
should read "... for we have no knowledge of chemical 
aflSnity between helium and solid substances ; while, in 
respect of solubilitv, it would probablv be inferior to the 
Other gases." ' R. j. Strutt. 

Imperial College of Science, South Kensington. 
NO, 2 141, VOL. 85] 



Dr. Charles Chilton, and the publication has been 
rendered possible by a substantial subsidy from the 
New Zealand Governinent. It comes at an opportune 
moment, and acquires a special interest in relation 
to the exploration of the Antarctic continent now in 
progress. 

The time at the disposal of the expedition was, of 
course, all too short for a complete biological survey, 
and the collections were evidently, at any rate in 
many cases, ver\- fragmentary-, but many verj' interest- 
ing results were obtained. The zoologists were un- 
doubtedly right in devoting most of their energies to 
the terrestrial fauna, which is much more likely to 
be modified or even exterminated by human agency 
than the marine fauna, but we cannot help wishing 

1 The Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand. Reports on the Geo-Physics, 
Geology, Zoology, and Botany of the Islands lying to the South of Neur 
Zealand. Based mainlv on Observations and Collections made daring an 
Expedition in the Government Steamer Hinemoa (Capl. \. Belloius) in 
November, 1907. ExUted by Pr if. Charles Chilton. Vol. L, pp. XXXV+3S8 ; 
vol. iL, pp. 389-848. (Wellington, N.Z. : Philosophical Institute of Can- 
terbury. London ; Dulan and Co., Ltd., 1909.) 2 vols. Price ^-u. net. 



44 



NATURE 



[November lo, 1910 



that the latter had received a little more attention. 
No fewer than i68 species and varieties of Foraminifera 
were discovered by Mr. Chapman in the dredgings 
sent to him, and if other j^roups are equally well 
represented in these seas there must be a rich harvest 
waiting to be reaped. Incidentally we may note the 
surprising and very satisfactory fact that of these 168 
species and varieties of Foraminifera, from a practically 
unknown region, only four species and two varieties 
had to be described as new ! Such a record gives one 
hope that some day our systematic knowledge of the 
marine fauna will be approximately complete. In the 
report on the sponges, on the other hand, Prof. Kirk 
mentions only two species, and of holothurians there 
were only three. 

A large proportion of the collections, both botanical 
and zoological, has been worked up and reported on 




FtG. 2.. — Young S--a-lion {.irctoL\-(>k:ilics hookeri), Carnley Harbour, 
Auckland Islands. Iroiii " 1 hi bubantarciic Islands of New Zealani." 

by local naturalists. Prof. Benham, Prof. Chilton, Prof. 
H. B. Kirk, Mr. Edgar Waite, Mr. Henry Suter, Mr. 
E. V. Hudson, Mr. T. Brown, Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, 
Dr. L. Cockayne, Mr. R. M. Laing, and Mr. Donald 
Petrie, many of whom also took part in the expedi- 
tion. Other collections were sent to specialists in 
other countries and reported upon by them. 

Amongst the more interesting forms obtained, we 
'may note two new species of land nemertines, from 
Auckland and Enderby Islands, a remarkable addition 
to this extremely limited group. These are described 
by Mr. \. D. Darbishire, who contributes some use- 
ful notes on the taxonomic value of certain anatomical 
characters. In addition to the purely systematic re- 
ports, we havt others of more general interest. Thus 
Dr. Cockayne contributes a long essay on the 
ecological botany of the islands, with a number of 

NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



beautiful photographic illustrations, and Dr. Chilton 
gives us an account of the history of the scientific 
investigation of the islands, and a veVy useful sunimary 
of the biological results of the expedition, especially 
from the biogeographical point of view. 

The results in general appear to support the current 
view that the existing islands of New Zealand are 
mere fragments of a very much larger land area, which 
at one time extended southwards beyond Campbell 
Island, eastwards beyond Chatham Island and Anti- 
podes Island, and north-westwards towards New 
Guinea. Thus the fauna and flora are essentially 
Novae-Zealandian in aspect, but with a large .Antarctic 
element which may perhaps be accounted for by a 
former northward extension of the Antarctic con- 
tinent. The existence of an Antarctic continent has, 
of course, long been used in explanation of certain 
striking resemblances between the fauna and flora of 
New Zealand and those of South America, but, as Dr. 
Chilton points out, we must also suppose that at some 
former time the climate of Antarctica was sufticiently 
mild to allow of the existence of a far more abundant 
animal and vegetable population than we find there 
to-day. Such a supposition is justified by the geo- 
logical observations of recent Antarctic expeditions. 
Fossil leaves w^ere found near the winter Quarters o\ 
the Discovery, and coal still further south bv Shackle- 
ton, while the Swedish Antarctic expedition met with 
abundant fossil plants in rocks of Tertiarv age on 
Seymour Island, indicating a temperate or sub- 
temperate climate. 

In conclusion, we must congratulate the New 
Zealand naturalists on the performance of a line piece 
of work, and at the same time express our regret 
that they still have to labour under numerous dis- 
advantages. Of these the want of adequate scientific] 
libraries appears to be one of the most serious. The] 
New Zealand Institute, with its various local branches,! 
has for many vears past played a most useful part in| 
promoting scientific research in the dominion, and it] 
appears to us that the Government might do well toj 
assist in some scheme whereby the defect referred 
to might be remedied, and the necessary scientific] 
literature provided, not onlv for Wellington, which isi 
the headquarters of the New Zealand Institute, but] 
also for those large provincial towns where the prin-l 
cipal branches of the institute are situated. 

Arthur Dendy. 



BIRD MIGRATION.' 

OF all the many problems of animated nature 
awaiting solution, few, if , any, have of late' 
received more attention than — perhaps the most 
mysterious of all — the migration of birds. 

Mr. Eagle Clarke and the other painstaking 
observers working with him have during the last 
few vears learnt and taught us much, but only 
enough to show that still, as Prof. Newton wrote 
some twentv years ago, "our ignorance is immense." 

What is the propelling power which at the appointed 
seasons sets the great hosts in motion? It seems 
now at least probable that almost every bird is in 
some degree migratory, and that even the robins and 
thrushes that come to the windows for crumbs in 
winter are more often than not other birds than those 
which nested in the garden in the spring. 

When and how in the long-past eternity were the 
great aerial highways from zone to zone first marked 
out, to last apparently for all time ? Our boasted 

1 "Ornithological Notes from a South London Suburb, 1S74-T909. _A 
Summary of Thirty-five Years' Observations, with some Facts and Fancies 
concerning Migration." By F. D. Power. Pp. 60-f chart. (Londoiir 
Henry J. .Glaisher, 55-57 Wigmore Street, W.)' Price 3J. 6a'. net. 



November io, 1910] 



NATURE 



45 



Roman roads, Aitken streets and Watling streets are, 
compared to these, thirrgs of yesterday. 

How is the knowledj^e of the chart passed on, with- 
out fault or break, from jjeneration to j^eneration? 
If old birds led the way the matter would be less 
incomprehensible. But, writes Herr Gatke, as " the 
incontestable result " of fifty years' watch in Heligo- 
land : — 

" under normal conditions, the autumn migration is 
initiated by the young birds from about six or eight weeks 
fter leaving the nest. 

" The parents of these young individuals," he adds, " do 
not follow until one or two months later " ! 

How and under what physical conditions are the 
journeys made? 

Mr. Pycraft is a writer to whom ornithologists 
already owe much, and from whom they confidently 
look for more. His views will always carry weight, 
but they may change. Just now he thinks it "hardly 
necessary to attempt to bring rebutting evidence " 
to confute Herr Gatke 's closely-reasoned argument 
that migration flights must be made at speeds which, 

" Through the mists and vapours. 
Amid these earthly damps," 

may well seem incredible ; but, with atmospheric re- 
sistance removed, need seem no longer so. 

The veteran ornithologist's dream of " the existence 
of a special respiratory mechanism, enabling birds 
to remain in strata of the atmosphere beyond the 
reach of all other organised beings," may yet prove 
true. There are things more improbable. Then we 
shall think nothing- of flig-hts at a speed of "a 
hundred and eighty miles an hour." 

" -Airy navies grappling in the central blue " 

Bnot many months ago seemed impossibilities. Now 
they seem uncomfortable probabilities. 

These are a few only of the questions which have 
yet to be answered before we can hope to understand 
what the migration of birds means. The answers are 
not likely to be given in the lifetime of our genera- 
tion, if ever.. It is only by the patient collation of 
trustworthy observations, spread over a long series 
of years, that any general conclusions can be hoped 
for. We may sow, but others must reap. 

A modest and unpretending little volume, latelv 
published. "Ornithological Notes from a South 
London Suburb, 1874-1909," by Mr. F. D. Power, is 
a useful contribution to the general stock of know- 
ledge of a fascinating subject. The first chapters of 
the book, well worth publication though they are, 
will appeal rather to local than to general readers. 

It is interesting to know what birds are to be 
looked for in one's own neighbourhood, and where 
and when thev have been seen there. But there is 
not rnuch to be said of thrushes and tits in Surrey 
or Middlesex which is not to be noted as well in 
other counties. 

There is the usual sad tale to tell — and it is very 
well told — of wild life crowded out by growing human 
populations. 

The lake in Dulwich Park, for instance, was once, 
Mr. Power writes, a favourite resting-place for pass- 
ing ducks. He has seen "on and about this com- 
paratively small sheet of water seven species not 
observed elsewhere in the district. In one day in 
October, 1898, there were five scaups and four 
shovellers on the lake, and the tufted duck nested on 
the island for three or four years." The common 
sandpiper was a regular visitor, and the kingfisher not 
Uncommon. Boats have been placed on the water, 
and " the saddened bird-lover has now little chance of 
even an early morning note of extra interest." 
NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



On Mitcham Common, once a favourite nesting- 
place of many small birds, golf balls have taken the 
place of eggs. 

It is in the "Migration Notes," and more esf)ecially 
in a broadsheet table printed at the end, that the chief 
interest of the volume for ornithologists living beyond 
the "South London Suburb" will be found, and a 
very real interest it is. 

Mr. Power has, during a long succession of autumn 
migrations, kept careful records of the forces and 
direction of the wind and of the size and direction 
of the flifi^^hts passing within sight of his garden. 
In a simple and admirably clear chart, the results of 
his observations are shown for every day, without a 
single gap, for the month of October for twenty- 
five years. 

The rather surprising conclusions to which his 
observations have led him would seem to find at least 
prima facie justification in the facts tabulated. He 
sums up as follows : — 

It used to be supposed, and by many the idea is still 
held, that birds come and go with wind favouring them. 
. . . My observations during these many years have con- 
vinced me that migrants travel best and by choice against 
the wind. . . . My experience is [he is speaking of the 
autumnal migration] that the only visible and sustained 
migration in numbers is invariably in a N.W., VV., or 
S.W. direction almost directly against the wind, even 
when such approaches a stiff breeze, the birds in their 
progress meeting the wind on the right or left breast." 

The italics are Mr. Power's, 

The photograph otf " the garden from which the 
migration notes were taken " does not, certainly, 
suergest exceptionally favourable opportunities, 

His little book, like Alphonse Kerr's delightful 
"Voyage autour de mon jardin," shows how much is 
to be seen by "the observing eve" without going far 
from home. T. Digby Pigott. 

NEW DISCOVERIES AT KNOSSOS. 
/^N September 16 a letter appeared in the Times 
^-^ from Dr. Arthur Evans, describing the results 
of his excavations this year at Knossos. All 
archaeologists will congratulate themselves on the fact 
that Dr. Evans has passed out of the path of politics, 
which he had essaved to tread, back into the more 
peaceful (?) ways of archaeology. For there were 
many more things that we wanted to know about 
Knossos, and one of them has been made clear by 
the work of this season. The great domed pit. the 
tholos, as it seemed to be, over which part of the 
southern quarter of the palace was built, has been 
excavated to the bottom, not without danger to the 
workmen. .\nd it turns out to be a great f/ioZos-like 
reservoir, with a spiral staircase round the inside of 
it, which breaks off, as in other similar cases, at what 
must have been the average water-level. The springs 
that supplied this reservoir are now dry, and no doubt 
were so before the place was entirely filled up. This 
was done, as we know from the character of the 
potsherds found in it, in the first " Middle Minoan " 
age. 

" In other words the reservoir itself belonged to the 
Early Minoan Age, and was filled in at the time of the 
construction of the first Palace of which we have any 
existing remains — the object of the work being to obtain 
a secure foundation for the South Porch and adjoining 
parts of the outer wall. The filling materials themselves 
were probably supplied by the levelling away at this time 
of the summit of the ' Tell ' of Knossos in order to gain 
the area for the Central Court of the Palace." There 
was also a smaller reservoir on another part of the mound, 
" and from the magnitude of the work we may well 
conclude that some earlier predecessor of the Great Palace 
already existed on the site that it has since occupied." 



46 



NATURE 



[NOVEMI^ER lO. 1910 



This is an important conclusion. If we are to judge 
by the reservoir, the early Minoan palace was prob- 
ably a great architectural work. The "Early Minoan 
III." architects were perhaps almost as capable as 
their contemporaries, the Egyptian pyramid-builders 
of the fifth and sixth dynasties. 

In the small "palace" on the hillside west of 
Knossos further discoveries have been made, includ- 
ing a paved way with the rut-marks of ancient Minoan 
chariots. In this part of the site more recent re- 
mains, of classical and Roman date, constantly are 
found above the Minoan level; whereas in the main 
palace, " whether owing to a superstitious awe or to 
other causes, the hilltop . . . was never invaded by 
later habitations." A fine metope of a Doric temple, 
contemporarv with the Parthenon sculptures, was 
found over the \\ estern palace. 

Mr. Doll has proceeded with the work of conserv- 
ing^ the palace buildings, and has run the great stair- 
case another flight higher. Also the nature and com- 
position of the frescoes have been studied by Mr. 
Noel Heaton. 

In the tomb-field of Isopata further important dis- 
coveries have been made, owing to the /?aiV of 
Gregori, Dr. Evans's Cypriote foreman, 
" the most expert tomb-hunter of the Levant. . . . The 
wild, long-rooted fennel, which seeks out by preference 
the spots above ancient cuttings, served him, as often 
before, as a guide, and the result was the discovery of 
six chamber-tombs, some of which for their size and the 
interest attaching to their contents and arrangement sur- 
pass any hitherto known of this class." 

The date of the tombs is the second late Minoan 
period, about 1450 B.C., contemporary with the 
eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. The most remarkable 
point about these tombs is the information as to 
Minoan religion which they giv-e us. In one tomb, 
where "the religious interest culminated," was found 
an arrangement whoUv new, which " rather recalled 
the domestic Etruscan ideas of the after-life than any- 
thing yet known of the Minoan age." The tomb w'as 
made to resemble a house of the living, with stone-cut 
benches, as if for family gatherings. And at the head 
of the sepulchral cist were found the remains of a 
double-axe shrine, with an offering-vessel, in the shape 
of a bull's head, lying close bv. These tomb- 
chambers seem not to have been kept open regularly, 
but were opened for solemn service on the anniversary 
of the death probably. They were rifled of their 
more valuable contents by robbers of the early 
Iron age (geometrical period), who left behind them 
traces by which we can identify their date. 

" It will be seen that the ' Tomb of the Double Axes ' 
has produced more definite evidence regarding the sepul- 
chral cult and religious ideas as to the after-world than 
any grave yet opened in Crete or prehistoric Greece." 

Dr. Evans's comparison of the interior of the tomb 
with that of an Etruscan grave is very apposite and 
suggestive. This Etruscan impression has already 
been given by the great painted sarcophagus found 
by the Italians at Agia Triada, and it is most in- 
teresting to see how- a relationship between the 
Etruscan, Minoan, and Anatolian (^Hittite) cultures in 
matters of religious cult is gradually becoming clearer 
to us. H. R. Hall. 

l^OTES. 

The following is a list of those who have been recom- 
mended by the president and council of the Royal Society 
for election into the council for the year 191 1 at the 
anniversary meeting on November 30 : — President, Sir 
Archibald Geikie, K.C.B. ; treasurer, Mr. Alfred Bray 
Kempe ; secretaries, Sir Joseph Larmor and Dr. John Rose 

NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



Bradford; foreign secretary, Sir William Crookes ; other 
members of the council, Mr. L. Fletcher, Dr. W. H. 
Gaskell, Sir David Gill, K.C.B., Dr. E. H. Griffiths, 
Prof. VV. M. Hicks, Prof. ¥. S. Kipping, Major P. A. 
MacMahon, Mr. H. R. A. Mallock, Dr. C. J. Martin,, 
the Duke of Northumberland, K.G., Prof. W. J. Pope, 
Prof. J. H. Poynting, Prof. E. Rutherford, Mr. A. E. 
Shipley, Mr. M. R. Oidfield Thomas, and Mr. Ilaroirf 
W. T. Wager. 

TiiK Royal Society's medals have this year been adjudi- 
cated by the president and council as follows : — The Coplev 
medal to Sir Francis Galton, F.R.S., for his researches on 
heredity ; the Rumford medal to Prof. Heinrich Rubens, for 
his researches on radiation, especially of long wave-length ^ 
a Royal medal to Prof. Frederick O. Bower, F.R.S., for 
his treatise on the origin of a land flora ; a Royal medal 
to Prof. John Joly, F.R.S., for his researches in physics 
and geology ; the Davy medal to Prof. Theodore W. 
Richards, for his researches on the determination of 
atomic weights ; the Darwin medal to Mr. Roland Trimen, 
F.R.S., for his South African bionomic researches, in large 
part undertaken as the outcome of correspondence with 
Charles Darwin ; the Sylvester medal to Dr. Henry F. 
Baker, F.R.S., for his researches in the theory of Abelian 
functions and for his edition of Sylvester's " Collected 
Works " ; the Hughes medal to Prof. John A. Fleming, 
F.R.S., for his researches in electricity and electrical 
measurements. The King has been graciously pleased to 
approve of the award of the Royal medals. 

.'\t the meeting of the Royal Society of Edinburgh held 
on November 7, the following honorary fellows were i 
elected : — British : Prof. J. G. Frazer, Sir Joseph Larmor, ; 
F.R.S., Dr. Alfred Russel W^allace, O.M., F.R.S. 
Foreign: Prof. Hugo de Vries, Amsterdam; Mr. F. A», 
Forel, Morgos ; Prof. Karl F. von Goebel, Munich ; Prof. 
J. C. Kepteyn, Groningen ; Prof. Elie Metchnikoflf, Paris; 
Prof. A. A. Michelson. F.R.S. , Chicago; Prof. W. Ostwald, 
Leipzig ; Prof. F. W. Putnam, Harvard University ; and^ 
Prof. A. F. L. W'eismann, Freiburg (Baden). 

It is reported from Stockholm that the Academy of j 
Sciences has decided to award this year's Nobel prize for ] 
physics to Prof. J. D. van der Waals, of Amsterdam, for] 
his work on gases and liquids. 

We regret to see the announcement of the death of Mr. 
Theodore Cooke, for many years principal of the Poon» • 
College of Science, at seventy-four years of age. 

A Reuter telegiam from Wellington, New Zealand, 
states that Mr. Priestly, who accompanied Sir Ernest. 
Shackleton, as geologist, on his .Antarctic expedition, is! 
going out with Captain .Scott in the place of Mr. Thomp-i 
son, who is ill. 

The date of the annual exhibition held by the Physical^ 
Society of London, which was fixed some time ago for; 
December 13, has been altered to Tuesday, December 20. 
The exhibition will be open in the afternoon as well as \n\ 
the evening. 

The annual Huxley memorial lecture of the Royal 
Anthropological Institute will be delivered on Tuesday, 
November 22, at the theatre of the Civil Service Com- 
mission, Burlington Gardens, W., by Prof. W. Boyd 
Dawkins, F.R.S., whose subject will be " The .A^rrival of 
Man in Britain in the Pleistocene Age." 

Mrs. Tyndall has presented to the Royal Institution two 
Nicol's prisms, constructed for the lectures on light givea.j 
by Dr. Tyndall in America in 1872, and used by him sub-i 



November io, 1910] 



NATURE 



47 



sequently in his researches and lectures ; also two pieces of 
rocksalt, the remains of a large block given to Dr. Tyndall 
by the King of Wurttemberg in 1867. 

The eighty-fifth Christmas course of juvenile lectures, 
founded at the Royal Institution in 1826 by Michael 
Faraday, will be delivered this year by Prof. Silvanus P. 
Thompson, F.R.S., his subject being " Sound, Musical and 
Non-musical : a Course of Experimental Acoustics." 

The General Purposes Committee of the Birmingham 
City Council has recommended to the council that an 
invitation be given to the British Association to meet in 
that cit>: in 1913. The council will cooperate with the 
I niversity and other public institutions in making the 
• cessarj- arrangements. 

The death is announced of Dr. Carl S. N. Hallberg, 
professor of pharmacy in the Chicago College of Pharmacy 
in connection with the University of Illinois. He was 
born in Sweden in 1856, and emigrated to America when 
a lad. He organised in 1885, and subsequently directed, 
the National Institute of Pharmacy. Since 1906 he had 
edited the Bulletin of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association. 

The Simon Newcomb library, which has been presented 
to the New York Cit\- College by Mr. John Claflin, has 
just been classified and catalogued. It is a collection of 
4000 volumes and 6000 pamphlets, and includes many 
mathematical and astronomical publications of unusual 
interest. Among them may be mentioned sn early edition 
of Euclid's Elements, a Pacioli of 1494, the 15 15 edition of 
the Almagest of Ptolemy, and the first book ever published 
on sun-spots. 

Mr. G. M. Meyer sends us an extract from the Madrid 
weekly periodical Suevo Mundo of October 6 in which a 
Spanish case of eugenic policy is described. It appears 
that an illustrious Salamancan, Don Federico Gomez- 
Arias, founded an annual prize of 1000 pesetas, which is 
awarded every year to a young woman of Salamanca from 
fifteen to twenty-three years of age, of good physical con- 
stitution, attractive, and well conducted, who must have 
received at least an elementary education and be on the 
point of being married to a man of similar physical and 
moral condition and of suitable age. 

By the generosity of Sir Julius Wernher, who recently 
placed a sum of lo.oooZ. at the disposal of the committee 
for the purpose, a much needed extension of the department 
of metallurgy of the National Physical Laboratory has now 
been commenced. The department has been accommodated 
in scattered rooms in Bushy House, which, in consequence 
of the increase and importance of the work, have become 
quite inadequate. Plans have been prepared in consultation 
with Dr. Rosenhain, the superintendent of the department, 
and the contract has been let to Messrs. Dick, Kerr and 
Co., who have already made good progress with the 
foundations. 

The programme for the isyth session of the Royal 
Society of Arts is being issued to the members. There 
will be five ordinary meetings before Christmas, at the 
first of which the usual address will be given by the 
chairman of the council. Sir John Cameron Lamb. The 
papers announced for the other four meetings are by Sir 
Henry H. Cunynghame, K.C.B., " Detecting Fire- 
damp " ; Mr. C. P. Ogilvie, "Argentina"; Dr. Vaughan 
Cornish, "The Panama Canal"; and Mr. Reginald 
Smith, " Roman London." There will also be a meet- 
ing of the Colonial Section, at which Mr. A. Montgomery 
will read a paper on " Mining in Western Australia," 
NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



and one of the Indian Section to be occupied by a paper 
by Mr. R. F. Chisholm, on " The Taj Mahal." On the 
four Mondays before Christmas Mr. C. R. Darling is tOj. 
give a course of Cantor lectures on " Industrial Pyro- 
metry," There is also a ver\- full list of papers and 
lectures for the part of the session after Christmas. 

A QfARTERLV periodical entitled the Botanical Journal 
is issued as the official organ of the Royal Botanic Society 
of London. The first number contains an account of the 
history of the society since 1839, the date of the Royal 
Charter, in which are set forth the objects which have 
been served in that period. In recent years progress has 
been impeded by a lack of sufficient financial support, and 
consequent increase of debt, but the latest report shows 
that in some measure, at least, this condition is iheing 
remedied. The number of Fellows now is 1834. as com- 
pared with 1570 last year. The debenture debt is 14,714/., 
as compared with 24,248/., and the current liabilities 572/. 
instead of 3050/. Prof. A. J. Ewart, of Melbourne 
University, has an article on "The Flora of Victoria," 
and other subjects treated upon include " Our Native 
Lawns," " The Melbourne Botanic Gardens," " Fruit- 
growing in Queensland," and " Art in the Garden." There 
are notes upon botanical questions of interest and recently 
issued books. Two plates in colour from paintings by Miss 
Bertha Maguire prettily illustrate chr}santhemums, but 
their value is purely decorative, for they shed no light on 
the evolution of the flower, as would appear to be the case 
from the title. Mr. Butler's colour photographs are 
welcome, because thej- illustrate interesting plants in 
the society's collection. The number is not entirely free 
from the blemishes common to first issues : especially is 
this the case in the awkwardness of some of the titles to 
the subject-matter. The journal is issued by Messrs. .Page 
and Pratt, and the price is one shilling. 

The Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital for October 
(xxi.. No. 235) contains an appreciation of the life and 
work of Lord Lister, by Mr. Charles Judd. with biblio- 
graphv ; an historical inquiry on the decussation of the 
pyramids (nerve tracts in the brain), by Dr. Thomas ; and 
an historical sketch of the practice of blood-letting, by 
Dr. Joseph Smith. Dr. Thomas ascribes the first definite 
observation of the crossing in the medulla of the great 
motor tracts passing from the brain to the spinal cord to 
Francois Pourfour du Petit (1664-1741). The practice of 
blood-letting or " bleeding " is at least two thousand years 
old, and is mentioned by the earliest medical writers. 

Under the provisions of the Indian Museum .\ct of 
1910, the ethnological and art collections have been 
separated from those of economic products, and in his last 
report of the museum as originally constituted, the 
curator, Mr. I. H. Burkill, has given a useful account of 
its past history and present condition. The museum was 
first started by the Asiatic Society- in 1814, the first donor 
being the Countess of Loudoun. The collections have 
passed through many vicissitudes, due to the absence of 
suitable accommodation. L'nder the present scheme of 
reorganisation they have at last been placed upon a satis- 
factory footing. The ethnological gallery now contains 
about 11,000 exhibits, but it still lacks a proper descrip- 
tive catalogue, which can be prepared only by a com- 
petent ethnologist. The progress of the art series has 
been stimulated by the patronage of Lord Curzon, who 
provided an annual State grant of about 400/. for the 
purchase of specimens. Most of the older economical 
exhibits have perished, but these are being gradually re- 
placed. It is satisfactory to learn that these important 



48 



NATURE 



[iNoVEMBER lO, 1910 



collections are now being arranged in suitable galleries, 
and it only remains for the Government of India to provide 
a series of descriptive catalogues prepared by competent 
experts, which will render the exhibits available for study 
by students of art, anthropology, and the exonomic 
sciences in Europe. 

Part 8 of vol. v. of the Annals of the South African 
Museum contains five articles on the entomology of 
the country. Among these, Mr. E. Meyrick continues his 
description of new Microlepidoptera, while Messrs. A. 
Raffray and L. B. Billecoq treat, in separate communica- 
tions, of two groups of Coleoptera. 

To the Journal of Economic Biology for October 
Messrs. Collinge and Shoebotham contribute a long article 
on the Apterygota (Thysanura and Collembola) of Hert- 
fordshire, to which they have devoted special study. 
Before they commenced there appear to have been 
no records of these minute insects from the " county of 
Hertfordshire," but the authors are how enabled to 
enumerate four species of Thysanura and sixty-nine of 
Collembola. 

To the Anales of the National Museum of Buenos 
Aires, ser. 3, vol. xiii., p. 317, Dr. F. Ameghino con- 
tributes a note on certain teeth from a cavern in Cuba, 
which are referred to a large monkey the dental formula 
of which is identical with that of the Cebidae, but the 
cheek-teeth of which are stated to approximate to those of 
Old World monkeys and man. For this monkey the 
new generic and specific name of Monianeia antropo- 
morpha is proposed. It is noteworthy that no wild 
monkeys are found in Cuba at the present day. 

In the October issue of the Journal of Economic Biology 
Prof. Hickson discusses the place of economic zoology in 
a modern university, and the best way of training students 
in that branch of science. After pointing out that there is 
a growing demand for the services of men capable of deal- 
ing with the problems of economic biology in a practical 
manner, the author observes that the qualifications usually 
associated with what is termed " a good field-entomo- 
logist " will not suffice, and that a man who aspires to 
a post of this nature must have a working acquaintance 
with parasitism, parthenogenesis, heredity, and embry- 
ology ; while he should possess special knowledge of the 
Protozoa, parasitic worms, land and fresh-water snails, 
and, particularly, tracheate arthropods. Such a course 
of study " could be given in the zoological departments 
of the principal universities of our country without very 
much additional equipment or a very material addition to 
the numbers of the teaching staff. But in order that the 
student may have the opportunity of getting some train- 
ing in the recognition of insect pests in the field, the 
work of the laboratory should be supplemented by some 
systematic teaching in connection with an institution of 
the nature of an agricultural college, in which access to 
growing crops may be facilitated." 

The question of the systematic position and feeding- 
habits of the African Jurassic genus Tritylodon, and its 
northern aHies Plagiaulax and Ptilodus, is reopened by 
Dr. R. Broom in the October issue of the Proceedings of 
the Zoological Society. In the first place, the author has 
no doubt as to Tritylodon being a mammal, while as the 
only known specimen is from the Stormberg beds, it must 
be regarded as of Lower Jurassic, and not Triassic, age. 
As regards the affinities of the three genera. Dr. Broom 
refuses to admit that Mr. Gidley is justified in including 
them among the diprotodont marsupials, remarking that 

NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



the dentition, both structurally and numerically, is of a 
different type, while the presence of a well-developed septo- 
maxillary in the African genus suggests monotreme rather 
than marsupial affinities. It is also pointed out that there 
is a considerable probability of diprotodonts having 
originated in Australia. " In the present state of our 
knowledge it seems wisest to leave the Multituberculata 
as a distinct independent group with no very near affinities 
with the living monotremes, marsupials, or eutherians." 
As regards the food of these mammals, the author points 
out that fruits were non-existent in Jurassic times, while if, 
as he considers probable, Tritylodon and its relatives were 
carnivorous, they must have fed mainly on reptiles, which 
would require a type of dentition different from that of 
mammal-eating species. 

A NOTE on a fungal disease of the blue pine, Pinus 
exceha, reported from the Simla forestry division, is con- 
tributed to the Indian Forester (October) by the assistant 
tD the imperial mycologist at Pusa. The chief object of 
the note is to establish the observation of infection pro- 
ceeding from diseased to healthy roots, for which good 
evidence is adduced. The fungus is reported to be 
Tfametes pini, for which such marked fungal development 
in the root, and infection from root to root, has apparently 
not been previously recorded. 

Messrs. Flatters, Milborne and McKechnie, of Long- 
sight, Manchester, are issuing a quarterly publication of 
fifteen pages entitled the Micrologist. Part ii., issued 
October i, contains two excellent articles, one on mount- 
ing microscopical objects in fluid media in cells, the other 
(by Mr. H. E. Hurrell) on the polyzoa and the methods 
of collecting and mounting them. It is well printed and 
illustrated, and contains a beautiful plate of five repro- 
ductions of photomicrographs of starch, volvox, hydra, &c. 

A USEFUL list of pteridophyta for the Transvaal province 
is communicated by Mr. J. Burtt-Davy to the South 
African Journal of Science (October) on behalf of the late 
Mr. V. G. Crawley and himself. To make the list 
serviceable to teachers and students, brief diagnoses are 
supplied for the classes and genera, while analytical keys 
and localities are given for the species. Among the true 
ferns, Cyathea Dregei and Mohria caffrorum are two re- 
markable common species ; Oleandra articulata, Todea 
barbara, and Marattia fraxinea are said to be rare. With 
respect to the number of species, Asplenium, Pellaea, and 
Gymnogramme are conspicuous genera. 

Mr. W. N. Lubimenko publishes in the botanical section 
(series iii., parts i.-ii.) of Travaux de la Societi des 
Naturalistes de St. Pitersbourg a long paper (in Russian) 
in which he presents the results of experiments directed 
towards ascertaining the relationship that exists between 
the amount of chlorophyll present in a leaf and the energy 
of photosynthesis. In the summary it is stated that the 
minimum intensity of light required to start photosynthesis 
depends on the amount of chlorophyll, being less as the 
amount of chlorophyll is greater ; also that as the amount 
of chlorophyll increases the energy of photosynthesis 
increases up to a maximum, and then decreases. It is 
further suggested that certain experiments indicate that 
photosynthesis proceeds in two stages ; first, CO, is 
decomposed and O is liberated, then certain photochemical 
reactions lead to the transport and incorporation of organic 
material. 

A correspondent sends us examples of a monstrous 
carnation in which the inflorescences have produced no 
true flowers, but a superabundance of bracts. This 



November io, 1910] 



NATURE 



49 



peculiarity in carnations and certain species of Dianthus 
was observed many years ago (see " Vegetable Terato- 
togy." P- 37'' **>' ^*- ^- ^'asters). An example is illus- 
trated in the Botanical Magazine, Tab. 1622, in which 
' one bud has developed into a perfect double flower, and 
several others are exactly similar to those sent by our 
correspondent. Earlier than this, Linnaeus had met with 
a similar malformation, and given it the name of 
imbricatus. The distorted flower buds so nearly resemble 
ears of wheat that they are known as " wheat ear " 
carnations. It is not known what causes the suppression 
of the other parts of the flower and the increase in the 
number of bracts, but Masters pointed out that the con- 
dition is met with frequently in a species of Moesa, in 
Piantago major, and in Gentiana Amarella. 

Hitherto agricultural chemists have concentrated atten- 
tion mainly on those constituents of the soil that are 
essential to the production of plant food, but recently 
attempts have been made to ascertain the effect of the 
non-essential or the rarer constituents. The investigations 
at Woburn are well known. Mr. Failyer, of the United 
States Department of Agriculture Bureau of Soils, has 
published (Bulletin 72) a number of analyses showing that 
barium is present in most soils in the United States, 
especially in soils derived from rocks containing barite 
deposits or from the Rocky Mountains. The quantity 
sometimes rose near to o-i per cent. Felspar is also 
a source of barium. It appears probable that the soil 
moisture, which plays a part in the nutrition of plants, 
contains barium salts, and cases are on record where 
barium has occurred in the plant ash. Its presence there 
would be injurious to animals, and may perhaps be the 
f-.-iuse of some of the unexpected results occasionally pro- 
.-ed by vegetation. 

M. Aug. Chevalier, in a letter on his explorations in 
Upper Dahomey, published in the last number of La 
Geographic (October 15), mentions a curious phenomenon 
which he observed with respect to the Ou6me River. In 
its middle course, last May, he found during his stay of 
fifteen days that the stream ran continuously in a reversed 
direction, toward the head of the river. The gradient of 
Its bed in this part is very small, and the upper reaches 
are completely dry during several months of the year, as 
13 the case with most of the rivers of the central African 
plateau. The rainy season sets in earlier in the down- 
stream part of the country and fills the empty channel, 
hich then runs for a time both ways until equilibrium 
established, after which the normal direction of flow 
:i maintained. Similar abnormalities have been previously 
observed in some of the water-channels of the Kalahari 
'^sert in south-central Africa. 

In* Nature of October 20 (p. 503) reference was made 

to an article in the Times on the Norwegian expedition to 

Spitsbergen, which contained a somewhat detailed account 

of the discovery of a volcano of recent age in a branch of 

Wood Bay. It appears, however, that there is still some 

doubt about the age of the volcanic phenomena. The 

latest number of La Geographie (xxii.. No. 4, October 15) 

includes a note on the results of the expedition by M. 

Charles Rabot, based on an article in the Christiania 

''tenpost, sent to him by Captain Isachsen, the leader of 

•■- expedition, as the only official communication which 

13 yet been published. On this authority the following 

"ference is made in La Geographie to the discovery : — 

"Finally, round a branch of Wood Bay, Mr. Hoel [one 

of the geologists] has made the very unexpected discovery 

of an ancient volcanic development (appareil). Contrary to 

what has been announced from Spitsbergen correspondence 

NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



published in Christiania journals, it does not date the actual 
epoch, and for a long time has not been the seat of 
manifestations. At present, upon the shores of Bock Bay 
the internal activity manifests itself only by the presence 
of thermal springs, of which the temperature does not 
exceed 28-5°." The scepticism respecting the earlier news- 
paper accounts of the volcano, alluded to in our previous 
note, was therefore not altogether unjustified. The full 
particulars of the discovery will be examined with keen 
interest by geologists and geographers. 

The Bureau of Science, Department of the Interior, 
Manilla, has issued the annual report on the mineral 
resources of the Philippine Islands for the year 1909. It 
is thoroughly characteristic of American methods that the 
United States Government should have straightway set 
about fostering the development of the mineral industrj- 
of their first colony. The success that has attended this 
attempt is clearly enough indicated in the present report. 
The main product up to the present has been gold, the 
output of which for the year 1909 is valued at about 
49,600/. ; it shows an increase of 14 per cent, over that 
of 1908, in which year the output was about three times 
that of the year previous. Even more important from the 
point of view of general industrial development and civilisa- 
tion is the increase in the production of coal ; the total 
quantity raised in 1909 was 30,336 tons, an increase of 
155 per cent, over the previous year, and more than 
seven times as great as the production in 1907. The 
entire production now comes from two mines on the island 
of Batan, one at the extreme east and the other at the 
extreme west of the island. The seams now worked are 
from 3 feet 4 inches to 5 feet 8 inches in thickness. The 
coal appears to be of Tertiary age ; it is classed as sub- 
bituminous, is low in ash, and has given satisfactory 
results in raising steam. From the scientific point of view 
the chief interest of the report centres in a very brief sketch 
of the geology and geological history of the Philippine 
Islands. 

The Meteorological Committee has issued a useful con- 
tribution to the study of the north-east and south-east 
trade winds of the Atlantic Ocean (Publication No. 203), 
comprising (i) an investigation by Commander Hepworth 
with the view of tracing any effect of the variations ^of 
those winds upon the temperature of the water in the 
North .Atlantic ; (2) a risumi of the meteorological data 
available for St. Helena, by Mr. J. S. Dines ; and (3) a 
calculation, by Mr. E. Gold, of the relation between the 
periodic variations of wind velocity and of atmospheric 
pressure, with the application of the general theorem to 
the case of St. Helena. In Nature of December 21, 1905, 
Dr. Shaw directed attention to an apparent connection 
between the circulation of the atmosphere, as represented 
by the south-east trade wind, and the meteorological con- 
sequences in other parts of the world, and the present 
work may be considered as an attempt to identify that 
connection, to trace the links in the chain of cause and 
effect, and also to supply information available for meteor- 
ologists interested in the subject. In a very lucid preface 
summarising some of the results Dr. Shaw points out 
that the marine discussion of the south-east trade wind 
shows hardly any seasonal variation (possibly due to the 
peculiarities of the Beaufort wind-scale), while the results 
for the north-east trade show a marked variation very 
nearly complementary to that at St. Helena, where the 
anemometer record exhibits a regular mean variation 
(irrespective of direction) between about 14 miles per hour 
in May and 21 miles per hour in September. Dr. Shaw 
points out that Mr. Gold's solution, on dynamical prin- 



50 



NATURE 



[NOVEMDER lO, 19 lO 



.iples, of the origin of the diurnal variations of the trade 
wind over the South Atlantic gives results which are 
hopeful, but not final. 

The well-known observatory on Mount Vesuvius was 
founded in the days of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, and 
was taken over by the Government at the time of the 
unification of Italy. The work that it has done under 
the direction of Prof. Palmieri, and latterly Matteucci, is 
well known; but in a plea put forward in the Atii dei 
Lined, xix., 3. Dr. Carlo dei Stefani states that the 
institution has been hampered by the want of a more sub- 
stantial subsidy from the State, and he further directs 
attention to the desirability of establishing a much more 
extensive institution for the study of Vesuvius in all its 
aspects. It is pointed out that since the observatory was 
founded eveiy branch of science has advanced enormously, 
that the study of volcanoes plays an important part in 
geology and geophysics, and that Vesuvius, from its 
situation as well as from our intimate knowledge of its 
past history, offers exceptional facilities for systematic 
study. In such an institution the departments of geology, 
mineralogy, chemistry, and physics should all be repre- 
sented on the staff. 

The geometry of the triangle occupies a somewhat 
unique position in mathematics, leading as it does to a 
large number of results which appear to be capable of 
being added to almost without limit, which do not require 
the employment of advanced methods for their study, and 
have the further interesting peculiarity — perhaps not 
altogether a disadvantage — that they can be studied with- 
out afterthoughts as to probable utilitarian applications. 
We have received two papers on this subject. One is by 
Mr. W. Gallatly (London : Francis Hodgson, price 
2S. 6d.), dealing with Lemoine and Brocard points, 
angular and tripolar coordinates, pedal and antipedal 
triangles, the medial triangle, Simson's line, the ortho- 
pole, and orthogonal projection. The second, by Mr. 
W. H. Salmon, is a note reprinted from the Quarterly 
Journal of Pure and Applied Mathen^atics, dealing with 
the Omega and Omega-prime lines and the y line. These 
lines are defined by the property that if O be any point 
in the plane of a triangle, and the lines OA, OB, OC be 
rotated through a constant angle, they will, for certain 
angles of rotation, meet the sides taken in order in three 
points lying on a straight line, these lines being the lines 
in question. 

Prof. L. Palazzo has sent us a copy of his " Misure 
Magnetiche fatte in Sardegna nel 1892," extracted from 
vol. xxiv. of the Annali of the Italian Meteorological 
Service. This volume belongs to the year 1902, but the 
chronological order has not been observed in the publica- 
tions of the Italian Meteorological Service — some of which 
are much in arrears — so that an account is only now 
published of the magnetic survey of Sardinia made by 
Prof. Palazzo in 1892. Sixteen stations were occupied, the 
observations at which are described in minute detail, the 
results being embodied in a chart. No really large local 
disturbances were detected, but some minor disturbances 
were noticed, especially towards the north-west of the 
island. Besides a full description of the observational 
methods and reductions, there are descriptions, with plates, 
of apparatus for determining the temperature and induc- 
tion coefficients of collimator magnets, with which very 
consistent results seem to have been obtained. 

In the May number of the International Bulletin of the 
Academy of Sciences of Cracow Prof. Smoluchowski, of 
the University of Lemberg, gives an account of some 

NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



I measurements he has recently made of the heat Qonduqtlv 

ties of fine powders, and the influence of the size of the 
, grains and the state of the gas between them on the con- 
i ductivity. His apparatus is in principle identical with 
I that used by Kundt and Warburg in their measurements 
of the heat conductivities of gases. It consists of a 
thermometer the bulb of which is surrounded by a tube 
nearly concentric with it, the space between the bulb and 
1 tube being filled with the powder and connected to a 
Gaede pump, so that it can be filled with a gas or 
I evacuated. Whatever the nature of the powder, the con- 
ductivity through the gas between the grains is found to 
; diminish rapidly as the pressure of the gas is reduced, 
I and for granular, as distinguished from spongy, powders 
1 its dependence on the pressure may be calculated by the 
j aid of the kinetic theory of gases if the surface resi- 
ahce, which depends on the mean free path of the mol 
cules of the gas, is taken into account at the low 
pressures. 

Copies have reached us of the volumes of magnftic data 
recorded during 1905 and 1906 at the observatories of the 
U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. There are five of these 
observatories, viz. at Cheltenham, Baldwin, Sitka, Hono- 
lulu, and Vieques (Porto Rico). The Cheltenham volume 
is dated 1909, the others 1910. Thus the delay in publi- 
cation seems hardly accounted for by the inclusion of two 
.years' data in the same volume. The procedure followed 
and the mode of presenting the data are closely alike at 
all the stations. Full particulars are given of all th" 
hourly readings and of the daily maxima and minima, but 
only the ten quietest days of each month are employed 
for deducing the diurnal inequalities. Each volume con- 
tains a table of the principal magnetic disturbances, and 
some of the curves showing them are reproduced on a 
reduced scale. Except at Cheltenham, the times shown on 
the curves are G.M.T., thus facilitating intercomparison. 
but the times of commencement, &c., given in the text 
are in local mean time. The stations are now all pro- 
vided with a complete outfit of Eschenhagen magnet< 
graphs, including vertical force instruments. The troubl' 
experienced — discontinuities in the trace, changes of seal- 
value, drift of trace across the sheet, and general instabiliiv 
— are described in some detail, and though most prominent 
in the vertical force instruments, seem by no means con- 
fined to them. Even the declination instrument gave 
serious trouble at Baldwin, leading to considerable loss of 
trace. One cannot but experience a doubt whether ;i 
more stable and less sensitive type of instrument would 
not have been preferable, especially at the less accessible' 
stations. In addition to other troubles, Sitka suffered 
from an outbreak of dry rot, which necessitated a lari^ 
amount of internal structural alteration in the magnet* 
graph room. This led, however, practically to no loss < : 
trace, the magnetographs being accommodated during th' 
alterations in a temjxirary building. In addition to mac- 
netic data, there are particulars of the seismic movement -^ 
recorded by seismographs, mostly of the Bosch-Omori 
pattern. 

A LIST of observing stations and particulars of th- 
apparatus employed in connection with the Michael Sais 
North Atlantic Deep Sea Expedition, 1910, has just been 
received. An article by Dr. Johan Hjort describing th- 
work of the expedition is given in another part of th- 
present issue. 

Messrs. Henry Sotheran and Co., 140 Strand and 
43 Piccadilly, London, have issued a new classified cata- 
logue (No. 709) of second-hand books on geology, 



November lo, 1910] 



NATURE 



1 



mineralogy, mining, and metallurgy, including the library 
of the late Prof. Hilary Bauerman, with a supplement of 
sets of periodicals and publications of the learned societies. 

The Cambridge University Press has undertaken the 
publication of a work entitled " Principia Mathematica," 
bv Dr. A. N. Whitehead, F.R.S., and the Hon. B. 
Russell, F.R.S. ; the aim of the work is to show the 
dependence of mathematics upon logic by deducing from 
purely logical premises the elementary propositions of 
various branches of mathematics. The first volume, on 
mathematical logic and prolegomena to cardinal arith- 
metic, will be published very shortly. The second volume, 
concerning the principles of arithmetic, is in the press. 
In the third volume the authors have dealt with measure- 
ment and the principles of geometry. 

We have received the first part of vol. xviii. of the 
Journal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall. The pro- 
ceedings at the annual and spring meetings of 1909 are 
given at length. The annual excursion of 1909 is 
described, and the address of the president. Dr. Richard 
Pearce, at the spring meeting in 1909 is printed in exienso. 
Among papers read at the meetings during 1909 may be 
mentioned :— King Arthur's Hall on Bodmin Moor and 
some Irish circles, by Mr. A. L. Lewis ; the fauna of St. 
Ives Bay for 1908, by Mr. R. Vallentin ; and the inverte- 
brate fauna of Cornwall — Hymenc^tera Entomophaga and 
Hymenoptera Aculeata, by Mr. W. A. Rollaston. The 
volume also contains meteorological tables for Cornwall 
for 1909. 



OVR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMX. 

Fireball ox November 2. — A brilliant fireball was 
observed on Wednesday, November 2, 7.46 p.m. It 
passed from east to west over the English Channel, and 
fell from heights of 84 to 26 miles. As seen from Corn- 
wall and from the north of France, as well as from ships 
in the Channel, the meteor was a splendid object, yield- 
ing a brilliant light, as though the moon had broken out 
from clouds. The stream of aerolites from which the 
phenomenon was directed has its radiant point in .\ries, 
and further observations are desirable. 

Rotation of the Moon.— A correspondent has been 
puzzled by the perennial perplexity of non-mathematicians 
as to how the moon can be said to rotate when she always 
presents the same face to the earth. The answer, of 
course, is that as we prove the rotation of the earth by 
the fact that any meridian, such as that of Greenwich, 
completes its circuit with respect to any fixed star in the 
course of a sidereal day, so also the similar consideration 
shows that the moon rotates on her axis in 275 days, 
during which time she also completes her circuit about the 
earth with respect to the stars. 

The moon's equator is not quite circular, since her 
figure may be considered as possessing a solidified tidal 
inequality of shape. Laplace examined the mechanical 
results of this condition of affairs, and showed that the 
moon would oscillate slightly about a mean position 
relatively to the earth. This is called the physical libra- 
t'lon of the moon, and in consequence of its existence we 
see slightly more than half of the moon's surface. 

It is probable that the moon once rotated more rapidlv 
on her axis, and that her rotation was reduced by tidal 
friction to its present magnitude. The transition from a 
slow rotation to a libration would present a problem of 
consideiable mathematical difficulty. We can, however, 
see what would be the several stages through which the 
changes would pass. There would first be unequal speed 
in the several parts of the rotation ; this inequality would 
increase until at two moments in one rotation that rota- 
tion would nearly cease ; then there would occur an actual 

NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



stoppage, and the direction of motion would reverse itself 
for half a rotation, constituting a very large libration ; 
finally, the amplitude of libration would diminish • ■ '- 
actual insignificant magnitude. 

Ei'HEMERis FOR H ALLEY 's CoMET. — Dr. Ebell publishes 
a continuation of his ephemeris for Halley's comet in 
No. 4450 of the Astrononiische Nachrichleti. The 
ephemeris covers, in four-day steps, the period November 5 
to December 31, and shows that the comet is now travel- 
ling in a south-westerly direction through Corvus ; its 
magnitude is about 15-5. 

Selenium Photometer Measures of the Brightness of 
H.ALi.Ev's Co-met. — Observing at the Illinois University 
Observatory, Mr. Joel Stebbins measured the brightness of 
Halley's comet with his selenium photometer on fifteen 
occasions during May, and now publishes the results ir» 
No. 2, vol. xxxii., of the Asfrophysical Journal. The 
selenium cell was attached to the 12-inch refractor, and, 
through a diaphragm, light from a circle 7 minutes of 
arc in diameter was admitted to it ; Mr. Stebbins suggests 
that eye-estimates of the comet's brightness never included 
a larger area. The cell is known to be especially sensitive 
near the red end of the spectrum, and it is supposed that, 
unless the spectrum of the comet was very peculiar, the 
systematic error of these observations would be less than 
visual comparisons of a luminous surface with a point 
source of light, such as a star ; extra-focal images of stars 
were used in the comparison, and in the morning observa- 
tions the brightness of the sky was measured and taken 
into account in adopting final values for the comet's 
brightness. The range of the latter is shown by the 
following values, given in magnitudes: — May 3, 2-0; 
May II, 06 ; June i, 36. The second value, o-6. is 
vitiated by bad observing conditions, but Mr. Stebbins 
states that the comet became brighter than the first magni- 
tude, although it never reached magnitude 0-0. 

The Apparent Diameter of Jupiter. — An earlier dis- 
cussion of the observations of an occultation by Jupiter, 
made at the Z6-se Observatory on May 21. 1908, led to the 
conclusion that the apparent diameter of the planet, as 
generally adopted, should be diminished ; the occulted star 
was BD. + iq° 2095. 

In No. 4450 of the Astrononiische Xachrichten Father 
Chevalier, director of the Z6-sfe Observatory, suggests that 
the observational results were not sufficiently certain to 
have such an important conclusion based upon them. 

Attempting to determine more trustworthy data, he 
measured a photograph of the planet taken on Slay 19, and 
determined the corrections to the tabular place. Then 
applying these differences he found the jxjsition for May 21. 
This gave the position-angle of the star as 140° 23' and 
its distance from the centre of Jupiter as 18-7''. a value 
greater than the semi-diameter of the planet. It is difficult 
to reconcile this result with the data for the occultation, 
and F"ather Chevalier urges that the observations made at 
other observatories should be closely examined and dis- 
cussed from this point of view. .\ number of discussions 
such as he now publishes would possibly elucidate the 
matter 

Curved Photographic Plates. — In No. 161 of the 
Harvard College Observatory Circulars Prof. E. C. 
Pickering describes some interesting experiments made for 
ascertaining the practical efficiency of curved plates in 
celestial photography. 

\\'ith the 16-inch Metcalf telescope employed, the differ- 
ence in focus between the edge and the centre of the plate 
is only 08 mm., but the experiments show that the bend- 
fng of the plates to the focal curve is advantageous, while 
there is little likelihood of counterbalancing disadvantages. 

Several methods were tried, such as holding the ordinary 
photographic plate against a properly curved concave 
surface by means of mucilage, &c., but it was found 
that the most successful method was to have the space 
between the plate air-tight, and then to exhaust it by 
means of a pump. Reproductions of actual photographs 
j illustrate the gain in definition over the whole plate. 



5' 



NATURE 



[November lo, 1910 



TH£ -MICHAEL SARS'' NORTH ATLANTIC 
DEEP-SEA EXPEDITION, 1910. 

TN the month of August last year, Sir John Murray 
approached me with the liberal offer of defraying the 
expenses of a deep-sea expedition to the Atlantic Ocean, 
provided the Norwegian Government were willing to lend 
their research-vessel, Michael Sars, for the purpose. Sir 
John Murray wished lo ascertain whether the appliances 
and instruments used by the Michael Sars for her work in 
the Norwegian Seas would yield new information in the 
Atlantic. It was, besides, considered desirable to examine 
parts of the Atlantic that had previously been only very 
slightly explored. The Norwegian Government at once 
signified its willingness to accept this proposal, and 1 
accordingly employed the past winter in making prepara- 
tions for the expedition, assisted by the captain of the 
vessel, Mr. Thor Iversen, Prof. H. H. Gran, who agreed 
to lead the investigation of phytoplankton, and Mr. Helland 
Hansen, who took charge of the hydrographical researches. 
For my own part, I decided to cooperate with Mr. E. 
Koefoed, and to devote myself especially to zooplankton and 
the study of the bottom-fauna. 

The expedition left Bergen at the end of March, arrived 
at Plymouth — where it was joined by 
Sir .John Murray — and then followed 
the coasts of Europe and Africa down 
to Cape Bogador, carrying out special 
investigations in the Bay of Biscay, the 
Bay of Cadiz, and the waters between 
the Canary Islands and .'Africa — thirty- 
four stations in all. It next undertook 
■a section into the Sargasso Sea, and 
after touching at the Azores, proceeded 
right across the Atlantic to St. John's, 
Newfoundland (forty stations). From 
there a section was taken to the south 
coast of Ireland (twenty-two stations), 
and, finally, we concluded our investiga- 
tions bv examining the waters between 
Scotland and Rockall and between 
Scotland and the Faroes — that is to 
say, north and south of the Wyville 
Thomson ridge — so as to study the in- 
fluence exerted by the Atlantic Ocean 
upon the Norwegian Sea. The route 
of the expedition will be seen on the 
accompanying sketch (Fig. i). 

During this cruise we endeavoured, 
■so far as time permitted, to undertake 
hydrographical and plankton investiga- 
tions simultaneously, and we further 
carried out a considerable number of 
hauls with the trawl. 

The large number of observations 
and specimens thus secured can, natur- 
ally, not be fittingly described before 
being systematically studied, and it is 
accordingly only possible as yet to furnish mformation 
regarding their nature and extent. 

Hydrographical Investigations. 

Hydrographical investigations have been carried out at 
about 110 stations. The temperature readings were taken 
with Richter's reversing thermometer and Nansen's thermo- 
meter, while the water-samples were collected by means of 
Ekman's water-bottle and the Petterson-Nansen isolated 
■water-bottle. At most of the stations the temperatures 
have been recorded by two thermometers simultaneously at 
each depth, no fewer than 519 simultaneous readings being 
taken with the same two thermometers. The corrected 
temperatures gave an average difference of o"oi° Centi- 
grade. 

The difference between the two thermometers was : — 

In 168 cases o'oo° 

In 231 , o'oi° 

In 84 o-o2° 

In 36 ,, o'o3° or over. 

A fair number of simultaneous observations have been 
made with the reversing thermometer and Nansen's thermo- 

NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



meter in the isolated water-bottle, with the view <> 
observing the adiabatic effect by means of the difference i 
pressure. Besides the temperature readings, we have tak< 
water-samples from all depths to determine the salinity ai 
specific gravity, and we have endeavoured to get a 
exactitude in the determinations of salinity of o'oi-oo2 p' 
mille, and in the density in situ an exactitude of 1-2 ; 
the fifth place of decimals. On these lines the investigatioi 
have been carried out along the whole route of the cxped 
tion. We have, further, procured about 100 large water 
samples from different stations and depths, for the purpo^ 
of determining the quantitative occurrence of nitrogenou.-, 
substances, particularly ammonia. 

The determinations from the deepest layers (down to 4950 
metres) have given very uniform results, with a tempera- 
ture of 248 C. It has been found that there is a very faint 
increase of temperature near the bottom at great depths, 
due, possibly, to the conduction of heat from the interior of 
the earth or a radium effect. In the upper layers conditions 
have varied considerably at times, especially in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Gulf Stream area and in the western 
portion of the North Atlantic. Here our investigations 
furnish apparently a number of new and interesting 
results, which, however, it is impossible to do more than 




Fig. I. 

allude to before the water-samples have been thoroughly 
examined. 

Surface temperatures have been recorded every hour 
during nearly the whole cruise, while every two hours a 
water-sample has been taken from the surface with par- 
ticulars of the different meteorological conditions (wind, 
barometer, temperature of the air, humidity, and cloudi- 
ness). Altogether we have about 2500 water-samples and 
about 3000 temperature readings. 

Several series of direct-current measurements have been 
made with Ekman's propeller current measurer. In the 
Straits of Gibraltar the current was so strong that we 
encountered no small difficulty in regard to anchoring. 
However, we succeeded in the course of a day in 
obtaining altogether seventy good measurements from 
eight different depths between the surface and the 
bottom. There were considerable tidal fluctuations both 
in the west-going surface current and in the deep east- 
going current ; simultaneously with the fluctuations in the 
strength of the current the boundary between the two 
streams shifted upwards and downwards, as clearly 
appears from repeated series of temperatures and water- 
samples. The boundary lay at a depth between 50 and 
100 fathoms below the surface. Velocities of four knots or 



November io, 1910] 



NATURE 



00 



more were on several occasions recorded in both the surface 
current and the undercurrent; in the majority of cases, 
howevrr the velocity varied between i and 2\ knots. 

On the slope south of the Azores the Michael Sars was 
anchored in 500 fathoms. Here about ninety current- 
measurements were made at different depths. In the deep 
sea between the Azores and the Canary Islands a series 




Fig. 2. 

was taken right down to 2000 metres, from the vessel 
while under slow, steady drift, with one of the large tow- 
r.ets out as a drift-anchor. These measurements also show 
considerable fluctuations, which are apparently connected 
with tides. Similar investigations with modern methods 
have never been undertaken before either in deep water or 
in the Straits of Gibraltar. 

A number of measurements of light were also made in 
the ocean south and west of the Azores. Mr. Helland 
Hansen has constructed a new photometer which worked 
well ; he determined the quantity of light by the aid of 
panchromatic plates with and without gelatine colour filters. 
The investigations showed a great influence of light rays 
at too metres, red being the weaker, and blue and ultra- 
violet rays the strongest ; at 500 metres blue and ultra- 
violet rays were still found, and even at 1000 metres the 
influence of the ultra-violet rays was clearly evident. No 
trace of light could be noticed on the plates at 1700 metres, 
after an exposure of two hours at noon with a clear sky. 

PhYTOPL-ANKTOX. 

Vertical hauls have been undertaken at various depths, at 
fully forty stations, with a fine-meshed Nansen closing-net, 
our object being to collect material for studying the vertical 
and horizontal distribution of peridinae and diatoms in the 
Atlantic Ocean. We specially aimed at obtaining material 
fof comparing the plankton of the coast-banks with 
plankton from purely oceanic waters, as also for comparing 
subtropical and boreal conditions of existence. The coast- 
banks off Ireland, Cadiz Bay, the west coast of Africa, and 
the Newfoundland banks have a characteristic flora which 
is sharply marked off from the oceanic flora, rich in 
species but poor in individuals, which is met with in the 
central parts of the Atlantic Ocean, especially the Sargasso 
Sea south of the Azores. 

Largely owing to Lohmann's interesting researches in 



the Mediterranean, we arranged to devote a considerable 
part of our work to the study of those organisms, especially 
Coccolithophoridae and the naked flagellates, which pass 
through even the finest silk net. These organisms have 
been partly collected by filtering sea-water through sand 
filters and partly by employing a large centrifuge driven 
by a small steam winch. Altogether we have employed the 
centrifuge in the case of about sixty 
of these water-samples ; and, by 
'means of a suitable contrivance. 
Prof. Gran was able to examine 
these samples on board in their 
living state, both in regard to 
quality and quantity. 

Examination showed a large 
number of new forms, partly belong- 
ing to quite new types, which will 
be described by Prof. Gran. In the 
central oceanic parts of the Atlantic 
Ocean these small organisms were 
found to occur in numerous forms 
and in such large quantities that 
they exceed in volume the plants 
obtained through the medium of the 
silk nets. In the neighbourhood of 
the European coast-banks the 
number of species was far smaller, 
but the quantity of individuals was 
particularly large. Thus we secured 
in a single sample more than 
200,000 individuals per litre of one 
species alone. On the coast-banks 
off Newfoundland and off Ireland 
the peridinse far exceeded in volume 
the Coccolithophoridae. 

Altogether the samples from the 
more northerly waters show a 
greater quantity of plants than the 
subtropical portion of the ocean. 
The material will likewise furnish 
information with regard to the dis- 
tribution of phytoplankton in rela- 
tion to depth. In the more 
northerly waters its range is limited 
to a thinner, less deep-reaching 
more southern portion of the area of 



Fig. 



layer than in 
investigations. 



the 



ZOOPLANKTON. 



For the study of smaller plankton animals, of the size of 
copepods, for instance, we employ a vertical closing-net, one 
metre in diameter, with rather coarser silk. With this we 
took samples at various depths and at many stations. 

However, I perceived from the very first that an appli- 




NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



F16. 4. 

ance of this sort would not be able to afford us much 
information regarding the occurrence of the larger pelagic 
animals, such, for instance, as cephalopods, decapod 
crustaceans, and deep-sea fishes. Both the Challenger and 
Valdevia expeditions employed, as will be remembered, a 
big tow-net, with which they made many vertical hauls 
from great depths to the surface of the sea. By this means 
they . caught a certain amount, though by no m^ans a- 



54 



NATURE 



[NOVEMIJER lO, 1 910 



particularly large quantity, of fish in proportion to the 
number of hauls ; and they naturally obtained but little 
information regarding such questions as the depth at which 
tlic animals live, and their vertical wanderings by night 
and day. These questions seemed to me to be of special 
interest at the present juncture, and accordingly an essential 
part of the work of our expedition was directed towards 
therr solution. We first constructed some large nets of 
3*25 metres diameter, partly of coivser silk and partly of 
prawn-net, arranged to close on the principle of Nansen's 
closing net (see Figs. 2 and 3). With these we made 
several successful hauls at various depths, and obtained 
sufficient catches of the commonest forms to enable us to 
determine more approximately the actual depth at which 
they occur. Nevertheless, we soon discovered that even 
these large nets yielded merely an incomplete collection of 
the fauna, since many species occur far too sparsely to be 
caught with vertical hauls. It was therefore found neces- 
sary to employ large horizontal-fishing appliances and to 
make hauls of considerable length. 

Such, hauls would, however, take an unduly long time, if 
they were to be carried out singly at the same station, for 
hours in succession, at different depths. It was, therefore. 



largest net, in particular, worked splendidly. We hav* 
thus discovered quite a number of species of pelagic deep- 
sea fish not previously described. 

As there were so many stations, and we fished in widely 
differing waters and at all hours of the day and night, a 
comparison of these catches with each other will afford 
much information concerning the geographical distribution 
of the different species, as well as regarding the depth at 
which they occur by day and by night, and so on. The 
catches show that the hauls have much in common, and 
we may accordingly assume that they are in the mam 
representative of the depth in which the appliances have 
been towed ; and it is further extremely satisfactory to 
note that the experiences gained from these hauls and from 
the vertical closing-net are in close accordance. 

It is too soon yet, and, moreover, would take too long, 
to describe in full the results of our experiences. I will 
confine myself, therefore, to mentioning that everywhere 
in the Atlantic Ocean, from the Wyville Thomson Ridge 
to the Sargasso Sea, there appears to be, at depths below 
400 metres, a consistently uniform fauna of small, chiefly 
black pelagic fish, large red crustaceans, numerous 
medusae, &c., a fauna which, in any case so far as the 
fishes are concerned, is probably also shared by other 
oceans, and which presents the same variety of form that 
the Valdivia expedition, for instance, has found in the 
Indian Ocean, and the Challenger in the Pacific. In the 
upper layers, at depths less than 400 metres, we have 




I 



KiG. 5. 



particularly desirable to drag a number of appliances at 
several depths simultaneously. The appliances had in this 
case to be fastened to one or two wire ropes, as one 
cannot tow many wires at the same time. The technical 
difficulty now presented itself that long lengths of wire get 
twisted, when towed, and consequently destroy the appli- 
ances or displace their position in the water. We solved 
this by an arrangement, shown in the accompanying figure 
(Fig. 4), by which a shackle to which the appliance is 
fastened moves freely round the wire. By this means it 
became possible to have no fewer than ten appliances out 
simultaneously from two wires, as shown in the figure 
(Fig. 5). Here we see a series, consisting partly of nets, 
partly of Dr. C. G. Joh. Petersen's young-fish trawls, in 
use at the following lengths of wire : o, 100, 200, 300, 600, 
1000, J500, 2000, 2500, 3000 metres. The total number of 
these tbwing stations exceeded thirty. 

The material obtained in this way was very large indeed. 
From the same station hundreds of pelagic deep-sea fishes 
an^i litres of large decapods, medusae, &c., were secured. 
All the same, the hauls showed that the material was not 
by any means too large, since right up to the very last 
haul we continued to capture a few species of pelagic fishes 
that had not occurred in any of the previous hauls. The 

NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



discovered numerous younger stages of fish that are not 
as yet determined, mostly of transparent, colourless form, 
such as Leptocephali, to take merely one example. 

Trawlings. 
During previous expeditions in the Atlantic Ocean a 
great number of hauls have been undertaken either with 
the dredge or with small trawls. There was, therefore, no 
pressing necessity for the Michael Sars to investigate the 
bottom-fauna of the Atlantic, more particularly as hauls of 
this nature require a considerable expenditure of time, ana 
could therefore with difficulty be combined with our exact- 
ing programme of hydrographical and plankton investiga- 
tions. It was of interest, on the other hand, to try 
whether a large-sized model of the ordinary otter-trawl 
(with 50 feet of head-rope) would yield new results. 
During my previous researches I had succeeded to my 
satisfaction, and had secured very good catches, by making 
use of a trawl of this kind at depths down to 1000 fathoms. 
It was, in my opinion, especially desirable to employ this 
appliance along the Continental slope from the Wyville 
Thomson ridge southwards to the tropical coast of Africa, 
so as to ascertain the composition of the fauna on this 
long stretch at depths varying from 500 to 1600 fathoms. 



NOVEMJBER lO, 1 910] 



NATURE 



I Besides, I considered it of the utmost interest to attempt 
' some hauls far out from the coast-banks on an oceanic 
• deep plain with depths descending to 3000 fathoms. Alto- 
i gether we have carried out twenty-two hauls at various 
depths-with this large trawl. 

It will be seen that our trawl had a greater capacity 

I than any of the appliances previously employed, and that it 

! can therefore, without doubt, be recommended for investi- 

I gations of the deep-water tish-fauna. This is especially the 

case where it is requisite to have many individuals for 

examination. For invertebrate organisms, on the other 

' hand, smaller and more handy appliances may be 

preferable. 

Essentially new types of fishes the trawl cannot be said 
to have taken. But the material we possess furnishes a 
good picture, especially of the uniform fish-fauna to be 
met with along the slopes of the coast-banks of Europe 
; and .Africa from the Wyville Thomson ridgo down to 
Cape Bogador, and it also shows clearly the sharp tran- 
sition from the southern to the northern side of the Wyville 
: Thomson ridge, which the Triton, the Knight Errant, and 
my own investigations, amongst others, had previously 
demonstrated. 
5 The hauls at great depths (about 5000 metres) were no 
] doubt few, perhaps too few ; but they accorded with each 
other and with the hauls made by . previous expeditions, 
more especially those of the Challenger, : Travailleur, and 
; Talisman, in indicating that the actual eastern deep-ocean 
' plain of the .Atlantic is especially poor in all kinds of higher 
I organisms and particularly in fish. It might, by some 
naturalists, be regarded as a desert region. A fuller 
discussion of our observations must, however, be reserved 
■ a more comprehensive publication. 

JOHAX HjORT, 



THE ASSOCIATION OF TEACHERS L\ 
TECHNICAL INSTITUTIONS. 
'. 'THE annual meeting of the .Association of Teachers in 
■*■ Technical Institutions was held at the Northern 
i Polytechnic, London, on Saturday, November 5. In 
i moving the adoption of the annual report of the council, 
Mr. J. Wilson (Battersea Polytechnic), the retiring presi- 
dent, stated that any further extensive progress in the 
' general technical and scientific education of this countr>- 
depends upon" the adoption of certain educational reforms, 
for most of which public opinion is now ripe. These 
; reforms may be briefly summarised as follows : — 
(i) ehmentary education to be more practical or construc- 
; live; ^2) compulsory attendance at day or evening (prefer- 
1 ably day) continuation schools, with a limitation of the 
hours of labour of adolescents ; (3) the institution of 
' "technical-secondary" schools; (4) the linking of the 
elementary school through the continuation and secondary 
school to the technical school ; (5) the increased provision 
I of scholarships, with adequate maintenance grants, so that 
I the qualified day and evening technical student mav receive 
( the highest possible technical and scientific training. 
These suggested reforms are all quite practical, and their 
adoption would entail but relatively little strain upon the 
financial resources of this country-, while the commercial 
; and educational results would be of incalculable benefit. 
I .Attention was directed to the promise held out in the 
Prefatory .Memorandum to the recent Board of Education 
regulations for technical schools, that the Board would 
I take action, in the near future, with respect to certain 
; of the more pressing of the educational reforms just 
I referred to. .A significant statement in the memorandum, 
I relatmg to the payment of grants for technical instruction 
to institutions of university rank, together with the recent 
; formation of a " University Branch " at the Board of 
1 Education, emphasises the modern tendency towards bring- 
i ing the English universities within the purview and in- 
• fluence of the national educational authorities The hope 
' was expressed that this would result in the opening wider 
! of the doors of the university to the communitv, and a 
' closer connection of the universities with all phases of 
I educational effort in this country. 

[ The recent regulations of the Board of Education respect- 
j ing the registering of the attendance of dav and evening 
I Students , at technical institutions were criticised adverselv. 



inasmuch as by considerably increasing the time, and atten- 
tion to be devoted by the teacher to the merely mechanical 
work of registration, they inevitably detract from the 
efficiency of the teaching as a whole. 

In discussing the first volume of the minutes of evidence 
submitted to the Royal Commission on University Educa- 
tion in London, Mr, Wilson stated that in this evidence 
there appears vague and unjust criticism of the higher 
work of the London polj technics, generally based upon 
want of knowledge of the work these institutions are now- 
doing. 

The president of the association for 1910-11 is Mr. 
Barker North, of the chemistry and dyeing department, 
Bradford Technical College. 



NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



METEOROLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS. 

pROF. H. HILDEBRAND HILDEBR-ANDSSON is 
continuing his important series of papers on the 
centres of action of the atmosphere, and the fourth com- 
munication, recently received, is entitled '* Sur la Com- 
pensation entre les types des Saisons simultanes en 
differentes regions de la Terre " (_Ktingl. Si'cnska 
Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, Band 45, No. 11 '. In 
his third paper he suggested that the principal cause of 
the different types of seasons depended very probably on 
the condition of the ice in the polar seas, and the evidence 
he brought forward was such as to show that this view 
had very much in its favour. In the present communica- 
tioa he makes a closer study of these compensations 
between the types of simultaneous seasons in both winter 
and summer seasons, and extends his researches to North 
.America. He further directs attention to some analogous 
results which he finds exist in the southern hemisphere. 
Thus he finds both in winter and in summer that there 
occurs an opposition between the north and south of both 
Europe and of North .America, and also probably between 
the sub-polar regions and sub-tropical regions of the 
southern hemisphere. There is also, in general, an opposi- 
tion between the north of Europe and Siberia. 

Special attention is directed to some regions where this 
opposite nature of seasons is in some years less -pro- 
nounced, and Prof. Hildebrandsson points out that these 
districts are intermediate between the main centres of 
typical action, and are therefore dependent on the intensit)' 
of the latter. This communication is accompanied by 
several plates of curves, and these should be closely studied 
in connection with the text. There is little doubt that 
these researches will in time open up a field for the future 
forecasting of seasons, but it is important to bear in mind 
that so intimate are the meteorological associations 
between very widely separated regions on the earth, it 
behoves the investigator to take a ver\' broad view of the 
subject, and not confine himself to one small portion of 
the earth's surface. 

Mr. E. T. Ouaylc, of the .Australian Commonwealth 
Meteorological Bureau, has recently (Bulletin No. 5, 
March) published the results of his investigations in rela- 
tion to the possibility of forecasting the approximate rain- 
fall for northern Victoria. .At the outset he states that 
it has long been his conviction that ordinary statistical 
methods must prove inadequate, and that they do not 
enable the essential differences between the weather of 
successive years to be grasped. In his study of the storm 
systems as they have affected Victoria he has made a 
classification of them, and on this he bases his method 
of forecasting. The storms which affect Victoria and 
bring the rain belong to two main systems, one called 
" .Antarctics, *' which originate in the southern seas, and 
the other called " Monsoonals," which are of tropical 
origin. The first-named he divides into two classes : — 
(a) .Antarctics, when their centres are too far south to be 
identified ; and (6) .Antarctic cyclones, when their centres 
can be located inland or over Bass Strait. The monsoonal 
low depressions he divides into three groups : — (a) mon- 
soonal troughs ; (6) monsoonal dips ; and (c) monsoonal 
cyclones. 

By the use of isobaric charts the number of occurrences 
of each t>"pe of disturbance was taken out for each month 
for the years 1888 to igoq. .As the northern districts of 
Victoria receive most rain chieflv from monsoonal de- 



56 



NATURE 



[November io, 1910 



pressions or the fronts of well-developed Antarctics, a 
typical rainfall curve of the northern areas was con- 
structed. Thus for each half-year the low- and high- 
pressure systems passing Victoria were counted, and along- 
side the numbers thus obtained were placed the figures 
for the rainfall over the northern areas and the mean 
air pressure and temperature for Melbourne. The com- 
parison brought out the result that an excess in the 
number of summer monsoonal disturbances was followed 
by an excess in the winter rainfall in seventeen cases out 
of twenty-two. 

Mr. Quayle then evolves a rough rule for predicting the 
approximate winter rainfall over northern Victoria, giving 
the weights of two, one and one to the number of mon- 
soonal disturbances, mean pressure, and mean tempera- 
ture, respectively, for the preceding summer. Noting the 
coincidences of sign only in the values he evolves for the 
calculated winter rain, he finds that they are in agree- 
ment with those for the actual departures from normal 
of the winter rains nineteen times out of twenty-two, and 
in serious agreement in two cases only. It is unfortunate 
that, owing to lack of daily isobaric charts, the period 
could not have been extended over more years ; neverthe- 
less, the system may be used tentatively, and the results 
will be watched with interest. 



THE LATITUDE OF ATHENS.' 
TN the volume referred to below M. Eginitis describes 
-^ the varied activities that exercise the staff of the 
National Observatory of Athens and of the smaller institu- 
tions that his zeal has called into existence and made to 
yield results useful to science, both as regards seismology 
and meteorology. It seems not a little strange to find 
well-remembered names like Thebes, Sparta, Naxas, 
Samos, and many others famous in the past, figuring in 
this list, and playing a new role by contributing climatic 
observations made on approved lines with modern instru- 
ments. Of the last mentioned of these stations, that on 
the island of Samos, the author remarks, " malheureuse- 
ment, elle a ^t6 compl^tement d^truite, le jour du bom- 
bardement de cette ile, en 1908, par la flotte turque," 
recalling a struggle which seems more in keeping with 
its ancient history than its effort to accumulate meteor- 
ological observations. 

But the real serious piece of work here described is 
the attempt to determine the latitude of Athens, a problem 
that interested Ptolemy, who recorded the value 37° 15', 
placing the city some 45 kilometres south of its true 
«ite, even when allowance for all known sources of error 
is made, a larger error than is usual in similar deter- 
minations in that age. But error seems to cling to this 
unfortunate coordinate, for M. Eginitis informs us that 
the latitude for the Pantheon given in the " Connaissance 
"des Temps " is about 6" too small. In striving for the 
nicest accuracy, the director has found the problem to be 
one of extreme difficulty. He has employed two methods 
and two instruments, and the results do not coincide. 
He has employed the Horrebow-Talcott process, carried 
out by means of an instrument originally intended for a 
meridian circle, but by removing the microscopes and 
adding a level, adapted to that particular form of observa- 
tion. Later, through the generosity of M. Syngros, he 
was supplied with a modern and excellent meridian circle 
"by Gautier, the construction of which was supervised by, 
M. Loewy. This instrument was used for determining 
the zenith distances of both circumpolar stars and stars 
of known declination, the zero being derived from nadir 
observations only. 

The interest in the discussion consists in the different 
values obtained after reversing the instrument. The 
<iifferehce is constant and rather larger than has been 
noted elsewhere. Like the R-D term in similar inquiries, 
It refuses to yield a satisfactory explanation, however 
ingeniously solicited. There is no attempt to determine 
the actual variation of latitude, though the observations 
extend over a considerable period, nor, as we think, is 

1 Anna'es de I'Observatoire National d'Athenes, oublirf par Demi'rius 
Eginitis, Directeur de I'Observatoire. Tome v. Pp. ii + 592. (Athens, 
1910.) 



sufficient attention paid to the possible effect of a " magni- 
tude equation." The inquiry is of a purely instrumental 
character, and is directed mainly to the legitimacy of 
employing an arithmetic mean of the values obtained in 
the two positions of the instrument, if this conclusion 
is warranted and offers the only possible means of correctly 
determining the latitude, M. Eginitis is justified in insist- 
ing upon the necessity of reversion and of providing for 
the operation in the construction of the instrument. But 
as the director promises further experiments and a more 
rigorous attempt to eliminate all possible sources of error, 
it will be desirable to pause before offering any criticism 
or accepting the result as final. 



EDUCATION IN TECHNICAL OPTICS. 

T^HE reawakening of the British optical industry whicli 
■*■ began with the first years of this century brough: 
with it a demand for the provision of special technical 
education in optics. The Northampton Polytechnii 
Institute, from its situation in Clerkenwell, where much oi 
the London optical industry is centred, was particularl\ 
suited as a centre for such work, and optical classes wer^ 
begun there as a branch of work in general physics. Th> 
optical trade, however, regarded these classes as being oi 
little value, and in 1902 a new syllabus was adopted and ' 
special department of technical optics was instituted 
Since that time this department, under Mr. S. D 
Chalmers, has developed very considerably and done muc! 
useful work for both day and evening students, but th- 
scope and value of this work has been continually hampered 
and further development has been completely blocked b\ 
want of proper space and equipment. This unsatisfactorv 
state of affairs has been fully realised, and the governor- 
of the Northampton Institute have acquired the necessarx 
land on a site opposite the institute, and have had ^plan- 
prepared for a complete " Opto-technical Institute"; fo 
the erection and equipment of the building they are, how 
ever, dependent on a grant from the London Count \ 
Council. . 

The County Council or its predecessors in authontv, 
the School Board, has been repeatedly approached in thi- 
matter. A deputation from the Optical Society in 1902 
led to a grant which resulted in the establishment of tli 
optics department at the institute; for a time this w.i 
supplemented by a grant from the Company of Spectacl- 
Makers, but this has subsequently been replaced by a trad- 
fund, collected principally by the efforts of Mr. J. Aitchison 
and administered by the Optical Society. In 1905 th 
Optical Convention sent a deputation to the London Educ..- 
tion Committee ; this deputation was headed by Dr. R. I 
Glazebrook, and included a large number of influential 
men connected with the science or industry of optics, but. 
although favourably received, no practical steps result, 
for five years. . 

Now, 'however, there appears to be a definite prosper 
that this want of our optical industry may soon be met 1; 
an adequate manner. This is indicated by a circular lett. 
issued a few weeks ago by the L.C.C. Education Oflic 
to members of the optical trade in London. In this lett. 
the members of the trade are asked to state their viev 
as to the need for an Opto-technical Institute in Londo; 
and to indicate to what extent they or their employ, 
would take advantage of anv facilities provided, and wh;. 
benefits they would expect to derive from such teachin.. 
The letter concluded by inquiring whether, in the opinij 
of the trade, an expenditure of about 30.000/. for a buil. 
ing for such a purpose would be justified, and the genei ; 
scheme of the new institute as proposed by the Northami 
ton Institute is indicated. This comprises a series of lar;. 
teaching laboratories and lecture-rooms for instruction 1 
all branches of optics, lens-working and general instruirier 
design and construction being provided for. as well as t. 
theoretical and extierimental branches of the subject. 1 r 
new institute would accommodate 300 to 400 day and evf-r 
ing students, complete day courses as well as evenin.i, 
classes being contemplated. 

Fortunately there is every reason to believe that the 
optical trade' will respond to this circular letter in a manner 
which will fully justify the London County Council in 
proceeding at cnce with a scheme which is really of 



NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



November io, 1910J 



NATURE 



57 



national importance. An opening meeting of opticians and 
those interested in optics was called by Mr. J. Aitchison 
at Anderton's Hotel in Fleet Street on October 17, and 
an attendance of 300 enthusiastically and unanimously 
affirmed their approval of the London County Council 
scheme. This was probably the largest, and certainly the 
most unanimous, optical meeting ever held in London ; all 
the speakers emphasised the need for close cooperation 
between science and industry in the optical more than in 
most other industries, and the consequent need of the best 
educational facilities for masters and workmen. It is 
clearly recognised — not in this country alone — that the 
British optical industry has made and is making a very 
great effort to regain lost ground ; such names as Grubb 
and Hilger show that there is even now British leadership 
in some fields of optics. With the help of such schemes 
as that of the London County Council these fields might 
il be extended. 



THE CRYSTALLOGRAPHY OF 
H.EMOGLOBINS.^ 

/^ RVSTALS of oxyhaemoglobin differing greatly in 
^^ character are figured in every text-book of physi- 
ology ; but in the absence of specially skilled study by a 
crystallographer it has always seemed possible hitherto 
that the differences observed might be dependent on poly- 
morphism, differences in water of crystallisation, effects 
of environment, or on chemical change, and that haemo- 
globin, from whatever source obtained, was essentially one 
and the same substance. Hiifner's observation that all 
haemoglobin solutions giving the same extinction coefficients 
in the spectrophotometer showed the same capacity for 
oxygen appeared to support such a view, although it 
could also be interpreted as showing merely, what was 
already probable on other grounds, that the hsematin por- 
tion of the molecule was identical in all cases. 

Profs. Reichert and Brown, regarding crystalline 
character, when interpreted with care and knowledge, as 
a trustworthy criterion of identity or non-identity, have 
prepared crystals of oxjhaemoglobin and its near allies 
from some two hundred species of animals, and subjected 
them to minute crystallographic analysis. Their observa- 
tions show beyond doubt that haemoglobin exists in almost 
innumerable varieties, each of which is more or less charac- 
teristic of the species from which it was obtained. In 
view of the ease with which oxyhaemoglobin undergoes 
chemical change, the demonstrated impossibility of purify- 
ing it by recrystallisation without the occurrence of such 
cnange, the effects of admixture with other substances on 
crystal form, and the difficulties of crystallographic inter- 
pretation, it is inevitable that some reserve should be felt 
in accepting all their conclusions in detail, but the main 
facts presented can hardlv b*' interpreted otherwise than 
in the way suggested by the authors. 

It is, however, much to be regretted that they have not 
described the spectroscopic characters of the crystals 
studied in each case, since the omission of this informa- 
tion leaves it open to doubt whether the material examined 
was always wh.at it was taken for. In the absence of 
spectroscopic evidence, their statement that the blood of 
the horse, python, and many primates, including man, con- 
tains in the same individual two different kinds of oxy- 
haemoglobin, while that of the baboon and some other 
animals contains as many as three, carries no conviction. 
Scepticism on this point appears, indeed, to be very much 
in place in view of the extraordinary statement in the 
last chapter that " metoxyhaemoglobin," the substance 
ordinarily known as methaemoglobin, the neutral or acid 
solptions of which show a four-banded spectrum, becomes 
converted to oxyhaemoglobin by treatment with ammonia. 
It is almost impossible to resist the conclusion that the 
•authors are unfamiliar with the spectrum of alkaline- 
meth^moglobin. and the suspicion that the crystals 

1 " The Differentiation nnd Specificity of Corresponding Proteins and 
other Vital Substances in Relation to Biological Classification and Organic 
Evolution and the Crystallography of Hemoglobins." By Prof. E. T. 
Reiche't and Prof. A. P. Brown. Pp. xix+338+ 100 plates. (Washington, 
D.C. : Carnegie Institution, 19C9.) 



NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



described as a second kind of oxyhaemoglobin may have 
consisted of the former substance. 

.Another interesting statement concerning which ampler 
justification would have been very welcome is that the 
blood of the shad during the breeding-season, and that o{ 
the bear during hibernation, is especially rich in " metoxy- 
haemoglobin." 

The first two chapters deal very completely with the 
general properties, and distribution in the animal kingdom, 
of haemoglobin, hsemocyanin, and the colourless respira- 
tory substances termed achroglobulins ; they contain also 
some very useful comparisons of the chemical and morpho- 
logical characters of the blood of different animals, and 
full references to the literature. The third chapter is 
devoted to a special consideration of the physical and 
chemical properties of haemoglobin, and it is no fault of 
the authors that Barcroft's important work on this sub- 
ject had not appeared in time for its inclusion. The rest 
of the monograph contains an admirable critical account 
of the work of previous investigators, and a full descrip- 
tion of the methods, results, and conclusions of the 
authors, illustrated by 600 very successful photomicro- 
graphs and numerous figures in the text. 

The results obtained are of general biological interest, 
not only as showing that the differences already proved 
to exist between the corresponding serum-proteins of 
different animals are equally manifest between their 
hzemoglobins, but also as throwing light on phylogenetic 
relations, since the crystals from closely allied species often 
exhibit close similarities. They are also of great interest 
to the crystallographer by reason of the extensive isomor- 
phous series brought to light, and some important 
observations on mimetic twinning of crystals. 



PROBLEMS OF WHEAT GROWING. 



71 



HE October number of Science Progress contains an im- 
portant article on " Wheat-growing and its Present- 
day Problems," by Dr. E. J. Russell, of the Rothamsted 
Experimental Station. TTie article is based very largely 
upon a discussion which took place at the Winnipeg 
meeting of the British .Association, at a joint meeting of 
the Botanical, Chemical, and Agricultural Sections. The 
work of the Rothamsted station has long ago made 
familiar the main facts in reference to the fertilisation of 
wheat-fields under normal conditions, but the recent dis- 
covery of the use of phosphatic manures in order to 
secure earlier ripening may prove to be an important 
factor in extending the northern limit of the wheat-belt ; 
in the same way, it is suggested, the use of late-ripening 
varieties manured with potassium salts may be of value 
in extending the southern limit ; phosphates have also^ 
proved of value in securing rapid root development in the 
dry soils of Australia, where it is of great importance 
that the plant should secure access to the subsoil water 
as quickly as possible. Refeience is also made to the 
recent experiments of Dr. Saunders and others on the 
breeding of wheat in order to develop " strength," heavy 
cropping power, early maturity, and resistance to rust 
and drought. The work to be done here is very extensive, 
as different localities demand widely different types, owing 
both to economic and to physical differences. Even in a 
given locality the results obtained vary greatly according 
to the conditions, a " strong " wheat often giving a crop- 
of weak piebald wheat when grown on newly broken 
land, whilst on old land the crop may be superior in 
quality to that used as seed, a difference that is perhaps 
due to the great decrease in the proportion of water in 
the older land during the period of growth of the crop. 
It is pointed out that continuous cropping with wheat 
appears to break down the fertility of the soil by bacterial 
changes, which result in disintegrating the nitrogen, rather 
than by chemical exhaustion; the soil recoveis, however, 
when planted with clover and similar crops, which act as 
agents foi the fixation of nitrogen ; as this seems to fit 
in with the natural development of farming in a new 
country, the temporary k)ss of fertility is of less import 
ance than might appear at first sight to be the case. 



=;i 



NATURE 



[November io, 1910 



I 



BOTAW AT THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

The President's Address. 

N accordance with the custom that is growing up of 
arranging for a minimum of clashing between the 
various presidential addresses, Prof. Trail delivered his 
address (which was printed in full in Nature of October 0) 
at 12 noon on Thursday, September i. The address 
dealt with the subject of field botany, and the president 
particularly urged the need for the preparation of a really 
great national flora. .As a direct outcome of the address, 
a corhmittee was subsequently appointed, with Dr. Trail 
as chairman, to consider what steps should be taken 
towards organising and preparing the materials for such 
a flora. 



.Vs regards the rest of the proceedings, the outstanding 
features of. the Sheffield meeting were the sittings devoted 
respectivelv to physiology, cytology, and morphology. 
Judged by the keenness of the discussions and the numbers 
attending the section, the meeting must be pronounced to 
have been distinctly better than the average. It will be 
convenient to deal first with the subject of physiology. 

Physiology. 

On Monday morning, September 5, there was a joint 
sitting of the botanists, chemists, and physiologists in the 
meeting-room of Section K, the subject being the bio- 
chemistry of respiration. A report of this discussion will 
be found in the account of the proceedings of Section I 
(p. 26), so it is unnecessary here to do more than men- 
tion the botanical contributions to the discussion. Dr. 
F. F. Blackman, who opened the subject, by way of 
introduction outlined our present knowledge of the re- 
spiration of plants in respect to : — (i) the nature of the 
reaction (or reactions) which constitutes respiration ; 
(2) the physical chemistry of the respiration reaction : and 
^3) the influence of protoplasm upon the progress of the 
reaction. Mr. D. Thoday dealt with the effect of chloro- 
form on the respiration of plants. 

Tuesday morning, and to some extent Wednesday, were 
also devoted to physiological papers. Mr. S. Mangham 
read an interesting paper on the paths of translocation of 
sugars from green leaves. Using Senft's method of test- 
ing for sugars by the precipitation of osazones, the author 
was able to obtain definite evidence that the sieve-tubes 
(and not the parenchymatous vein sheaths) provide the 
main paths for the translocation of free sugars from the 
lamina of the leaf. He was thus able to confirm Czapek's 
theory, which had been disputed by Haberlandt and others. 
Mr. D. Thoday followed, and discussed assimilation and 
translocation under natural conditions. His experiments 
show that in detached leaves the increase of dry weight, 
due to assimilation, is surprisingly small in bright diffuse 
light as compared with bright sunlight. Leaves still 
attached to the plant show a smaller rate of increase than 
detached leaves ; this is probably largely due to trans- 
location. Dr. F. Darwin demonstrated a new method of 
observing in living leaves, while still attached to the 
plant, the degree to which the stomatal apertures are 
open or closed. The instrument (which he calls a poro- 
ineter) consists of a small glass chamber cemented on to 
the stomatal surface of a leaf, and connected with a 
suction tube and manometer. By diminishing the air- 
pressure in the chamber a flow of air through the stomata 
is induced, the rate of flow indicating the condition of 
the stomatal apertures. Dr. Darwin then discussed some 
actual results obtained by the porometer. On comparing 
the readings of the latter with the loss of weight by 
transpiration, it was found that the two curves rise and 
fall together, but the transpiration readings have a much 
smaller range than those of the porometer. This is 
perhaps what might have been expected, taking into 
account Dr. Horace Brown's work on diffusion. 

Miss N. Darwin and Dr. F. F. Blackman contributed 
a paper on germination conditions and the vitality of 
seeds. If the vitality of seeds is lowered by exposure to, 
e.g., high temperatures, they do not germinate well, and 
become more sensitive to any unfavourable modification 
of the environment. Failure to germinate when too little 
water is present is due to purely physical causes, while 

NO. 214I, VOL. 85] 



the injurious effects of excess of water are due to the 
water acting as an o.xygen excluder. Mr. A. S. Home 
next discussed the absorption of water by various legu- 
minous seeds. Prof. Bottomley showed that the Cyano- 
phyceae endophytic in the apogeotropic roots of cycads 
and in the cavities of .Azolla and Anthoceros are invariably 
accompanied by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. He suggested 
that this may really be a symbiotic association of the 
algae and the bacteria. 

Ecology. 

In contrast to the Winnipeg meeting, ecology was re- 
presented this year by only two papers. Mr. J. H. 
Priestley gave an account of the distribution of halophyte;, 
on the Severn shore. In this district the halophytes 
exhibit three well-marked zones : — (i) the low-lying 
Salicornia zone ; (2) the Sclerochloa and .Aster zone ; and 
(3) the rarelv submerged Junciis Gerardi and Festuca 
rubra zone. Apparent anomalies of distribution are prob- 
abl)' referable to differences of drainage and salinity. Mr. 
M. Wilson discussed plant distribution in the woods of 
north-east Kent. 

Cytological Papers, <5^'C. 

Friday morning was occupied with papers dealing with 
cytology and heredity, the first two being taken jointly 
with .Section D (Zoology). In a paper entitled " The 
New Force, Mitokinetism," Prof. Marcus Hartog further 
developed his views on the formation of the spindle and 
other structures observed during karyokinesis. Discuss- 
ing the various theories put forward. Prof. Hartog con- 
tended that neither diffusion currents on one hand, 
nor electrolytic or electrostatic force or magnetism on the 
other, are sufficient to account for the formation of the 
mitotic spindle. As an alternative the author postulates 
the existence of a new force, which he terms "mito- 
kinetism," and which, so far, is unknown outside the 
living cell. Dr. E. Hindle followed with an account of 
artificial parthenogenesis in the eggs of a sea-urchin 
(Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). The author described the 
process of artificial fertilisation in these eggs by treatment 
with a monobasic fatty acid, and subsequently with hyper- 
tonic salt solution. The cytological changes undergone 
were carefully described, including the formation of an 
artificial fertilisation membrane and the various nuclear 
changes. Under suitable conditions free-swimming larvae 
were produced. These, though their dividing nuclei con- 
tained only the reduced number of chromosomes, were 
identical in form and behaviour with those developed from 
normallv fertilised eggs. This concluded the joint sitting 
of Sections D and K, and the remaining papers were com- 
municated to Section K alone. 

The next two papers dealt with the behaviour of the 
chromosomes during mitosis, and particularly with respect 
to the stage at which longitudinal fission is initiated. 
Prof. Farmer and Miss Digby found in Galtonia that 
during the archesporlal divisions the longitudinal fission 
begins by a condensation of the chromatin on the edges 
of the chromosomes during the telophase of the preceding 
division, and the duplicate character can thus be detected 
verv early. Similarly, in the heterotype division of 
mitosis, the longitudinal fission is prepared for, as in the 
somatic mitoses, during the telophase of the last arche- 
sporlal division. Dr. Fraser and Mr. Snell obtained very 
similar results in Vicia faba. They found that the 
chromosomes which are separated from each other in any 
given division are the product of a longitudinal fission 
which is initiated in the preceding telophase. This was 
stated to be the case in both the sporophyte_ and gameto- 
phvte generations, the resting chromosomes in both cases 
exhibiting a double structure. Prof. V. H. Blackman, in 
a very interesting short paper, described the vermiform 
male nuclei of Lilium. The author brought forward 
evidence that, although purely nuclear in structure and 
possessing no cilia, these structures are capable of active 
movement. It seems probable that the activity of these 
nuclei, and not the streaming movements of the surrounds 
ing cytoplasm, is responsible for their entrance into the 
ovum and passage to the polar nuclei. 

The remaining two papers taken on Friday dealt with 
problems of heredity. Mr: R. P. Gregory offered sonie 
further observations on inheritance in Primula sinensis. 



November io, 1910] 



NATURE 



59 



and Praf. F. E. Weiss described some experiments on 
the inheritance of colour in the pimpernel. The latter 
author crossed Atiagallis arvensis and A. coerulea (the 
red and blue pimpernels). The red colour proved to be 
dominant, while in the /, generation there was complete 
segregation into red and blue forms. This is another 
^resting case of a recessive blue in the Primulaceae. 

Fungi. 
The fungal papers were taken on Thursday morning 
before the president's address. Prof. Duller discussed the 
function and fate of the cystidia of Coprinus. The author 
confirmed Brefeld's view that the cystidia act as props 
to keep the gills from touching each other. He pointed 
out that this is necessarj- to allow for the free escape of 
the rif)e spores. The cystidia themselves disappear bv a 
process of autodigestion just before the basidia in their 
immediate neighbourhood are ready to discharge their 
spores. In the discussion on this paper Mr. Wager sug- 
C-^sted that the cystidium must be regarded as having 
n phylogenetically derived from the basidium. Mr. 
E. Lechmere read an interesting pa|>er on the methods 
asexual reproduction in a species of Saprolegnia. In 
ging-drop cultures great variation was found in the 
aviour of the zoospores, the method of discharge, and 
shape of the sporocyst. Variations of form, &c.. sup- 
d to be characteristic of distinct genera of the Sapro- 
-ieae were found within the limits of this single species. 
:. \ . H. Blackman described a form of nuclear division 
inrermediate between mitosis and amitosis in Coleosporiunt 
Ttissilagiiiis. A spindle is formed on which granular 
chromatin collects, and is then drawn apart towards the 
poles. The chromatin is not aggregated into definite 
chromosomes. Mr. Harold Wager, in a paper on chromo- 
some reduction in the Hymenomycetes, maintained that 
normally only two nuclei (each containing four chromo- 
soniesl fuse in the basidium. During the division of the 
fusion nucleus the spireme breaks up into eight chromo- 
somes, reduction being brought about in a simple manner 
by the distribution of the chromosomes to the two 
daughter nuclei. Mr. F. T. Brooks described his investi- 
gations into the cause of the silver-leaf disease of fruit 
trees. These experiments are still proceeding, but, 
although not absolutely proved, the available evidence 
points, as previously suggested by Percival and Pickering, 
to Stereum purpureum as the probable cause of the 
disease. 

Morphological and other Papers. 
.\lthough only an afternoon session (on Monday) was 
available for morphology, the papers proved so attractive 
that the section sat for nearly three and a half hours. 
Prof. F. O. Bower led off with two papers. The first 
was a short note on Ophioglossum palmatum. The 
divided character of the leaf-trace supports the conclusion, 
previously arrived at from its external morphology", that 
O. palmatum is one of the more extreme and specialised 
types of the Ophioglossaceae. The second paper, on two 
synthetic genera of Filicales, dealt with some very interest- 
ing problems of phylogeny. The two genera in question 
are Plagiogyria (formerly included in Lomaria) and 
Lophosoria (.usually grouped with .Alsophila). The author 
not only put forward strong reasons why these respective 
genera should be kept separate, but suggested that both 
are probably important intermediate synthetic forms. 
Thus he regards Plagiogyria as a transitional form related 
on the one hand to the Gleicheniaceae and the Schizaeaceic, 
and on the other to the whole series of Pterideae. 
-Similarly in the case of Lophosoria, a probable sequence 
may be traced from forms also having affinities with the 
tjleicheniaceae through Lophosoria to .Alsophila and other 
Cyatheaceze. 

Dr. Kidston and Prof. Gwynne-Vaughan described the 
structure of the " false stems " of the fossil genus 
lempskya. This plant had an extraordinarv habit. Its 
erect " stem," which grew to a height of 9 or more feet. 
kLj'^""*'*'^*''^ °^ ^" aggregate of branching stems 
embedded m a compact mass of their own adventitious 
roots. _ The individual stems were slender, and possessed 
a dorsi-ventral symmetry. The authors think that in this 
case the erect habit had been onlv recentlv acquired, the 
particular method adopted being one which could be 
NO. 2141, VOL. 85] 



evolved with great rapidity. They further suggest that the 
erect habit of modern tree-ferns may be a secondary 
character derived from Tempskya-like forms, in which the 
original axis has developed at the expense of the lateral 
branches. Dr. M. C. Stopes read a paper in which she 
further described the fossil flower Cretovariutn japonicunt, 
dealing especially with the structure of the ovary. Mrs. 
Thoday, in a communication on the morphology- of the 
ovule of Gnetum africanum, instituted a comparison 
between this and the ovules of Welwitschia and Lageno- 
stoma. She regards the ovule of Gnetum as probably 
more primitive than that of Welwitschia on account of 
its radial structure, the presence in the young ovule of a 
well-developed pollen chamber, and the small develop- 
ment of the free portion of the nucellus. Prof. F. \V. 
Oliver next discussed the pollen chambers of various fossil 
seeds. He showed that in certain seeds {e.g. Conostoma 
spp.) the structure of the nucellar apex is much more 
complex than in forms such as Lagenostoma, &c. In 
these more complicated forms a second pollen chamber 
was excavated below the primary one (which alone is 
found in Lagenostoma). the latter becoming merely 
vestigial. In the light of this discovery it seems possible 
that the nucellar beak of Trigonocarpus, Ginkgo, &c.. 
may represent a vestigial primary pollen chamber, which 
had been functionally replaced by a more deeply seated 
cavity. 

Prof. W. H. Lang concluded the afternoon's sitting 
with a very interesting account of the morphology of the 
stock of Isoetes. He produced evidence that the stock 
grows regularly in two opposite directions. Leaves are 
produced at the upper end, the stem apex being situated 
at the base of a deep depression. Similarly, the roots 
are borne in regular sequence on a downwardly growing 
region. In this case, too, the apex is at the bottom of a 
deep depression, but the growing point is obscured by the 
congenital union of the sides of the depression. The 
young roots are finally freed by the gradual and partial 
separation of the united lobes of the stock. Although 
greatly modified, the axis of Isoetes is strictly comparable 
with that of Lepidodendron or Pleuromeia. 

The Semi-popular Lecture 
this year was given by Prof. F. O. Bower, the subject 
being " Sand-dunes and Golf Links." The lecture, which 
was greatly appreciated, dealt chiefly with the part pl.ayed 
by vegetation in the formation and fixing of sand-dunes. 
Perhaps the prominence given to this part of the subject 
caused some mild disappointment to the golfers present, 
who wished for practical hints on the keeping of greens. 
Prof. Bower showed a number of beautiful photographs, 
amongst the most interesting being some of shifting 
dunes. 



EXGIXEERIXG AXD CIVILISATIOX.' 
T N ' order rightly to appreciate the share taken by our 
^ profession in bringing about the present state of 
civilisation, a comparison should be made between the 
conditions prevailing, say, in the Greek st.-ites during the 
fifth and fourth centuries before Christ and those existing 
now in the twentieth century after Christ. 

In indicating the state of knowledge at that period of 
Greek history, it is enough to remind you that it was the 
age of Themistocles, .Aristides, and Pericles, the states- 
men ; of .^ischylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristo- 
phanes, the dramatists ; of Phidias, Scopas, and Praxiteles, 
the sculptors ; of Apollodorus, Zeuxis, and Apelles, the 
painters ; of Ictinus, the chief designer of the Parthenon, 
and Dinocrates. who rebuilt the temple of Diana at 
Ephesus and laid out the city of .Alexandria, the architects ; 
of Herooofus, Thucydides, and Xenophon, the historians ; 
of Socrates. Plato, and Aristotle, the philosophers. 

Can we say that there have been many since th.at time 
who are worthy to be mentioned as equals of the men 
I have just named? The fact alone that we use the 
adjective " classical " to indicate perfection in literature 
and art shows what a standing had been attained more 
than 2000 years ago, and in many respects we feel down 

1 From the Presidential Ad1re?s delive-ed at th- Institution of Civil 
Engineers on Xo\-ember i. by Mr. Alexander Siemens. 



6o 



NATURE 



[November io, 1910 



to the present time the direct influence of Greek and 
Roman learning. 

In his " Organcn " Aristotle expounded the logic of 
deductive reasoning in such a complete form that even 
the terms which he was the first to establish are in use 
at the present time, and both Kant and Hegel acknow- 
ledged that from the time of Aristotle logic had made no 
progress. But the schoolmen did not realise that the 
" Organon " was merely an " instrument " setting out 
the theory of reasoning ; they neglected altogether the 
teaching of Aristotle, that in every branch of science or 
art the only means of obtaining premises on which logical 
deductions can be based is by experience and observation 
of facts. He says in the " Prior Analytics," I., xxx., 3 : — 
" \\'hen the facts in each branch are brought together it 
will be the province of the logician to set out the demon- 
strations in a manner clear and fit for use." 

This principle of bringing together facts was absolutely 
neglected in mediaeval times by the later schoolmen, even 
when, during the thirteenth century, the complete works 
of Aristotle, translated into Latin, had become known to 
them, although at first the Church authorities would not 
allow any lectures to be delivered on them in the 
universities. 

A reaction against Scholasticism, or Obscurantism as it 
is sometimes called, set in during the fifteenth century ; 
it was strongly supported by the Reformation, but it is 
the merit of Sir Francis Bacon to have directed the course 
of the further studies of mankind into the right channel 
by showing that the object of all science is to recover 
man's sovereignty over nature, or, as he expresses it, " to 
extend more widely the limits of the power and of the 
greatness of man " (" Novum Organum," I., 116). 

For this purpose, Bacon asserts, it is necessary to study 
nature by inductive investigation after observing and 
collecting facts, but, in contrast to the deductive reasoning 
adopted by the schoolmen, he lays down that " the induc- 
tion that is to be available for the discovery and demon- 
stration of sciences and arts must analyse nature by proper 
rejections and exclusions, and then, after a sufficient 
number of negatives, come to a conclusion on the 
affirmative instances, which has not yet been done save 
only by Plato . . . and this induction must be used not 
only to discover axioms, but also in the formation of 
notions" ("Novum Organum," I., 105). 

Although it cannot be said that the Baconian method 
has been followed in its entirety during the subsequent 
development of science, its fundamental ideas, viz. the 
need for rejecting rash generalisation and the necessity for 
critical analysis of experience, serve as the sound basis of 
the modern method of framing hypotheses and verifying 
them by observation and experiment. 

In literature and art or in philosophy we cannot boast 
of being greatly superior to the ancients, but, so far as 
engineering problems are concerned, we have enormouslv 
advanced, thanks to the practical application of scientific 
theories. 

Comparing generally the conditions of life then and 
now, we may sum up the difference by claiming that our 
progress is "due principally : — (i) to the improvement of 
the means of communication ; (2) to the saving of manual 
labour by the introduction of mechanical power ; which 
main features have caused a general lowering of the cost 
of " obtainables." 

When Hertz discovered the property of electric sparks 
to start waves of the aether which can be detected at a 
distance, nobody anticipated that Marconi and others 
would succeed in developing these small beginnings to the 
system of wireless telegraphy, of which nowadays so many 
applications are in constant use. 

Again, the polyphase motors and generators of elec- 
tricity had their beginning in the researches of Prof. 
Ferraris, who demonstrated that three alternate currents 
can be combined in such a manner that the sum of the 
three currents at any moment is equal to zero, and that 
by their aid a revolving magnetic field is produced. 

When we seek to recognise true progress in the material 
conditions under which we are living, it is not unreason- 
able to expect that any further advance will be made on 
the same lines as differentiate our present civilisation from 
that of the ancients, and that " lowering the cost of 
obtainables," based upon improvement of communications 

NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



and upon the saving of manual labour, will furnish 
trustworthy test whether a change suggested to be m;i 
in our material surroundings is worth adopting or 
merely an alternative without any prospect of bei: 
generally accepted. 

The development of the manufacture of glow-lamps i.- 
striking e.xample of the advantage of labour-savi 
machinery; at first the lamps were made by a few skill 
workers at a high cost, so that they could not be sold I 
less than twenty-five shillings each. This excessive r< 
naturally restricted their sale ; but the efforts of the man 
facturers to devise labour-saving machinery were i 
relaxed until the selling price of glow-lamps \\. 
diminished to its present level, when they are sold by 1 
million. Can anybody doubt that the introduction 
labour-saving machinery into this industry, far fr( 
diminishing opportunities for employment, has not o; 
benefited the skilled workers, but has opened new aveni. 
for profitable employment to the so-called unskili 
labour. 

Nor is the advantage limited to this particular industr 
the possibility of obtaining cheap glow-lamps has increa- 
the sale of dynamos, steam and gas engines, cables w. 
fittings, giving employment to thousands of workm- 
Similar consequences have followed the introduction 
labour-saving machinery into other branches of mar 
facture. 

In their own interest inventors should appreciate m< 
than they have done in the past that progress is not ; 
result of flashes of genius that illuminate suddenly 
hitherto unknown subject, but that it can only be gaii; 
by plodding work and careful study directed by an infir,: 
capacity for taking pains. 

This requirement is expressed very tersely by .Xristn 
in his definitions of science and of art, which, unfor 
nately, have been lost sight of in the course of ages, 
that they cannot be used any longer. They are, he 
ever, so appropriate to our subject that I do not hesit. 
to repeat them. 

Aristotle says : — Science is the trained faculty of dem< 
strating necessary conclusions from necessary premi> 
and these conclusions are independent of the producer. 

Art is the trained faculty of producing, involving sou 
reasoning; it has to do with the genesis, the product: 
of things, and the result depends on the producer. 

From these definitions it follows that every profess; 
requires to have its *' science " which teaches the " soi; 
reasoning " on which its " art " is based, and for b< 
" science " and " art " training is a necessary condit; 
for success. 

They indicate, to my mind, for our profession in p; 
ticular, that the college teaching should occupy its 
principally, though not exclusively, with " science," n 
the natural laws which are " independent of the produce; 
leaving the " art " of engineering to be developed by pr. 
tical work either in the field, in the drawing office, or in 
the workshop. 

So far as the " science " of any industry is concerned, 
all civilised countries have access to the results of the 
latest researches which are published without loss of time 
in the technical journals, and the " art " of each industry 
devotes itself everywhere to the problem of lowering the 
cost of production in order to widen the circle of possible 
customers. 

Viewing the question of international competition from 
this aspect, it can only be regarded as an extension of 
the competition at home, and, applying the same reason- 
ing, the question naturally arises whether it would be 
desirable to have international standards or not. Looked 
at from the point of' view of the consumer, it certaii ' 
appears to be very convenient to be able to obtain supp' 
from a number of different sources with the certainty ,. 
their being interchangeable, or at least equivalent. 

In fact, the same reasons that have led to the establish- 
ment of the Engineering Standards Committee in this 
country hold good for international dealings, so that w-e 
may look forward to the time when international standard 
specifications will be accepted all over the world. A 
beginning was made when the British .Association intro- 
duced in 1861 the C.G.S. system of electrical units, which, 
since that time, have been adopted internationally, and a 
further step w-as taken at the St. Louis Exhibition of 



November io, 1910] 



NATURE 



01 



1904, when the International Electro-technical Commission 
was called into being. 

It is a very significant circumstance that it has been 

found necessary for this commission to associate itself 

in some branches of its activity with the Engineering 

Standards Committee, and it is not unreasonable to expect 

- such joint international action will gradually extend 

nd the field of electricity. 



FORESTRY EDUCATION: ITS IMPORTANCE 
AND REQUIREMENTS.' 

I PROPOSE to deal to-day with a brief exposition of 
the points on which the system of forestry education 
is based. It will be of interest, I think, first to glance 
briefly at the training to be obtained at some of the 
European forestr}- schools, and the facilities provided for 
giving it. We will then consider some of the things the 
student in forestry must know, and in this connection 
glance briefly at a few of the duties which confront the 
forest officer in the course of his ordinary work in India, 
concluding, finally, with a review of the present position 
of the university as regards forestry training and the steps 
which require to be taken to enable us to send out the 
class of British forester which is already required in many 
of our colonies, and for which we trust there will soon be 

I a demand in the British Isles. 

j A few years ago, whilst on furlough from India, I made 
a tour of some of the forestry colleges and schools of 
Europe, my object being to study the lines uf>on which 
the Continental system of education was based and the 

. methods they adopted to combine a proper proportion of 
practical work with the theoretical instruction given in 
the class-room. In the course of my tour I visited Ebers- 
walde, Tharandt, .Aschaffenburg, and Munich Forestry 
Schools in Germany, the Imperial Forestry Institute at St. 
Petersburg, the .Agricultural and Forestrv- Institute at 
Menna, and the fine French Forest School at Nancy. 
That tour was an education in itself. Briefly, I may sum 
UD the results of my observations as to the essentials for 
tuition of forestry thus : — (i) a strong teaching staff ; 
^ood museums ; (3) a forest garden and forest educa- 
tional woods. 

j (i) The Instructional Staff. — The study of forestry so 
depends on a number of cognate subjects, such as botany, 
chemistry, geology, zoology, surveying, and forest engineer- 
ing, &c., that it is essential that the student should be 
given first-class courses in these matters. Excellent courses 
are given in all the Continental colleges. There remains 

I the subject of forestry itself, comprising the various 
branches of silviculture, forest management, forest valua- 
tion, forest protection, forest utilisation, the law of the 
forests, and procedure and accounts. To lecture on these 

^ various branches, the best Continental colleges retain the 

( services of at least three men, professors and assistants, 

I many of the former having world-wide reputations in their 

I various branches. These men are also often responsible 

, for their ow-n departments of work in the school forest 

I garden and instructional forests. Their work, as we shall 
see. falls under two heads. They deliver courses of 

I lectures in the lecture hall, and they conduct the students 

j on the excursions made into the woods to illustrate these 
lectures, and personally supervise every piece of practical 

! work laid down for the student to do. Since the minimum 
time in which a student can finish the forestrv course is 

' two years, the professor requires at least one assistant to 
conduct a part of the lectures, for the junior and senior 

, students are both necessarily attending courses at the same 
time, and one lot may be in the woods whilst the other 

, IS in the lecture hall. .At the well-known Forestry School 
at Munich, the home of a number of famous foresters, the 

': various branches of forestrv science are in charge of three 
professors : Prof. Mayer takes silviculture, forest utilisa- 
tion, protection, and foreign forestrv; Prof. Endres, forest 

I policy, administration, valuation, and finance; whilst Prof. 

.bchufTer lectures in forest management and working plans. 

I estimation of increment, and yield. Each of the professors 

I 1 From the inaugural lecture delivered at the University of Edinbareh on 
October 12, by Mr. E. P. Stebbing, Head of the Forestr>- Department of 



NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



is responsible for the excursions, laboratory and practical 
work, of their various courses. 

(2) Good Museums. — The educational value of a good 
museum is fully recognised. It need not be enlarged upon 
here. Forestry is peculiarly a science the tuition of which 
on the one side and assimilation on the other is dependent 
upon two essentials, a thoroughly efficient system of 
practical work, and up-to-date, well-planned museums 
exhibiting in a simple and efficient manner the various 
details connected with forest work. 

So important is the museum as an adjunct to the 
efficient teaching of forestry that we find in all the Con- 
tinental forestry colleges that considerable sums of money 
have been spent on this part of the equipment alone, and 
yet in some instances, although with treble the space avail- 
able here in Edinburgh, the cr>- was often that more room 
was required. Where all is so good it is difficult to 
particularise, but as examples of efficiency in this respect 
I will instance the museums at the Forestry School of 
Nancy in France, the Imperial Forestry Institute in St. 
Petersburg, and the Forestry College at the University of 
Munich. The latter, so far as its building accommodation 
and museums are concerned, forms the nearest parallel to 
the position of Edinburgh University, and it will be of 
interest to glance briefly at the accommodation provided. 

The Forestry College at Munich forms part of the 
University- of the town and State, and considerable sums 
of money were spent a few years ago with the object of 
bringing it thoroughly up-to-date. The buildings devoted 
to forestry instruction are two in number, both situated in 
the grounds of the Universit\\ 

The new building, which was opened about the year 
1900, is the most perfect institution of its kind that man 
could have devised. The whole of the inside fittings are 
of wood, highly polished parquet flooring being used 
throughout, whilst the rooms are handsomely panelled with 
various kinds of woods. The chemical, mineralbgical, 
meteorological laboratories, &c.. are in the basement; 
forest surveying, mathematics, and forest-wood museums 
on the first floor ; and forest implements, forest products, 
and models and diseases of woods on the next floor. Each 
of these branches or departments of science has its own 
museums, one or two rooms as are required, its own 
large lecture hall, with professors' and assistants' rooms, 
laboratories where required, packer's room, &c. 

The space devoted to forestry- pure and simple is ample, 
no fewer than five large rooms and halls being devoted to 
the exhibition of the collections alone, those of each branch 
being exhibited alone. 

This brief description will show that there is little fault 
to be found with the arrangements and space devoted to 
this wonderfully efficient forestry college. With such 
equipment there is ever}- incentive to professor and student 
alike, not only to work, but to undertake research work 
in the various branches of forestry. In the Bavarian 
University the State pays for the upkeep of the major 
portion of the Forestry Department, and in return the 
Government reaps the advantages derived from the very 
important research work and experimental work in which 
its professors, many with great Eur<^an reputations, 
spend all their spare time. 

(3) The Forest Garden and Educational Woods. — We 
come now to our third essential to the proper teaching of 
forestry', the forest garden and educational woods. It may 
be said at once that the subject of forestry cannot be 
taught by the professor or assimilated by the student unless 
efficient instructional woods are available to which the 
student can be taken during the lecture course, as well as 
during the practical course, to be shown eye object-lessons 
of what he is told. He should be shown in the woods 
what he is told in the lecture-room, and taught to observe 
for himself — that first and most important of the lessons 
of a forester. These first principles of the education of a 
forestry student are well understood on the Continent, and 
are adequately provided for. 

I will give two instances out of many. The German 
Forestry- .Academy of Tharandt is situated not tar from 
Dresden, in Saxony. The school is provided with a fcest 
garden and demonstration forest, forming a compact bloc'rc 
in its immediate vicinity. The forest garden is situated 
on a hill-side immediatelv behind the school. The hill- 



62 



NATURE 



[November io, 19 io 



side is terraced into beds, which contain some 1800 different 
species of trees, shrubs, perennials, and annuals of various 
kinds, both indi{«enous and exotic. This garden serves as 
a forestry and botanical garden, and is an exceptionally 
fine one, covering an area of about 18 hectares. There is 
a forest nursery in the garden managed on most up-to-date 
lines. 

The school demonstration forests adjoin the forest 
garden, and are kept up entirely for educational and 
demonstration purposes. They are situated in a hilly area 
presenting ever-varying conditions, aspects, and variations 
in soil, thus allowing of a variety of object-lessons with 
different species and mixtures being presented to the 
student. For example, these woods contain spruce and 
beech with birch in mixture ; spruce and silver fir, or the 
two latter with birch. Or again, there are woods 
of spruce, beech, Scotch pine, silver fir, larch, maple, 
birch with maple and various mixtures, ash (pure, about 
thirty years old), alder (in wet valleys), oak, and a little 
yEsculus. There are some most interesting mixtures to be 
seen doing remarkably well, and forming an ideal of what 
demonstration woods should be. The steep slopes of the 
hill-sides are worked under different sylvicultural systems 
to the area of tableland above, where the woods are clear- 
cut and naturally regenerated or sown or planted. Exotics 
are being largely introduced, and thousands of plants are 
sent out annually from the forest garden and nursery in 
the demonstration area into the forests all over Saxony. 
Fencing of young planted areas and other ways of protect- 
ing young plants from deer, &c., are to be seen in practice 
in the woods. Time will not permit of my dwelling upon 
this excellent educational demonstration area ; but from 
his earliest course in the lecture-room the student is taken 
out week by week into the forest garden or woods, and 
with his own hands learns how to trench, sow, plant, thin, 
and fell and measure up his woods ; is taught to dis- 
tinguish the different species of tree, and how they differ 
in their requirements of soil, light, moisture, &c. ; is shown 
on what the foundations of sylviculture depend ; and is 
gradually led, step by step and stage by stage, to under- 
stand and grasp both the theory and practice of the various 
branches of the lore of the woods comprised in forestry. 

I should like to give another instance of this educational 
forest. The Imperial Institute of Forestry at St. Peters- 
burg is probably the largest forestry college in Europe. 
The students number 500, all training for the controlling 
staff. In addition, there are thirty-three lower-grade 
schools containing fifteen students apiece, from which the 
ranks of the forest rangers and upper guards are filled. 
Attached to the institute at St. Petersburg are two educa- 
tional forests, the one 14 versts (9 miles) from the capital, 
the other, and larger, 60 versts (40 miles) away. At each 
of them buildings are maintained for housing the professors 
and students during their visits. Portions of every summer 
are spent by the students in these woods occupied in prac- 
tical work. The woods are entirely under the manage- 
ment of the director of the college, as is the case at 
Tharandt, and are managed on similar lines, and solely 
for demonstration purposes. The directors at both these 
places, as also the forestry professors (and this applies to 
many of the Continental colleges), are all practical men 
who have themselves been through the mill of executive 
work, have themselves held charge of large areas of woods 
worked entirely on a commercial basis, and are therefore 
in a position to see that the instruction given to the 
students is such as will return full value to the State or 
proprietor who employs the men leaving their institutions. 

This is a point which I think worthy of the most serious 
consideration in this country. Too great stress cannot be 
laid on what are, after all, actual facts. The excellent 
and remunerative results of forestry in Europe, which we 
also wish to arrive at in the British Isles, are solely the 
result of the study of higher forestry both in the woods 
and in the laboratory. Practical foresters can only be 
successful in proportion to the knowledge they themselves 
possess or which is imparted to them by those who know. 
We can learn from other countries a great deal, but the 
application of what we learn must depend on ourselves 
and must be carried out by ourselves. 

We have now seen what the Continental forestry colleges 
consider the essentials to the proper tuition of forestry as 
a science, and have shown how the student is gradually 

NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



led, not only to assimilate the theoretical portions of th- 
study in the lecture-room, but to take with him what he 
has absorbed there and apply it practically in the woods. 
We have seen that these practical object-lessons must 
begin with the student's first lectures, that he must be 
taken into the woods at the beginning and be shown, step 
by step, that what he is being told in the lecture-room is 
not so much matter to be studied for an examination and- 
to be subsequently forgotten when his text-books and note- 
books are thrown aside after the " pass " has been gained. 
It has been said of the forester that he is always at school, 
from the moment he first enters the lecture-room to com- 
mence his first course to the end of his life ; and those 
of us who are foresters know this to be true. Our text- 
books and lecture notes remain our trusted friends to the 
end, and as we grow older and have had a more extensive 
practice and experience in forestry we grow more diffident 
about expressing definite opinions and laying down the 
law on the subject of the life-histories of our friends the 
trees. For the tree is very much like the human being. 
He has his wants and requirements, his fancies for par- 
ticular aspects and localities, for certain soils and degrees 
of light, moisture, heat, and shade. 

.Ml these the forester must know and. study, and even, 
then his fastidious friend will often discover something he 
dislikes, and refuses to grow. The forester has to set to- 
work to find out what this something is, and meanwhile 
all he has done is a failure — :a failure, that is, unless he 
is a thoroughly trained scientific man. As such he will 
turn his failures to account, for he will place them on 
record so that he and others like him may set to work 
to get at the reasons for the failure of a crop which, so 
far as human forethought was capable of doing, had been 
given every chance. How much sound practical know- 
ledge and observations have been lost to the foresters all 
over the world by this regrettable neglect to place upon 
record their failures. Almost more valuable are they to 
record than the successes ; to the forester far more valu- 
able. This is one of the spots upon which the scientific 
forester can place a finger in the British Isles. Had one 
a full, or even a partial, record of all the failures of the 
past, how much simpler would be the task at present 
facing the nation of getting its forestry house in order. 

Scotland is more favourablv situated and in a better, 
position as regards woods of a high educational value 
than any other portion of the British Isles for undertaking 
this necessary research work. There are woods in Scot- 
land, many of them known by repute, others less well 
known, in which the student on his practical course can 
learn a great deal and in which work of high importance 
to afforestation in ihe British Isles can be carried on. 
Edinburgh is very favourably situated for participating in 
this pioneer work, and has every intention of taking her 
share in it. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL 
INTELLIGENCE. 

Cambridge. — To-day, November ip. Graces will be offered 
to the Senate proposing that the offer of the Worshipful 
Company of Drapers to erect a new physiological labora- 
tory at Cambridge be gratefully accepted, subject to the 
conditions set forth in the letter, dated February 11, 1910, 
from the clerk to the company ; that a syndicate be 
appointed to discuss details with the company ; and that the 
Vice-Chancellor be authorised to convey to the court of 
assistants of the company the grateful thanks of the 
university for their munificent benefaction. Further, that 
the Vice-Chancellor, Dr. Mason, Master of Pembroke 
College; Mr. Shiplev, Master of Christ's College; Dr. 
Langlev, professor of" physiology ; Dr. W. M. Fletcher, and 
K. Lucas, of Trinity Colletje, be the syndicate appointed 
under the above-mentioned Grace. 

Applications for the tenure of the Benn W. Levy student- 
ship in bio-chemistry should be sent to Mr. F. G. Hopkins, 
Trinity College, on or before Wednesday. November 30. 
iqio. Applicants should state their university standing and 
previous scientific experience, mentioning if they are m 
receipt of any other endowment for research. The student- 
ship is open' to members of the University of Cambridge 
who have been admitted to a degree, or to members of 



November io, 1910] 



NATURE 



ton or Newnham Colleges who have acquitted them- 
;_lves so as to have deserved honours and have fulfilled the 
conditions respecting length of residence which members of 
the university are required to fulfil before being admitted 
to a degree. The annual value of the studentship is looZ. 
The student, during his or her tenure of the studentship, 
shall prosecute original research in bio-chemistry, and shall 
not engage in such other work as in the opinion of those 
entrusted with the administration of the fund would 
seriously interfere with his or her original inquiries. The 
appointment will be for one or two years, at the option of 
the managers. 

Notice is given that a prize of 50Z. out of the Gordon- 
Wigan fund will be awarded at the end of the Easter 
term, 191 1, for a research in chemistrv', of sufficient 
merit, carried out in the University of Cambridge. 
Candidates for the prize must have taken Part I. of a 
Tripos examination, and be under the standing of M.A. 
The research may be in any branch of chemistry. The 
dissertation, with the details of the research, must be sent 
to the professor of chemistry not later than June 10, 191 1. 

The local examinations and lectures syndicate is about 

') appoint an assistant secretary for examinations. The 

son appointed will be expected to enter on his duties not 

r than January i, 191 1. The appointment will be made 

the first instance for the period ending March 31, 1912, 

a stipend of 400J. a year. The post will after that date 

DC held during the pleasure of the syndicate, and the stipend 

will bf* raised by annual increments of 25/. to 500Z. 

Graduates of the university who desire to offer themselves 

as candidates are requested to send their names to Dr. 

Keynes, Syndicate Buildings, so as to reach him not later 

than 9 a.m. on Monday, November 21. 

The \'ice-Chancellor gives notice, on behalf of the 
Board of Geographical Studies, that Mr. R. T. Giinther 
has consented to deliver a lecture in Cambridge on Friday, 
November 11, at 5 p.m., on " Earth Movements of the 
Italian Coast." The lecture will be given in the Sedgwick 
Museum, and will be illustrated by lantern slides. Members 
of the University and others are invited. 

The Regius professor of physic gives notice that Prof. 
Osier has consented to deliver a lecture on November 17, 
at 5 p.m., in the large theatre of the medical schools, on 
^ledical Education in France." 

( )XFORD. — The congregation of the University of Oxford 
nad before it on November 8 the first of the important 
series of statutes framed by the Hebdomadal Council, in 
pursuance of the comprehensive scheme of reform initiated 
by the Chancellor, Viscount Curzon. The adoption of the 
statute, which deals with the constitution and powers of 
the boards of faculties, including that of mathematics and 
natural science, was advocated by the President of 
Magdalen, the Master of University College, and Prof. 
Geldart. Its provisions were sharply criticised by the 
Warden of All Souls and the Master' of Balliol, and its 
rejection was recommended by Prof. Holland and the 
President of Corpus. The preamble was carried in a full 
house by a majority of rather more than two to one ; but 
there is no doubt that strong efforts will be made to modify 
the effects of the statute by amendment, especially those 
of its provisions which deal with the composition of the 
electorate and with the control exercised by the University 
and colleges respectively over the subjects and methods of 
instruction. 

The tenancy of the well-known house in Broad Street, 
long the residence of Sir Henrv Acland, has lately been 
acquired for the Oxford School 'of Geography. When the 
necessary arrangements have been completed, the house 
will contain a library, reading-room, and collections of 
maps, views, and models. Part of the premises will be 
fitted up for the use of the Beit lecturer in colonial history 
(Mf. W. L. Grant), and accommodation will be provided 
for purposes of general geographical instruction and 
research. The whole will be under the direction of Prof. 
^" ): . Herbertson. This much-needed development of the 
facilities for geographical studies in the Universitv has been 
made possible by the generosity of Mr. Bailey, of' Johannes- 
burg, who has given 500Z. towards the adaptation of the 
house, and has promised 250?. a year for five years towards 
>ts maintenance. 

XO. 2141. VOL. 85] 



.Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, of Keble College, has been 
appointed junior demonstrator in geography for one year. 

Mr. G. C. Robson, formerly exhibitioner of New College, 
has been elected to the vacant Naples biological scholarship 
lately held by Mr. J. S. Huxley, of Balliol College. 

Mr. Selwyn Image, of New College, who has recently 
delivered his inaugural lecture as Slade professor of fine 
art, is a well-known student of the microlepidoptera, and 
is at present a member of the council of the Entomological 
Society of London. The seal of the society, which is a 
work of great artistic merit, was designed by the new 
Slade professor. 



To encourage further interest in the subject of oceano- 
giaphy, it has been decided to invite the members of Dr. 
Bruce 's class in geography at the summer school at St. 
Andrews this year to write essays on certain aspects of 
oceanography, and to submit them at the end of next 
spring. The essays are to be on one or other of the follow- 
ing subjects : — (a) on the effects of wind, temperature, and 
salinity on the circulation of the ocean, or (h) on the ques- 
tion of continental connections. The competition is only 
open to members of Dr. Bruce 's class, and the essays must 
be lodged with the director of studies on the last day of 
April, 191 1. Two prizes will be awarded, viz. two sets of 
the report on " The Scientific Result of the Voyage of the 
s.y. Scotia during the Years 1902, 1903, 1904." The two 
successful essays will be published either by the Scottish 
Oceanographical Laboratory or in the Scottish Geo- 
graphical Magazine. 

The Electrical Review in its issue of October 21 directs 
attention to the great falling off in attendance at the even- 
ing, classes of our technical schools which occurs during 
the course of each winter session. It contrasts the eager- 
ness of the prospective student in consulting the teachers 
as to his course, in buying the text-books, and in making 
all his arrangements for strenuous work during the forth- 
coming winter evenings, with his tired and weary look and 
his vain attempt to follow the explanations given by his 
class teacher three months later. For this change, sheer 
fatigue and inability to stand the strain of perpetual day 
and evening work are responsible, and the Review charges 
the evening-school authorities with attempting too much 
and demanding attendance on the part of students for four 
or five evenings per week. It points out that undue strain 
can only be prevented by a reduction of the evenings of 
attendance to two, or in exceptional cases to three, per 
week, and urges the authorities to take this step as a 
means of improving both day and evening work of the 
students who attend their evening classes. 

The Duke of Connaught on November 5 laid the 
foundation-stone of the new University Hall of the Cape 
University. The council of the University presented an 
address, in which the hope was expressed that the union 
now accomplished in South Africa would lead to the con- 
version of the present Cape University into a teaching 
university for the whole of South Africa, by incorporating 
existing institutions of higher education as constituent 
colleges, and by creating chairs for those subjects for which 
no single college could provide. In replying, the Duke of 
Connaught said he trusted that the funds necessary to 
convert the Cape University into a great teaching university 
would be forthcoming. At a university luncheon held on 
the same day, Mr. Malan, L^nion Minister of Education, 
announced that Mr. Otto Beit had agreed to divert the 
sum of 20o,oooZ., bequeathed by the late Mr. Alfred Beit 
for the foundation of a university at Johannesburg, to the 
creation of a great teaching university at Groote Schuur, 
the estate of the late Mr. Cecil Rhodes outside Cape Town. 
It was also announced that Sir Julius Wernher has 
promised to make up the amount to a total of 500,000!. 

A NEW engineering laboratory was opened at the 
Darlington Technical College on October 20 by the Hon. 
C. A. Parsons, F.R.S. During the course of his address 
Mr. Parsons said that in the early part of last century 
engineering was principally guided by traditional rule and 
trade knowledge, handed down from father to son and 
from master to apprentice. Engineering has gradually 
assumed a more important place, its field of operations has 
become wider and more complex, and it has becom.e 



64 



NATURE 



[November io, 1910 



imperative to institute, instead of the old and primitive 
methods, systematic technical training for young men. 
There is probably no field of work in modern times where 
so great an amount of well-ordered experimental investi- 
gation has been undertaken as in engineering. Referring 
to the advantages of engineering workshops, Mr. Parsons 
said that knowledge, more especially of the practical kind, 
must be acquired when a man is receptive, and at such 
an age when ideas and impressions become so ingrained 
as to constitute intuitive and guiding principles in after 
life. In the engineering laboratory students are brought 
face to face with materials and machinery for dealing 
with and discovering principles ; they gradually acquire a 
familiarity with practical engineering and the power to 
think in engineering materials, and to form a mental pic- 
ture when it is necessary to design a new or improve an 
old machine or to design new methods of work. Such a 
training fits a student to go out into the world with mind 
and eyes alert, ready to acquire more knowledge, and fit 
to command success in most branches of engineering. By 
the help of good technical training a much larger propor- 
tion of men of high standard are produced than formerly — 
men of knowledge capable of taking the lead and com- 
manding, and able and willing to deal fairly with their 
subordinates. 

The executive council of the County Councils' Associa- 
tion has made a series of recommendations with regard 
to rural education. They follow the main lines of the 
proposals of the Departmental Committee on Agricultural 
Education, which reported two years ago. Among other 
plans, the council encourages the formation of separate 
agricultural committees appointed by the county education 
committees. Another proposal is to appoint, in consulta- 
tion with the agricultural college with which the counlv 
may be associated, a resident agricultural instructor and 
adviser at a salary of not less than 500Z. per annum, who 
shall be under the control of the county council. The 
duties of this officer will be to give courses of lectures 
during the winter months ; to supervise experiments and 
demonstration plots ; to visit farms, small holdings, or 
allotments, and advise as to the appearance of disease in 
crops, insect pests, and on other matters ; to meet bodies 
of farmers at local exhibitions and shows for the purpose 
of discussion ; to organise classes for instruction in farm 
labour subjects and prize competitions in connection with 
such subjects as hedging, ditching, and thatching ; and to 
advise the committee as to the establishment of permanent 
centres for agricultural instruction. It is also suggested 
that each county should organise, with the aid of the 
agricultural adviser, developments of a semi-educational 
character in connection with cooperative small holdings, 
instruction in pig-breeding, the establishment of poultry 
societies for improving breed and management, the pro- 
vision of instruction in bee-keeping, the establishment of 
demonstration small holdings, the provision of a central 
county garden with demonstration and experimental centres 
for horticulture, and the provision of a demonstration 
farm of 100 to 300 acres, which might be used later as the 
nucleus of a farm institute. The association estimates 
that 2ooo^ per annum will be needed as a commencement, 
and suggests that an apolication should be made for a 
grant of this amount. The association has adopted the 
view of the Departmental Committee that " agricultural 
education is of such vital importance to the United 
Kingdom that no effort should be spared in making the 
provision for it as full and complete as possible," and 
that a complete system of technical agricultural education 
is " the natural corollary to the vast sums spent on 
elementary education in the rural parts of the countrv." 

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
London. 
Roval Society, November 3.— Sir Archibald Geikie. 
K.C.B., president, in the chair. — Sir D. Bruce and 
others : (i) Trypanosome diseases of domestic animals in 
Uganda. II. — Trypanosoma brucei (Plimmer and Brad- 
ford). (2) Trypanosome diseases of domestic animals in 
Uganda. III. — Trypanosoma vivax (Ziemann). — H. G. 
Plimmer, W. B. Fry, and H. S. Ranken : Further results 
of the experimental treatment of trypanosomiasis : being 
NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



a progress report to a committee of the Royal .Socieiv 
This paper gives detailed results of the continuation <•! 
the work which has been going on under the direction v 
a subcommittee of the Royal Society. The general result 
have confirmed an opinion which the authors have befoi 
expressed, viz. that antimony is a more powerful trypan< 
cide than arsenic, and that such compounds as they ha\ 
tried have not shown such severe toxic effects as som 
arsenic compounds have. But there are unpleasant effeti- 
produced (varying according to the animal used) by anti- 
mony, such as sloughing and necrosis at the seat of injec- 
tion and severe pain, so they have devoted considerable 
time to the study of new methods and new forms of 
antimony. Finding that in dogs the subcutaneous and 
intramuscular administration caused pain and sloughing of 
the tissues, intravenous injections of the salts were tried. 
The elimination of the antimony was so rapid, however, 
that, beyond prolonging life, little good effect was pro- 
duced ; so that eventually the injection of the metal itself, 
in state of finest division (devised and prepared for thenT 
by Dr. R. H. Aders Plimmer, of University College), was 
tried. This is taken up by the leucocytes, and is gradu- 
ally transformed into some soluble compound, and their 
idea was that perchance it might be carried to parts of 
the body not easily accessible to other methods of adminis- 
tration. The results so far have been, on the whole, more 
satisfactory than those of any other means they have 
tried, but the technique in many animals is difficult, ancf 
there have been difficulties in the preparation of the 
antimony. .Although putting a metal into the circulation 
sounds impossible, they have not had any case of plugging 
of capillaries in rats, guinea-pigs, rabbits, dogs, goats, or 
horses. It of course acts much more slowly than the 
salts, and takes from two to three times as long to clear 
the peripheral circulation of trypanosomes as subcutaneous 
injection of a salt does. But the excretion is also much 
slower, so that the blood and organs are in much longer 
contact with antimony than when a salt is administered. 
If carefully administered no irritation of the tissues is 
produced, and the vessel walls are not affected. Animals 
appear to be more susceptible to overdosage than with 
the salts ; and it is curious that an animal with trypano- 
somes in the biood can bear well a dose which is fatal 
to a healthy animal. It has also been used intra- 
peritoneally successfully in rats and rabbits. A number of 
experiments have been made with silver salts, with nega- 
tive results in every case. A number of experiments have 
been made with two new compounds (one an arsenic- 
camohor compound, one an organic antimon ,' compound) 
kindly sent to them by Dr. Morgan, of .he Imoerial 
College of Science, with negative results. — D;-. J. W. W. 
Stephens and Dr. H. B. Fantham : The peculiar 
morphology of a trypanosome from a case of sleeptng 
sickness, and the possibility of its being a new species 
(Trypanosoma rhodesiense). The main points of the 
paper may be thus summarised : — (i) This trvpanosome 
was first observed by one of the authors (J. W. \V. S.) 
in February in the blood of a rat infected from a case 
of sleeping sickness. (2) The patient, W. A., infected 
in Rhodesia, had never been in Glossina paJpalis areas, 
though he had been in areas infested with G. morsitans 
and G. fusca. (3) The trypanosome shows long forms and 
short stout or stumpy forms with hardiy any free 
flagellum, but it is unique in that about 6 per cent, of 
the forms have the nucleus at the posterior (non-flagellar) 
end near the blepharoplast. and in some cases actually 
posterior to it. (4) Such forms have not been described 
before in any known strain of T. gambiense. (5) Pro- 
longed search has been made for them in the stock labora- 
tory strain of T. gambiense, but they have not been found. 
(6) They are not due to the drying of the blood films, 
because they can be seen by intra vitam staining, and 
because dried films of the ordinary T. gambiense strain 
do not show them. (7) They are not degenerate, as 
division forms of them occur. (8) Thev are not due to 
drug treatment, because the original animals were inocu- 
lated before treatment was begun. (0) These forms still 
persist in rats, guinea-pigs, rabbits, and monkevs. (10) On 
morphological grounds the authors believe they are deal- 
ing with a new species of human trypa^osome also 
causing sleeping sickness, for which they prop' e the name 
T. rhodesiense. — Dr. F. W. Mott : Not-v upon the 



November lo. 1910] 



NATURE 



65 



examination, with negative results, of the central nervous 
system in a case of cured human trypanosomiasis. A 
Sikh belonging to the 4th K.A.R. (aged thirty at death) 
was found to be suffering from trypanosomiasis in June, 
1905, and received treatment with inorganic arsenic. The 
drug was given intermittently for eighteen months or 
more, and pushed until toxic symptoms of neuritis and 
mental dullness rendered further energetic treatment 
impossible ; trypanosomes were then no longer obtained by 
puncture of the glands. Unfortunately, there is no note 
"if lumbar puncture having been performed until a few 
hs before death. Sir David Bruce, in December, 
. saw this man, and stated that he appeared to be in 
lent health. .A year later he was seen by Captains 
erton and Bateman, who reported no symptoms of 
ping sickness. They made a very careful investigation 
3f the blood, both by microscopic examination and by 
experimental injection into monkeys ; the results were 
negative. In June lumbar puncture was performed, and 
17 c.c. of fluid withdrawn ; the centrifuged fluid 
'-"•ved no lymphocytosis or tr\panosomes ; injection of 
:luid into a monkey was followed by negative results, 
patient was attacked with pneumonia in August, 
and died three days after admission to the hospital. 
Post mortem the brain was found quite normal in appear- 
and there was no excess of fluid. Histological 
'lination. — Sections were prepared of portions of the 
rum, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata by all the 
ads which the author had previously adopted for the 
.ination of sleeping-sickness cases. He found no trace 
he characteristic meningeal and perivascular infiltra- 
nor of gliosis. It may therefore be asserted that this 
proves that human trypanosomiasis is curable, but it 
not prove that sleeping sickness is curable, for the 
>r contends that the diagnosis of " sleeping sickness " 
mly be made when there is a proof that the tr>pano- 
^ had invaded the sub-arachnoid space. The tissues 
forwarded to the author by C. A. Wiggins, the acting 
ipal medical officer of Uganda. — Miss M. P. ritx- 
serald : The origin of the hydrochloric acid in the gastric 
ubules. — Dr. A. Harden and R. V. Norris : The 
::ntation of galactose by yeast and yeast juice (pre- 
ary communication). — ^\V. M. Thornton: The oppo- 
electrification produced by animal and vegetable life. 
— R. Kirkpatrick : A remarkable pharetronid sponge 
Irom Christmas Island. 

Challf'nger Society, Oc^ber 26.— Dr. A. E. Shipl.y in the 
'hair. — Mr. Earland exhibited and made remarks upon 
"ilulina jeffrey'ni, a rare species of Foraminifera dredged 
vest of St. Ki'da by the Goldseeker, which had onlv been 
'-'Hrorded once since its discovery by the Porcupine in 1869. — 
•Ir. Tate Regan discussed the evolution of the flat-fishes, 
vhich he regarded as asymmetrical perches ; from some 
orm not unlike Psettodes, indifferently dextral or sinistral, 
lad arisen two well-marked groups, and each of these 
'lad split into two series, a sinistral and a dextral. 
I'arker's resea.ches on the optic nerves had made it clear 
reversal to the asymmetn,- of opposite sign was 
idar}- in the Pleuronectidae. 

Paris. 

Academy of Sciences, Ocnbei qi -M. Eimle Picard in 

hair. — The president announced the loss by death of 

' lernez. — Henri Douville : Some cases of adaptation. 

origin of man. A discussion of some modifications 

uced in various species by change in the conditions 

te, including changes which may possibly have been 

jced in the anthropoid apes by lower temperature, 

ed rainfall, and consequent destruction of forests. — 

Cogrgia : Observations of the new Cerulli planet 

iqio. made at the Observaton,- of Marseilles with 

Hichens equatorial of 26 cm. aperture. Observations 

Ojven for October 21 and 22, and also the positions of 

comparison star.— H. Larose : The extinction of the 

ntinuities by reflection at the extremities of a tele- 

nic line. In a previous paper the expressions f<M- the 

tial and current on a telegraphic line of indefinite 

h were given; the case of a line of limited length 

vorked out in the present communication. — G. A. 

;lemsalech : iThe influence of the magnetic field on the 

"ration of t!- ; lines of the spectrum emitted bv luminous 

-urs in tfe electric spark. In a magnetic field the 

NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



durations of nearly all the lines are diminished, and the 
intensity of the action on the different lines appears to be 
selective. Nearly all the lines diminish in intensity except 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the electrode. — 
Georges Claude : The preparation of argon. Compressed 
oxygen prepared by the fractional distillation of liquid air 
is now an article of commerce. If the proportion of 
oxygen is more than 95 per cent., as is always the case 
in practice, the chief impurity is argon, the volatility of 
which is intermediate between that of oxygen and that of 
nitrogen. Since the oxygen is very readily absorbed, such 
a mixture forms an advantageous starting point for the 
preparation of argon. — L. Gay : The osmotic equilibrium 
of two fluid phases. — M. David : A method of analysis of 
fatty bodies by the separation of the solid fatty acids 
from the liquid acids. This method is based on the fact 
that, at a temperature of 13° to 14° C, the ammoniacal 
salts of the solid fatty acids are absolutely insoluble in a 
large excess of ammonia, whilst the ammoniacal salts of 
the liquid acids are completely soluble. Results are given 
of the appRcation of the method to the separation of 
stearic or palmitic acid from oleic acid. — G. Darzens and 
H. Rost : The synthesis of ketones in the tetrahydro- 
aromatic series. Cyclohexene is treated with an acyl 
chloride in presence of aluminium chloride, and the pro- 
duct of the reaction heated with an excess of diethyl-" 
aniline. The physical properties of four ketones prepared 
by this method are described. — Em. Bourquefot and M. 
Bridel : A new sugar, verbascose, extracted from the 
root of Verbascum Thapsus. The mode of extraction 
employed is given in detail. The new sugar is analogous 
to stachyose, of which it would appear to be an isomer 
and from which it differs by its higher melting point and 
its greater rotator\" power ; it gives levTilose, glucose, and 
galactose on hydrolysis. — G. Friedel and F. Grandjean : 
Liquids with focal conies. Liquids of the group of ethyl 
azoxybenzoate are characterised by the existence of groups 
of focal conies in their mass or at their surface.— P. A. 
Dang^eard : Two lower organisms met with in the 
Roscoff laboratory-. — A. Imbert : The influence exerted 
by pain on the form of ergographic diagrams of fatigue. 
— H. True and C. Fleigr : The experimental and chemical 
ocular action of bitumen dust and vaf>our. Bitumen dust 
can rapidly produce various lesions of the eye in man. 
The condition of the eye before exposure is an important 
predisposing cause, and the action of sunlight is also 
prejudicial. The lesions resulting from the action of 
bitumen vapour upon the eye are comparatively slight. 
— M. Urbain, CI. Seal, and A. Feiee : The sterilisation 
of water on the large scale by ultra-violet light. The 
water is caused to circulate spirally round a source of 
light in such a manner that with a flow of 20 cubic 
metres per hour the water is exposed for three minutes 
to the rays. With this device complete sterilisation of 
water has been obtained with an expenditure of twenty 
watts per cubic metre. — Ch. Gravier : The duration of 
life in the Madrap<M-es. — Henry P^nau : The c\-tology of 
Endomices albicans. — ^Y. Deprat : The geographical distri- 
bution of the different layers recognised in Yun-nan (Geo- 
logical expedition. 1909-10). — ^Julius Schuster : The 
geological age of the Pithecanthropus of the pluvial period 
in Java. From a study of the fossil plants collected from 
the Quaternary deposits of Lasem, Java, the author is 
able to confirm his earlier estimate of the age of Pithecan- 
thropus. If with Penck the age of Homo heidelbergensis 
be taken as 300,000 years. Pithecanthropus lived at least 
400,000 years ago. — Louis Gentil ; Geological sketch of the 
massif of Kebdana (Eastern Morocco). — E. A. Martel : 
The chasms of the Pyrenees. A short description of seven 
groups of subterranean fissures, eighty-four in all. together 
with a discussion of their effect on the water supply of the 
district. 



DIARY OF SOCIETIES. 

THURSDAY, November 10. 
Royal SocrBTV, at 4.50- — The Tidal Observations ot the BritUh Antarctic 
Expedition, 1007 : Sir George Darwin, K.C B., F.R S.— Conduction of 
Heat throueh Rarefied Gases: F. Soddy F.R S., and A. J. Berrv.— Ihe 
Chemical Ph>-sics involved in the Precioitation of Free Carbon from the 
-Alloys of the Iron Carbon System : W. H. Hatfield.— A Spectroscopic 
Investigation of the Nature of the Carriers of Positive Electricity froo* 



66 



NATURE 



[NOVRMBER lO, T9IO 



heated Aluminium Phosphate: Dr F. Horton. — On the Determination of 
the Tension of a recently-formed Water surface : N. Bohr. — Aerial Plane 
Waves of Finite Amplitude : Lord Rayleigh, '^.M., F.R.S. — Observations 
on the Anomalous Behaviour of Del'cate Balances, and an Account of 
Devices for increasing Accurncv in Weighines : T. J. Manley. — On the 
Improhability of a Random Distribution of the St^rs in Space : Prof. 
Y. W. Dyfon, F.R.S. — The Conditions necessary for Discontinuous 
Motion in Gases : G. I. Taylor. — (i) On the Radium Conf'nt of Basalt ; 
{■2\ Measurements of the Rate at which Helium is produced in Thorianite 
and Pitch-blende, with a Minimum Estimate of their Antiquity: Ihe 
Hon. R. J. Strutt, F R.S. 
Mathematical Society, at 5.30. — Annual General Meetine. — The 
Relation of Mathematics to Experimental Science (Presidential Address) : 
Sir W. D. Niven. — Properties of Losarithmico-exponential Functions: 
G. H. Hardy.— The Double Six of Lines : G. T. Bennett.— On .Semi- 
integrals and Oscillating Successions of Functions : Dr. W. H Young. — 
On the Existence of a Differential Coefficient : Dr. W. H. Young and 
Mrs. Young. — The Analytical Extension of Riemann's Zeta-function : 
F. Tavani. — The Geometrical Representation of non-real Points in space 
of Two and Three Dimensions: T. W. Chaundy. — The Extension of 
Tauber's Theorem : J. E. Littlewood. — A Note on the Property of being 
a Differential Coefficient : Dr. W. H. Young. — The Stability of Rotating 
Shafts : F. B. Piddurk. — A Cla.ss of Orthosonal Surfaces : J. E. 
Campbell. — On Non-integral Orders of Summability of Series and 
Integrals : S. Chapman. — Optical Geometry of Motion : A. A. Robb. 
— Lineo-Iinear Transformations, specially in Two Variables : Dr. A. R. 
Forsvth. — On the Conditions that a Trigonometrical Series shouH have 
the Fourier Form : Dr. W. H. Young. — Notes on Termir.ating Hyper- 
geometric Series : Dr. W. F. Sheppard. — The Transformation of a 
particular type of Electromagnetic Field and its Physical Interpretation : 
H. Bateman. 

Institution of Electrical Engineers, at 8. — Inaugural Address of 
the President : S. Z. de Ferranti. 

Society of Dyers and Colourists, at 8. — A Comparison between the 
Action of Dyeing,^ Tanning, and Vulcanisation : W. P. Dreaper. 

FRIDAY, November ii. 

Royal Astronomical Society, at 5. — On the Formulae for comparison of 
Observed Phenomena of Jupiter's Satellites with Theory : W. de Sitter. — 
Photographs of Halley's Comet taken with the Astrographic Telescope at 
the Cordoba Obsers'atory : C. D. Perrine. — Third note on the number of 
Faint Stars with large Proper Motions : H. H. Turner. — (i) Mean Areas 
and Heliographic Latitudes of Sun-spots in 1907, 1908, and 1909; (2) Ob- 
servations of Minor Planets in 1909 ; (3) Observations of Jupiter's Eighth 
Satellite in 1910 : Royal Observatory, Greenwich. — Probable Paptrs: 
Preliminary Comparison with Observation of the Tables of the Four 
great Satellites of Jupiter : R. A. Sampson. — (i) The Svstematic Motions 
of the Stars of Boss's " Preliminary General Catalogue"; (2) Note on a 
Moving Cluster of Helium Stars in Perseus : A. S. Eddington. 

Malacological Society, at 8. — On the names used by Bolten and 
Da Costa for genera of Venerdise : A. J. Jukes-Browne, F.R.S. — On 
New Melaniidse from Goram and Kei IslanHs, Malay Archipelago : 
H. B. Preston. — On the Anatomy of the British Species of the Genus 
Psammobia : H. H. Bloomer. — Note on Triton tesselatus : Major A. J. 
Peile. 

Physical Society, at 8. — On the supposed Propagation of Equatorial 
Magnetic Disturbances with Velocities of the Order of 100 miles per 
second : Dr. Chree, F.R.S. — On Cusped Waves of Light and the Theory 
of the Rainbow : Prof. W. B. Morton. — Exhibition of a Brightness 
Photometer : J. S. Dow. 

TUESDAY, November 15. 

Royal Anthropological Institute, at 8.15. — The Castes of Eastern 
Bengal (Epidiascope) : Sir H. H. Risley, K.C.I.E., C.S.I. 

Zoological Society, at 8.30. — On the Inherftance of the Webfoot 
Character in Pigeons : J. Lew'S Bonhote. — Notes on the little-known 
Lizard Laccrta jacksoni Blgr., with special reference to its Cranial 
Characters: Edward Degen. — On Lacerta peloponnesiaca Bibr. : G. A. 
Boulenger, F.R.S. — Remarks on Two Species of Fishes of the Genus 
Gobius, from Observations made at Roscoff : Edward G. Boulenger. 

Royal Statistical Society, at 5. — Presidential Address on a Statistical 
Survey of the Problems of Pauperism : Lord Gorge Hamilton, G.C.S. I. 

Mineralogical Society, at 5.30. — Anniversarj' Meeting. — Further Notes 
on Wood-tin: J. H. Collins. — On the Alteration of the Felspar of 
Granites to China-clay : T. M. Coon. — On Wiltshireite, a new Mineral 
from the Binnenthal : Prof. W. J. Lewis. — A. new Locality of Phenakite 
in Cornwall : A. Russell. 

Junior Institutiov of Engineers, at 7.30. — Presidential Address on 
the Influence of Pure Science in Engineering: Sir T. J. Thomson, 
F.R.S. ^ 

Institution of Civil Engineers, at i.— Further discussion : The 
London County Council Holbora to Strand Improvement, and Tramway- 
Subway : G. W. Humphreys. 

WEDNESDAY, November 16. 

Royal Meteorological Society, at 7.30. — Results of the Hourly 
Balloon Ascents made from Manchester, March i8th-i9th, iqio : Miss 
Margaret White. — Registering Balloon Ascents, December 6th to nth, 
1909, and August 8th to 13th, 1910 : W. H. Dines, F.R.S. — Pilot Balloon 
Observations in Barbados, December 6th to nth, 1909 : Charles J. P. 
Cave. — Report on Balloon Experiments at Blackpool: Capt. C. H. Ley. 
— Registering Balloon Ascents at Liverpool, June 21st to 23rd, 1910 : 
W. Marriott. 

Royal Microscopical Society, at 8. — Specimens of British Mycetozoa : 
A. E. Hilton. 



Entomological Society, at 8. 

NO. 2 141, VOL. 85] 



THURSDAY, November 17. 

Royal Society, at ^.-^o.— Probable Papers: On the Effect of Ora\ t 
upon the Movements and Aggregation oi EuglenaniridisVJaTh. and oilier U 
Micro-organisms: Harold Wager, F.R.S.— The Influence of Bacterial 
Endotoxins on Phagocytosis {including a new method for the Differentia- 
tion of Ba'-teria). (Second Report) : L. S. Dudgeon, P. N. Panton, and 
H. A F. Nil.son.— On the State of Aggregation of Matter. Part I. On 
the Action of Salts in Heterogeneous Svstems, and on the Nature of ihe 
Globulins. Part II. On theAction of Formaldehyde on Witte's Peptone 
Part III. On the Solubility of Phenol and certain Crystalline Substances 
in Salt Solutions: Dr. S. B. Schryver — The Proteolytic Enzyme of 
Drosera : Miss Jean White —A Method for Isolating and Growing the 
Leprosy Bacillus of Man : F. W. Twort.— The Oxidation of Phenol by 
certain Bacteria in Pure Culture : G. J. Fowler, E Ardern, and W. T. 
Locke tt. 

LiNNEAN Society, at 8.— (i) Theoretical Origin of Plantago mnritima 
and P. alpina, from P. coronopus ; (2) Supplementary Observations on 
the [Theory of Monocotyledons being derived from Aquatic Dicotyle- 

^ dons : Rev. George Henslow. 

Royal Geographical Society, at 5.— Research Meeting. Origin of the 
Present Geography of Northern Nigeria : Dr. J. D. Falconer. 

FRIDAY, November 18, 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, at 8.— The Development of 
Road Locomotion in Recent Years : L. A. Legros. 



CONTENTS. PAGE 

Physiology as a Speculative Science. By A. J, J. B. 35 

The Complete Botany-teacher. By F. C 36 

Climatic Conditions and Organic Evolution. By 

Ivor Thomas 36 

Commercial Organic Analysis. By C. S 37 

The Seven Lamps of Biology. By J. A. T 37 

A Monograph of the Petrels 38 

Our Book Shelf 39 

Letters to the Editor:— 

Origin of Dun Horses. — Prof. J. C. Ewart, F.R.S. 40 

Markings of Mars. — ^James H. Worthington ... 40 

November Meteors. — ^John R. Henry 40 

Early Burial Customs in Egypt. — Prof. W. M. 
Flinders Petrie, F.R.S. ; Prof. G. Elliot Smith, 

F.R.S. 41 

Simulium and Pellagra. — R. Shelford 4I 

The Cocos-Keeling Atoll.— Rev. E, C. Spicer ; F. 

Wood-Jones; The Reviewer 42 

Winter Whitening in Mammals. — Major G. E. H, 

Barrett-Hamilton 42 

Helium and Geological Time. — Hon. R. J. Strutt, 

F.R.S 43 

The Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand. {Illus- 
trated.) By Prof. Arthur Dendy, F.R.S 43 

Bird Migration. By Sir T. Digby Pigott, C.B. ... 44 

New Discoveries at Knossos. By H. R. Hall ... 45 

Notes 46 

Our Astronomical Column: — 

Fireball of November 2 5* 

Rotation of the Moon •. . 5' 

Ephemeris for Halley's Comet 51 

Selenium Photometer Measures of the Brightness of 

Halley's Comet . . . • 5* 

The Apparent Diameter of Jupiter 5* 

Curved Photographic Plates 5^ 

The "Michael Sars " North Atlantic Deep-sea 

Expedition, 1910. {Illustrated.) By Dr. Johan Hjort 52 
The Association of Teachers in Technical Institu- 
tions 55 

Meteorological Relationships 55 

The Latitude of Athens 56 

Education in Technical Objects 5^ 

The Crystallography of Haemoglobins 57 

Problems of Wheat Growing 57 

Botany at the British Association 58 

Engineering and Civilisation. By Alexander Siemens 59 
Forestry Education: its Importance and Require- 
ments. By E, B. Steboing 61 

University and Educational Intelligence 6a 

Societies and Academies 63 

Diary of Societies 64 



NA TURE 



67 



THURSDAY. NOVEMBER 17, 1910. 



THE CELLULOSE AGE. 

l^ie Chemie der Cellulose urtter besonderer Beriick- 
sichtigung der Textil- iind Zellstoffitidustrien. By 
Prof. Carl G. Schwalbe. Erste Halfte. Pp. 
272. (Berlin : Gebriider Borntraeger, 1910.J Price 
9 mk. 60 pfg. 

THIS work is created by an opportunity, and in 
producing it the author has obeyed what in 
another walk of life would be a "call" — Germany not 
having produced a text-book or systematic work on 
this subject, the hiatus is a sufficient raison d'etre 
for this publication. The author's qualifications as 
a worker in the field of cellulose promise a worthy 
fulfilment of his task, and we may say at once, the 
volume before us — the moiety of the work to be com- 
pleted in and by a second volume, to appear at the 
end of this year — is a weighty contribution to the 
literature of this section of organic chemistry. 
The general title presages a systematic treatment 
the subject-matter ; but the plan and method laid 
\vn are not criticallv selective, and the result is 
lather a classified account of original investigations, 
under sectional titles, such as '" Cellulose and 
i Alkalis," "Cellulose and Acids," "Cellulose and 
Salts," and "Colouring Matters" and "Oxidants," 
' &c. The second part of the volume under the main 
I title, " Derivatives of Cellulose," deals successively 
i with ■' hydratcelluloses," "hydrocelluloses," "oxy- 
kelluloses," " hydracelluloses," "acid celluloses," &c. 
I The result is in effect a compilation, an edited 
biblioj^^raphy. In recording this general impression 
iwe do not wish to detract from the value of the book; 
we merelv note for the benefit of our fellow-students 
jthat there is a certain nonconformity of its matier 
with the title, and the promise of a pioneer work, 
which it contains, is still unfulfilled. The sub-title, 
Nith special reference to the textile and wood pulp 
v^dlstoff) industries," also fails to impress itself upon 
|the plan or method of treatment, and therefore a 
|dominating technical aim or Leitmotiv is no more in 
evidence than the critical scientific. The second 
kolume yet to appear may modify these impressions ; 
put we do not anticipate that the work will take 
{ank otherwise than as an exhaustive bibliographical 
■ecord. If we infer that this may be the author's 
ntention, it is because we have no special or self- 
vealing preface (Vorwort), only a general introduc- 
n (Einleitiiug), and the reader is left to form his 
'inclusions. 
Following the short introduction in which tech- 
ical. rather than scientific generalities are prominent, 
e are confronted at once with the full complexity 
cellulose in the title of section i, "Die Baumwolle- 
lulose Luft und Licht." To open with the 
'blems connoted by this title is indeed to build 
•:n the top, upon foundations laid in the air. A 
rely a priori analysis challenges all we know plus 
well-defined estimate of what we do not know of 
■llulose as a chemical individual, in being. The 
NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



next section, " Baumwollecellulose und Elektrizitat," 
continues to occupy the reader with problems of much 
complexitv and obviously of the most general import. 
The phenomena and reactions involved are those of 
the cellulose aggregate, of which nothing can be 
affirmed. Section 4, " Die Baumwollecellulose bei 
Warmezufuhr," continues the study of the aggregate 
in relation to energy. The series of decompositions 
presented by destructive distillation are infinitely 
varied, and pyrogenetic products of resolution are 
generally the least simply related to the parent sub- 
stances or molecules ; the author does not attempt 
this genealogical investigation. 

We notice in passing that no mention is made 
either of the specific heat or heat capacity of cellu- 
lose, or of the physical phenomena, such as changes 
of volume and dimensions, within the range of tem- 
perature — i.e. up to 150° — which conditions the per- 
sistence of cellulose as a chemical individual. Since 
cellulose and many derivatives are now produced in 
the form of solids of regular and controlled dimen- 
sions, this important direction of physical investiga- 
tion is opened up. 

The following and main sections are devoted to the 
changes determined in the cellulose complex by the 
action of acids, alkalis, and salts and oxidants, and 
its relations to colouring matters and "mordants," 
generallv to such compounds which enter into what 
it is now fashionable to call "adsorption " combination. 
It is particularly in the treatment of the complex 
phenomena attending hydration, hydrolysis, and con- 
densation, that the author should have adopted a 
critical method. A " genial " drawing is worth a 
volume of photography, and if the author had trusted 
himself as impressionist rather than camera artist he 
would have used his great opportunity to more 
adequate purpose. No chemist regards "hydrocellu- 
lose," "h%dracellulose," " hydratcellulose," "oxycellu- 
lose," as terms defining chemical individuals ; they 
connote a more or less definite equilibrium of action 
and reaction within the cellulose agg^regate, which is 
susceptible of infinitely varied " schemes " of degrada- 
tion ; these are better classified in relation to the 
determining conditions than in terms of presumed 
end-products. The alternative method, with the con- 
scientious discharge of the duties of an " all-truistic " 
bibliographer, leaves the reader without mental pic- 
tures which are the pleasurable reward of the dili- 
gent student. Students of the natural sciences bewail 
a tendency to over-population of their book-world as 
of other "worlds." The literature of cellulose is 
alreadv of formidable dimensions, and yet its funda- 
i mental chemistry can be set forth on the proverbial 
"half-sheet of notepaper." 

The present phase of diffuse expansion in the re- 
gion of "cellulose" and other typical colloids calls 
for a more critical attitude of workers and investi- 
gators, both in the researches undertaken and the 
extent of their records. 

We may note in conclusion that the volume, in 
paper covers, weighs 733 grams. It involves there- 
fore a considerable weight of cellulose; and, more- 
over, the printing and finish of the volume are un- 
usually excellent. 

D 



68 



NATURE 



[NpVEMBER 17, 1910 



DESCEIPTIVE METEOROLOGY. 

Descriptive Meteorology. By Prof. Willis L. Moore, 
Chief of United States Weather Bureau. Pp. 
xviii + 344. (New York and London: D. Apple- 
ton and Company, 1910.) Price 12s. 6d. net. 

A TEXT-BOOK by the Chief of the great Weather 
Bureau of the United States of America will be 
received with not a litde interest, and Prof. Willis 
Moore, in submitting this treatise, has had before 
him the definite aim of providing the young men enter- 
ing the service of the bureau with "a comprehensive 
introduction to modern meteorology." We think that 
the author has in most ways successfully realised his 
aim, though the great prominence given to American 
methoids and the researches of American official 
meteorologists make the work to some extent unsuit- 
able for adoption as a text-book for students in other 
countries. The author warmly expresses his obliga- 
tion for valuable help received from various colleagues 
—Abbe, Bigelow, Kimball, Henry, Cox, and Hum- 
|>lireys— and the extent of this indebtedness will be 
appreciated by those familiar with the writings of 
these specialists in the " Monthly Weather J^eview " 
and in various official bulletins of the bureau. We 
should have been glad, however, if attention had been 
directed somewhat more fully to the splendid work of 
A. L. Rotch, for a book such as this should be a 
source of inspiration to the student, and nothing in 
American meteorology is inore inspiring than a con- 
.sideration of the history of the Blue Hill Observatory. 

To indicate briefly the scope of the work, we may 
say that the science of meteorologv is given the 
widest possible reference, and that great attention is 
devoted to the dvnamics of the subject. The opening 
chapters deal very fully with such general questions 
as the composition of the earth's atmosphere, the 
physical condition of the sun and its relation to the 
earth's atmosphere, and radiation waves in their 
different forms. Passing to a consideration of the 
vertical and horizontal distribution of temperature, a 
special chapter is devoted to an interesting study of 
the so-called " isothermal layer," where perhaps de 
Bort's term, "stratosphere," might have been adopted. 
A discussion of atmospheric pressure and circulation 
follows — where Buys Ballot's name is not mentioned — 
and Bigelow 's work is summarised in considerable 
detail. Chapters on anemometry and the winds of 
the globe, on clouds, and on precipitation in its various 
forms, are good, but the international classification of 
clouds should have been included. Then follows an 
admirable discussion of weather forecasting, a chapter 
on meteorological optics, and a final one on climate 
— ^somewhat discursive, but excellent in its treatment 
of the influence of topographical conditions. 

Prof. Moore is a master of the art of condensation 
and the fortunate possessor of a good sense of propor- 
tion, and these qualities have enabled him to cover 
a wide field in a satisfactory manner. The great 
organisation the work of which he directs touches the 
practical interests of the people at many points, and he 
rs at his best in discussing the practical problems of 
weather forecasting, which are illustrated by an excel- 
NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



lent series of weather maps. Again, his brief discus- 
sions of such questions of perennial popular interest 
as the influence of forests on rainfall and the supposed 
influence of the (iulf Stream on the climate of western 
Europe are excellent. It was perhaps well practically 
to exclude mathemavical formulae, but we think 
that here and there the book might have been 
strengthened by the inclusion of statistics in tabular 
form. Thus the vital differences between insular and 
continental climates would have been most forcibly 
brought home to the student by actual data for actual 
places along some given parallel of latitude across, 
say, the Eurasian continent. 

Each chapter concludes with an e.xcellent biblio- 
graphy, but the attention of American students might 
have been directed to the research papers issued from 
the British Meteorological Office during the last few 
years. And the book properly ends with an index, 
but a glance at this leaves us puzzled as to what prin- 
ciple was adopted in the inclusion of. proper names. 
Buchan and Rotch are merely mentioned in the book, 
and their names are not quoted, nor are those of 
Bigelow and Humphreys, though their work is laid 
under heavy contribution, whilst those of less well- 
known authors are given. In a book published in 
iqio a different adverb should have been used in a 
reference (p. 194) to " Sir William Thomson (now 
Lord Kelvin)." 

The publishers have done their work well and the 
volume is a handsome one. The numerous illustra- ^i 
tions and charts are excellent, though the map repre- 
senting the normal distribution of rainfall over the 
United States would have been more readily grasped 
had it been printed in different shades of colour instead 
of merely with red isohyets running over a white sur- 
face. 

THEORIES AND PHYSICS OF THE SUN. 

(1) Les Theories Modernes du Soleil. By J. Bosler, 
" EncyclopMie Scientifique." Pp. xii + 37o4-xii. 
(Paris : Octave Doin et Fils, 19 10.) Price 5 francs. 

(2) Vorlesungen, ilber die Physik der Sonne. By Prof. 
E. Pringsheim. Pp. viii + 435. (Leipzig and Ber- 
lin : B. G. Teubner, 1910.) Price 16 marks. 

IN the first of these two books, dealing with our 
central luminary, the sun, the author presents 
his readers with a very well-arranged survey of the 
more modern views with respect to this important 
bodv. The author, who is one of the astronomers 
at the Meudon Observatory, is in a particularly good 
position to become acquainted with modern solar re- 
searches and opinions, and the solar work in pro- 
gress at that observatory is second to none. 

The book bears evidence of the author's command 
of his subject, and the method of placing the material 
before his readers which he has adopted is one that 
is highly commendable and particularly suitable for 
the valuable series of volumes which form this 
" Encyclopedie Scientifique." 

Commencing with the general theories of the soli 
constitution, he makes a brief resiinii of older vie' 
up to i860, which include those of Herschel, Kircl 






November 17, 1910] 



NATURE 



69 



Iioff, ZoUner, Secchi, &c. Then at some length the 

circular refraction and anomalous dispersion theories 

by Schmidt and Julius respectively are discussed. 

The temperature of the sun comes next under review, 

allowed by a chapter on the dynamic and thermal 

quilibrium of the sun. Lastly, the electromagnetic 

held of the sun and the theories concerning the corona 

are taken in hand, and the views of Schuster, Bige- 

low, Deslandres, Ebert, Nordmann, Arrhenius, &c., 

ire contrasted. This chapter also includes an account 

t Hale's work on the magnetic field in sun-spots, and 

recent researches carried out at Meudon on the high 

level strata of the solar atmosphere. 

The text is well illustrated with numerous repro- 
ductions from recent solar researches, and the volume 
contains good bibliographical author and subject 
indices. 

(2) Prof. Pringsheim's book is the outcome of a set 
'^f lectures which extended over a series of years at 
le Berlin Universit\'. These lectures were not re- 
>tricted to astronomical students only, so that the 
subject was dealt with in a little more popular manner 
than otherwise would probably have been the case. 

The twelve lectures which form the subject of this 
volume comprise a comprehensive sur\ev of the past 
and present views relative to the physics of the. sun, 
and the author has managed to include a great deal of 
material in these lectures. The information has been 
brought well up to date, and the monochromatic 
work accomplished by the aid of the spectroheliograph 
in the hands of Deslandres and Hale has been 
thoroughly dealt with, and forms a valuable chapter. 
The volume is well illustrated, contains a great 
number of references, and is accompanied bv useful 
subject and name indices. It will be found a service- 
able book for students and a good readable volume for 
those who wish to become acquainted with the pro- 
ress in our knowledge of the physics of the sun. 



-OME ASPECTS OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. 
II The Elements. Speculations as to their Nature 
atid Origin. By Sir William A. Tilden, F.R.S. 
Pp. xi+139. (London and New York: Harper 
and Brothers, 1910.) Price 25. 6d. net. 
^i) The Relations between Chemical Constitution and 
^Some Physical Properties. (Text-Books of Physical 
^cience. Edited by Sir William Ramsav.) By 
prof. Samuel Smiles. Pp. xiv + 583. (London: 
|Longmans, Green and Co., 1910.) Price 145. 
Physical Chemistry. Its Bearing on Biology and 
Medicine. By Prof. James C. Philip. Pp. vii + 
^^2. (London : Edward .Arnold, 1910.) Price 
7s. 6d. net. 

T^HE discovery of radio-activity has, by the 
introduction of a new idea,' reawakened in- 
terest in many outstanding problems of physical 
saence. Prominent among these is the fascinating 
question of the nature and origin of the elements. 
Chemists with the periodic table of Mendeleeff before 
them, in spite of the warnings of its author, have 
been unable to resist the idea that some close genetic 
NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



relation exists between the different elements of the 
nine groups of which the table consists, certainly 
along the vertical lines and probably also along the 
horizontal series. As to the nature of this relation- 
ship, nothing very definite was known or even imagined 
beyond the fact that it was accompanied by increase 
in atomic mass, and the probability that it was the 
result of condensation of some primal matter or 
protyle, under the influence, of changing conditions, 
of which temperature was possibly one of the chief 
factors. 

(i) The effect of recent work on the views enter- 
tained by chemists on this question forms the subject- 
matter of the latter portion of Sir \Mlliam Tilden 's 
book, the former half being devoted to a brief and 
clear exposition of the ideas which led to 'the formula- 
tion of the periodic law. The interesting account given 
of the various theories of the evolution and constitu- 
! tion of the elements which have recently been proposed 
culminates in a tentative and most suggestive genea- 
logical table of the elements, which cannot fail to 
arrest the attention of all chemists. The author 
favours the idea that the elements of the seven chief 
vertical groups (with exception of the families headed 
by copper, chromium, and manganese) are directly 
"descended" from the seven elements from sodium 
to chlorine, the members of the odd and even series 
forming separate families with a common ancestor. 
The remaining elements (Group 8 and the exceptions 
just mentioned) are more or less directly descended 
from iron, which itself is placed in genetic relation 
with aluminium. The elements sodium to chlorine 
are direct de.scendants of the corresponding elements 
of lower atomic weight, lithium to fluorine, and these 
are themselves formed by the condensation of vary- 
ing proportions of the two primal constituents of all 
matter, positive and negative protyle, as to the nature 
of which nothing is known. It is, moreover, by the 
addition of further amounts of these two primal sub- 
stances that one element is derived from another 
of lower atomic weight. 

Hydrogen is ^ progenitor of lithium, and a new 
unknown element, of atomic weight 3, is postulated 
as a precursor of fluorine. The elements of the zero, 
group (the helium gases) are supposed to be by- 
products of the disintegration of elements of high 
atomic weight, possibly long extinct. In this con- 
nection it may be noted that the radium emanation 
is stated to be wholly converted into helium, a con- 
ception at variance with the generally received idea. 
Such a scheme, in the nature of things, teems 
with doubtful points, and the author is to be con- 
gratulated on his courage in exposing his ideas to 
the shafts of criticism which are sure to be winged 
against them. His table, however, undoubtedly ex- 
presses much that has been vaguely in the minds of 
many chemists, and removes some of the chief diffi- 
culties inherent in the classification of the elements 
in the strict order of their atomic weights. Where 
it appears to be deficient is in the expression of the 
relations between the members of the horizontal 
series. It must also be remembered that the onlv 
positive evidence of genetic relationship at present 



70 



NATURE 



[November 17, 19 10 



available, which is afforded by the disintegration of 
the radio-active elements, seems to indicate that devo- 
lution occurs primarily along the horizontal scries, 
and that the highest known member of the helium 
group — the newiy-christened niton — takes its place 
in the chain of descent along with the other elements, 
and cannot be reg^arded simply as a by-product. 

Enough has been said, however, to indicate the 
great interest attached to this short work, and the 
service rendered by the author in presenting in a 
collected form the ideas of chemists, enriched by his 
own suggestions, on this fundamental problem of the 
science. 

(2) Dr. Smiles treats of a subject much inore amen- 
able to experiment than the disintegration of the 
elements, and the perusal of his bulky volume shows 
how difficult it is to arrive at any but empirical rela- 
tions between physical properties and chemical con- 
stitution, even when the effect of everv minute ch.'inge 
in constitution can be examined experimentally. The 
work deals with the chief physical properties of the 
elements and their compounds (with certain excep- 
tions which have already been considered in other 
volumes of the series), and provides an extremelv 
useful compendium of the work which has been done in 
this connection. The author has, however, not allowed 
his subject, great as is the mass of detail comprised 
in it, to overwhelm him, but has throughout paid 
special attention to the applications which have been 
made of the knowledge acauired to the solution of 
problems of constitution, and to the effect of progress 
in this branch of the subject on the general trend 
of chemical theory. The interest is further increased 
by a preliminary clear account of the nature of each 
physical property in turn, and a historical sketch of 
the progress of knowledge with regard to it. The 
author's final conclusion that further advance will 
depend essentially on a more complete solution of the 
problem of valency will probably commend itself to 
most chemists, and there seems little doubt that, as 
foreshadowed in many parts of' this book, the study 
of physical properties will be an imjJortant factor in 
the attainment of this result. 

In his exposition of the general principles of 
physical chemistry (3), Dr. Philip has aimed at giving 
an account of the subject which will be of special 
value to workers in the borderland regions of biology 
and chemistry, and has therefore adapted his book 
both in scope and treatment to attain this end. 
Without anv sacrifice of scientific accuracy, he has 
given a sound and readable account of the subjects 
of chief interest to biologists, and has illustrated 
them wherever possible bv reference to problems of a 
biological nature. In addition to the ordinary fare of 
works on elementary physical chemistry, special atten- 
tion is paid to osmosis, permeability and imperme- 
ability of membranes, the properties of colloids and 
adsorption. On the whole, the author has succeeded 
admirablv in his purpose, and has provided a valuable 
and interesting introduction to the subject, not over- 
burdened with detail and almost; free from those 
mathematical subtleties which are too frequently the 
despair of biologists. Arthur Harden. 

NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



CHEMISTR Y FOR FIRST-YEAR STUDENTS. 
(i) A College Text-book of Chemistry. By Prof. Ira 

Remsen. Second edition, revised. Pp. xxiii + 702. 

(London : .Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1908.) Price 

los. net. 
(2) Outlines of Chemistry. A Text-book for College 

Students. By Prof. Louis Kahlenberg. Pp. xix + 

548. (New York : The Macmillan Co. ; London : 

Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1909.) Price iis. net. 
(i) 'T^HE first edition of Prof. Remsen 's "College 
A Chemistry " was somewhat unfavourably re- 
viewed in these columns [Nature, vol. Ixv., p. 314 
(1902)], and, unfortunately, most of the faults then 
pointed out recur in the present edition. Notable 
exceptions are, however, the treatment of the ionic 
hypothesis and of the determination of molecular 
weights from measurements of osmotic pressure. The 
least satisfactory portions of the work are those deal- 
ing with physical and electro-chemistry. Even 
on the purely chemical side there are some 
passages which might be amended. Thus it is not 
generally true, as stated on p. 144, that metals can 
be distinguished from non-metals according to 
whether they do or do not liberate hydrogen from 
hydrochloric acid to form chlorides. (A better 
criterion is, however, given on p. 169.) On pp. i85-(> 
volumetric analyses are calculated on the objectionabl" 
system based on a consideration of the weights of the 
reacting substances in the respective measured 
volumes, instead of by the straightforward "equi- 
valent " method. 

These faults are the more to be regretted since the 
book is in many ways admirably suited for the purport 
for which it is intended. Thus Chapter V., dealint^ 
with the atomic theory and the determination (' 
atomic and molecular weights, is, for the most part, ;: 
model of clearness. Attempts have been made to 
bring the work up to date by the insertion of short 
references to the phase rule, catalysis, the electron 
theory, radioactivity, &c. Within the scope allowed, 
the systematic descriptive portion is excellent. The 
experimental exercises given at the end of each chapter 
are well chosen ; but, unfortunately, few first-year 
students in this country would have the time or the 
laboratory facilities for carrying them out. 

(2) Prof. Kahlenberg's book is, like the preceding, 
intended for first-year students, and of necessity covers 
much the same ground ; but there the resemblance 
ends. The general plan, as set forth in the preface, is 
to lead up to general theories through the fundamental 
facts and laws instead of first laying down general 
propositions and then illustrating these by facts. 
Accordingly, no mention of the atomic and molecular 
theories or of chemical nomenclature and symbols is 
made until the sixth chapter is reached. 

Physical chemistry does not occupy a prominent 
place in the book ; nevertheless, seeing that Prof. 
Kahlenberg is practically the only opponent of the 
generally accepted ionic hypothesis to be taken seri- 
ously, we turn with interest to the pages dealing 
with this part of the subject. On p. 429 we find the 
remark : •" The main difference between the Clausius 
and Arrhenius theories is that the latter assumes the 



November 17, 19 10] 



NATURE 



7L 



presence of a very much larger percentage of dis- 
sociation"; and on p. 432, "The reader will have no 
difticultv in comprehending- books that still use the 
nomenclature of the theory of electrolytic dissociation 
bv remembering that the term ion as used in express- 
ing chemical change means the same as atom or 
radical " {sic). 

The periodic law is discussed in Chapter XX., but 
in the arrangement of the descriptive matter it is 
• ntirely ignored. This is a great drawback, as in- 

rganic chemistry without the periodic law and the 
i mic hypothesis becomes a mere jumble of discon- 

lected facts, difficult to remember, and still more 
difficult to assimilate. Otherwise the book contains 
as much pure chemistry as a student of medicine or 
engineering, who can devote only one year to the 
subject, requires. There are also short accounts of 
the chief processes in applied chemistr}\ 

OUR BOOK SHELF. 
<nper-organic Evolution. Nature and the Social 
Problem. By Dr. E. Lluria. With a preface by 
Dr. D. Santiago Raman y Cajal. Translated by 
Rachel Challice and D. H. Lambert. Pp. xix + 
233. (London : Williams and Norgate, 1910.) Price 
js. 6d. net. 
"Man is a product of universal mechanics." 

" The solution of the social problem is contained in 
the law of evolution." 

"There exists an irrefragable law which has made 

man out of a conglomeration of matter, and this same 

law, sooner or later, will have to be followed, in order 

that man himself may attain the state of happiness 

that is his legitimate aspiration." 

These aphorisms lie at the root of Dr. Lluria 's 

hilosophy. The researches of Don Santiago Raman 

Cajal into the phylogeny and ontology of the nervous 

ystem have greatly impressed him, arid a third of the 

jlume is occupied with an account of them. He assumes 

hat the nervous system of man will continue to increase 

!i complexity. "The brain of man still continues 

its psychic evolution." While agreeing that this is 

"a conclusion of paramount value," we fail to trace 

the logical steps by which it is reached, and the same 

may be said of the further inference, " In society, 

-uper-organic organism, the rapiditv of change wnll 

e greater than in any other." 

With the best will in the world, it is not easy always 

to follow the author, as, e.g., when he tells us that 

"Society lives in a profound error as to property. 

It has chosen the paltry medium of monev instead 

of the grand inheritance of Nature, which belongs to 

It by right, confirmed by the theorv of evolution." 

But it is not only society that is to blame. "The 

responsibility falls particularlv on manv men of science 

who have not understood "the theorv of evolution, 

-^ivmg it, for example, such a false' and iniquitous 

nterpretation as the struggle for existence— a dreadful 

distortion of the natural course of ideas." 

It is unfortunate that the translator is evidently 
"■nfamiliar with the technical terminology which is 
inseparable from a treatise of this description. There 
IS no index. 

The Romance of Modern Astronomy, describing in 

Simple but Exact Language the Wonders of the 

Heavens. By Hector Macpherson, Jun. Pp. 333. 

(London : Seeley and Co., Limited, 191 1.) Price 55. 

Commencing with a chapter on our place in the 

universe, the author proceeds in the established 

^equence with chapters on the earth's motions, the 

NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



sun. Mercury, Venus, &c., completing the discussion 
of the solar system with comets and shooting-stars. 
At more remote distances the suns of space, stellar 
motions and systems, and nebulae are the subjects 
claiming the writer's pen. Some forty pages are 
devoted to tides, the spectrum and other incidental 
subjects, while five chapters deal with popular aspects 
of astronomical histor\-. 

The treatment, thouerh generally clear and accurate, 
seldom rises above the commonplace. A feature 
which cannot be commended is the persistent intro- 
duction of somewhat lengthy quotations from other 
writers on astronomy. This method of providing 
"purple patches" discounts the individuality of the 
writer, whether it be due to modestv or otherwise. 

Though steering clear of error in his elementary 
exposition, the author is not guiltless of loose state- 
ments, such as that silver-on-glass reflectors "have a 
light-gathering power far exceeding the telescopes 
whose mirrors are constructed of speculum metal." 

Many of the illustrations are new, and, on the 
whole, well done, the artist being successful in finding 
picturesque settings for some of the more common 
astronomical happenings. The frontispiece, however, 
is very misleading ; here an enlarged drawing of the 
head of Hallev's comet fills the picture above a por- 
tion of landscape, put in doubtless for effect, the 
whole giving the impression that the coma stretched 
from zenith to horizon. 

The Practice of Soft Cheesemaking. .4 Guide to the 
Manufacture of Soft Cheese and Preparation of 
Cheese for Market. By C. W. Walker-Tisdale and 
T. R. Robinson. Second edition, revised. Pp. 04. 
(London : Office of the Dairy World, 1910.) Price 
15. net. 
.\ SECOND edition of this little book havine been called 
for, the authors have taken advantage of the oppor- 
tunity for introducing a certain amount of new matter. 
\\'ith true commercial instinct, thev have put in a 
section describing fuUv the preparation of Bulgarian 
sour milk and sour cheese, but their chief object is to 
give a number of recipes for making soft cheese — 
often known as cream cheese — likely to sell w-ell and 
at a efood profit. 

Soft cheese is a much simpler matter for the pro- 
ducer than ordinarv cheese. No great capital or 
strength are required ; the uniformity desirable for 
butter-making is not needed, so that comparatively 
small volumes of milk suffice, and the best demand 
exists precisely at the time when milk is in greatest 
abundance, i.e. in spring and summer. It is therefore 
essentially a product that the small holder can fro in 
for. and the recognition of this fact bv the authors 
adds greatly to the value of the book. The process 
of manufacture is simple, and consists merely in add- 
ing rennet to milk or to a mixture of milk and cream, 
then seoaratinc the coagulum, and allowing it to 
drain. There are. however, numerous details that re- 
quire attention, but these are fully set out. 

The book will be found very useful for dairy 
students and small holders, as well as for the growing 
class of dwellers in the country who keep a cow for 
their own use. 

Twelfth Reiiort of the Wohurn Ext>erimental Fruit 

Farm. Bv the Duke of Bedford, K.G., F.R.S.,and 

S. v. Pickerinf?. F.R.S. Pp. iv + 51. (London : 

Amalgamated Press, Ltd., 19 10.) Price is. y^d. 

(post free). 

In this, the twelfth report issued from the Woburn 

fruit farm, the authors deal with the silver-leaf disease 

of plums and other fruit-trees in the tV>nrough manner 

that characterises all their work. This disease is 

caused by the fungus Stereuni purpureum, but the 



72 



NATURE 



[November 17, 1910 



relationship is less obvious than usual, because the 
fungus only fructifies on the tree that it has killed, 
and the mycelial threads are only discoverable with 
difficulty on the livinp^ wood. The proof lies in the 
fact, well brought out in this report, that inoculation 
of a healthv tree with a piece of the fungus nearly 
always causes the disease. 

As its name implies, the disease is characterised by 
the silvery look taken on by the leaves, due, appar- 
entlv, to a disconnection of the cells. Changes in 
nutrition processes are, no doubt, the immediate cause, 
but it is sufi^gested that the final cause is a poison 
formed during the growth of the fungal threads, 
which then spreads into the tree. This hvpothesis 
explains, amonp- other things, whv the fungus is never 
found on the diseased leaves. The disease is usually 
fatal. All kinds of fruit are not equally susceptible ; 
plums come first, followed by apples, laburnums, Por- 
tugal laurels, and pears as the least susceptible. If a 
tree recovers, it mav still be badly attacked again ; 
there was nothing to show that previous infection 
tends to immunise trees against subsequent attacks. 

In New Zealand, where this disease is also trouble- 
some, the application of ferrous sulphate is recom- 
mended as a remedy, but the authors cannot find that 
it is of any value. Indeed, no method of treatment 
seomed trustworthy, and all that the grower can do 
a.'j yet is to burn afTected trees and so prevent the 
disease from spreading. 

'Elementary Treatise on Physics, Expetimcntal and 
ApHied, for the Use of Colleges and Schools. Trans- 
lated from Ganot's " Elements de Physique." By 
Dr. E. Atkinson. Eigfhteenth edition, edited by 
Prof. A. W. Reinold, F.R.S. Pp. xiv+1225. 
(London : Longmans, Green and Co., 1910.) Price 
155. 

All teachers and most students of physics know 
Ganot's " Physics," and will be interested in the 
appearance of another new edition. On examining 
the new volume they will find changes in the 
arrangement of subjects and chapters. In the section 
dealing with heat, the subjects of solution, equili- 
brium, and liquefaction have been put into separate 
chapters. Radiation is now dealt with under light. 
In numerous parts -of the book extensive additions 
have been made, and much new matter on modern 
subjects of physics of g-reat importance has been 
added. But to prevent an undue increase of size, 
sections dealing- with matters of no interest to 
students of to-day have been omitted. In its new- 
form the treatise is likely to continue its popularitv. 
When another edition is necessary the editor should 
substitute a modern form of rain-gauge for that on 
p. 1146, and revise the section on the Gulf Stream on 
p. 1 172, where several time-honoured fallacies are 
repeated. 

Dunkelfeldbeleuchtung und Ultramikroskopie in der 
Biologie und in der Medizin. By N. Gaidukov. 
Pp. vi + 8^+Tafel v. (Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1910.) 
Price 8 marks. 

This booklet g-ives a brief but fairlv complete sum- 
mary of the researches which have been pursued by. 
means of dark g^round illumination and the ultra- 
microscope in the domain of biology and medicine. 
Thus the structure of colloids and of "sols" and 
"gels" and the minute structure of various animal 
and vegetable cells as revealed bv these methods are 
epitomised. But the methods themselves receive but 
the scantiest notice, the theory of the subject and th-e 
apparatus being dismissed in the space of a couple 
of pages. Those who desire to work at the subject 
will therefore have to seek instruction elsewhere. In 



NO. 



2142, VOL. 85] 



some cases we do not think justice is done to ordinary 

methods of illumination ; in Fig. 5, for example, a 
comma bacillus is depicted as being practically 
structureless when viewed by transmitted light, 
whereas with care a certain amount of structure can 
alwavs be made out. Dark ground illumination no 
doubt does much to elucidate the finer structure of 
minute unicellular organisms; how far the ultra- 
microscope will help remains to be proved. 

The work concludes with a very useful bibliogfraphy. 
and is illustrated with numerous fi^j^ures in the text 
and five plates, two of which are coloured. 

R. T. H. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

[The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions 
expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake 
to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected 
manuscripts intended for this or any other part of Nature. 
.Vo notice is taken of anonymous communications.] 

The Limiting Line of Sedimentation in Wave-stirred 
Areas. 

If you can spare the space I think I can put your 
reviewer (October 6, p. 433) in the way of obtaining th>' 
information he seeks as to the " limitinj^ line of sedi- 
mentation " in " wave-stirred areas." The presence of 
tidal and other currents is assumed. 

In a paper to the Royal Society in 1882 I chanced to 
hit upon this limit, experimentally and incidentally, in the 
following observation : — 

" Dried peas placed on a glass plate in a slight 
depression on a sandy bottom in 6 inches of water were 
rolled off by waves about 12 inches long and about i inch 
high. . . . 

" Shorter w-aves ih inches high had much less effect on 
them. A little sand that had collected on the glass was 
beautifully rippled with |-inch ripples " (Proc. Roy. Soc, 
1882, p. 16). 

According to this chance experiment the limit was rather 
more than half the wave-length. 

In 1884 I submitted to the late Sir G. G. Stokes, F.R.S. . 
the case of a soda-water bottle, trawled at about 40 
fathoms in the English Channel, which exhibited evidence 
that It had been subjected to long periods of quiescence, 
with intermittent disturbance. Sir George Stokes replied 
in the very important letter published in my paper on th.- 
Skerries Shoal (Trans. Devon. .Association, 1887, p. 498). 
For publication in the same paper I had asked Lord 
Rayleigh to give me some simple formula for ascertainin|:j 
the practical limit, of wave-action. His reply was: — 

" For each step downward of A/8 divide by 2-2." I 
mav mention that A represents the wave-length. 

Now according to this formula the disturbance at a 
depth of half (or four-eighths) of the w-ave-length is about 
one-twenty-third of that at the surface, whereas at the 
depth of five-eighths it is about one-fiftieth. I believe that 
one-fiftieth is negligible, whereas one-twenty-third is not 
always so. 

Thus the limit of disturbance lies between half and five- 
eijjhths of the wave-length. 

This exactly agrees with my accidental tank experiment. 

For further confirmation I may refer your reviewer to 
Stevenson's interesting discussion on the " Level assumed 
by Mud a Measure of Exposure " (Stevenson on Harbours, 
second edition, p. 16). 

I will not trouble your reviewer with my own papers 
except to mention one in the Linnean Society's Journal, 
Zoology, vol. xviii., p. 263, " On the Influence of Wave- 
currents on the Fauna inhabiting Shallow Seas." 

.'\t the recent inquiry on coast erosion Mr. R. H. Worth 
cited a delightful zoological proof of a local limit of dis- 
turbance. Speaking of Alcyonium digitatum and several 
other hydroids, Mr. Worth stated that : — 

" Somewhere below 35 fathoms they will attach them- 
selves to light bodies ; above 25 fathoms they will never 



I 



November, i-j, 1910] 



NATURE 



73 



Inch themselves to anything but heavy bodies " (Royal 

immission on Coast Erosion, Ans. 4059). 

A steady current has often no disturbing effect on the 

a bottom, as the upper strata slide over the lower ones, 

ut the slightest wave-action on the bottom, with its 

ilternating currents, is most effective ; and, as Sir George 

stokes pointed out (I believe for the first time), the com- 

ined action of wave and tidal current may be very 

.Tgetic, as in the case he cites, in which the combina- 

in of a steady- tidal current of two miles an hour, com- 

!ied with a reciprocating flow of one mile, would result 

' in a flow rapidly changing between one mile and three 

miles." I doubt whether this important fact had ever 

occurred to anyone else ; and, up to the present time, no 

one has taken any notice of it, so far as I am aware. 

Torquay. A. R. Hunt. 



Two Notes from India. 

I .4M writing to report a rather curious freak lily which 
I have lately seen out here. It was a garden variety, and 
it possessed a perianth of eight segments, which, however, 
is not unusual, but it also possessed eight stamens, the 
anthers of which were joined together in pairs, the re- 
mainders of fhese organs being separate. The union began 
about two-thirds of the way down from their apices, and 
from then up was complete. If any of your readers can 
suggest a cause I shall be glad to know it ; I have never 
seen such a condition before. I may say that the rest of 
the organs were normal (there was only one flower on the 
plant), and both flower and plant were very healthy. 

The second note which I might record as well, I think, 
though I know my statements about it will perhaps make 
some people doubt my veracity, is that while on duty one 
day, in the evening, about twenty miles away from 
Sangor, Central Provinces, in January a year ago, I was 
driving back through the jungle to Sangor about 7.30 p.m. 
when I distinctly saw what I consider to be an aurora 
borealis. The sun had set, and there was no moon out at 
the time. Suddenly faint streaks, and later distinct and 
many bright streaks, of light appeared across -the skv, and 
I got out of the tonga and watched it about a quarter 
of an hour. There was continual vibration and movement 
of the light as a whole and of individual parts. The light 
Avas a plain white one, and very like a zig-zagged comb. 
No lights of any kind were near, nor could I see the fires 
or lights of any native villages e.xcept faintly in the 
distance, and these were quite distinct and easily dis- 
tinguished from the sky phenomena. I pointed it out to 
my tonga wallah, who shook his head and said he did 
not know what it was. The stars were out, but that it 
was not a planetary light I am certain. I imagine the 
occurrence of this phenomena must be most uncommon in 

opical countries, and I noted it in my diarv. 

J. H. Barbour. 

Jubbulpore, Central Provinces, India, October 20. 



Instruction in Methods of Research, 

In Nature of November 3 appeared an address by Sir 
u . A. Tilden on modern scientific research. 

The technical chemist may hardly agree with his con- 
clusions that the art of scientific discovery cannot be com- 
municated from one person to the other when the matter 
IS considered in its wider aspect, and although it may be 
true that the great discoveries of the future will be made 
by the " inspired amateur," yet there is plenty of evidence 
that m Germany, at any rate, the general" increase of 
knowledge and progress is to a great extent made up in 
detail work, without which it may also be stated that the 
great discoveries would never be 'made. Progress in this 
detail work to a great extent seems to be influenced, if not 
controlled, by training in research. 

It is interesting to note that some authorities seem to 
_'ve the impression that in this country the proportion 
Of research men to chemists is higher than abroad. 

In the columns of Nature and elsewhere I have 
previously advocated the teaching of the principles of re- 
search in class in all our chief colleges, and I believe that 
NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



the student when entering them looks for some such 
training and expects it. This training would be of great 
value to the majority of chemists, who will naturally find 
their future work in industry. Its influence must be felt 
in the conduct of their future work. 

The greater part of the time of the industrial chemist 
is taken up with dealing with unseen difficulties and over- 
coming them. This may not be research in its proper 
sense, but these difficulties can only be overcome in one- 
way, and this when examined in detail will be found to 
be very similar, if not identical, with that necessary for 
the conduct of research. In fact, such work might be 
defined as the application of such principles of research to 
industry. It is not the application of ordinary academic 
chemical knowledge. That is certain. 

So that with such a- training, I would venture to point 
out, the man who has not that " combination of mental 
powers which is called insight " will derive great benefit, 
for it seems difficult to think that the student who has 
passed the entrance examination and gone through the 
college course can be entirely devoid of some such quality, 
even if he has not it to a superlative degree. The latter 
men must be trained, for has not Newton said that " zeal 
without knowledge is like expedition to a man in the 
dark "? 

Some two years ago I put the question Sir William 
Tilden mentions of the establishment of central research 
stations for the chief industries before a textile society in 
the north. 

It was then suggested that there were many difficulties in 
the way of a technical nature. One of the advantages of 
such a scheme would consist of the training which might 
be given to the younger men who are entering industrial 
work, and it may be that this could, to a great extent, 
take the place of the practical training in the colleges 
themselves, which Sir William Tilden, perhaps rightly, 
depreciates when it is carried too far. 

W. P. Dreaper. 

Royal Societies Club, St. James's Street, S.W., 
November 5. 



The Armour of Stegosaurus. 

Pardon me for saying that there is not the slightest 
reason to believe that the restoration of Stegosaurus with 
a double row of plates is incorrect, in spite of the state- 
ment of the reviewer in Nature for October 13. Not a 
single plate of this animal has been found with a sym- 
metrical base, the base always being at an angle to the 
vertical 'axis of the plate; this implies that the plates were 
not placed on the median line, but to one side of it. 
Furthermore, in the onh' sf>ecimen in which anything like 
a complete series of plates has been preserved the linear 
extent of these plates is, roughly speaking, 40 feet, and 
it is a physical impossibility to arrange them in one series 
on 20 feet of back. These plates lie in position over- 
lapping one another. 

The only point at issue between Dr. Lull, who has 
studied the Stegosaurs most carefully, and myself is in 
regard to the arrangement of the plates. Dr. Lull believes 
that they were arranged in pairs. My own view is that, 
reasoning by analogy, they should have been thus arranged, 
but the facts in the case point to their having been 
placed alternately on opposite sides of the median line. 
No pair of plates has ever been found, and, making the 
greatest allowance possible for individual variation, it 
seems incredible that differences of several inches should 
exist between the plates from the two sides of the body if 
they were arranged in symmetrical pairs. 

F. A. Lucas. 

Museum of the Brooklvn Institute. 



The above letter from Mr. F. A. Lucas shows that my 
apologies are due to the author of " Extinct Monsters and 
Creatures of Other Days." It is Marsh's restoration of 
Stegosaurus with a single row of dorsal plates that is 
incorrect, as was pointed out in a notice of Dr. Lull's 
restoration in the American Journal of Science for March, 
19 10, in Nature for the present year. In writing the 
review of Mr. Hutchinson's volume I must have trusted 
to memory, which played me false. R. L. 



74 



NATURE 



[November 17, 1910 



THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHING- 
TON AND ITS WORK. 
QUESTIONS of the organisation, the objects, and 
the activities of the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington are of widespread interest. The demand, 
indeed, for popular and technical information concern- 
ing this institution is far greater than the available 
supply. It should be stated, however, that it is not 
practicable to explain in any brief compass the history 
of the development of so novel an establishment. 
There has been scant time thus far for those engaged 
in this development to step aside and write anything 
but an abstract of current events. It should be stated 
also that the complexity of the subject is much greater 
than might appear to casual observation. The insti- 
tution has recently issued the eighth of its series of 
year-books, or annual reports. These year-books con- 
tain upwards of two thousand pages of condensed 



D. Walcott, Edward D. White, and Carroll D. 
Wright. Articles of incorporation were duly approved 
on the same date, and a board of trustees was there- 
upon elected. These included the President of the 
United States, the President of the Senate, the Speaker 
of the House of Representatives, the secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, and the President of the 
National Academy of .Sciences as ex-officio members, 
along with twentj'-tvvo other members. On January 
29, 1902, the trustees of the proposed institution 
assembled in the diplomatic room of the Department 
of State, under the chairmanship of John Hay, and 
received from Mr. Carnegie his recommendations for 
the foundation of the proposed institution, his outline 
of its general aims, and his deed of trust, by which he 
transferred in perpetuity to the trustees as an endow- 
ment fund 2,ooo,oooL worth of United States Steel 
Corporation bonds. These bonds bear 5 per cent, in- 
terest, payable semi-annually, so that the original 




Fig. I. — The Administration Building of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 



history, and when one considers that they embody 
what is probably the most complicated miscellany o( 
contemporary literature, it may be seen to be no ea;- 
matter, even if one had the time, to gain first-hand 
knowledge by reading these books ; and it may also 
be seen to be no easy matter even for one participating 
in their publication to give a comprehensive summary 
of their contents. Only the barest outline, therefore, 
of this history can be given in the present article, 
while some major and many minor considerations of 
interest doubtless to individuals may be referred to 
only casually or not at all. 

On January 4, 1902, a committee of incorporators 
held a meeting in Washington, D.C., for the purpose 
of considering articles of incorporation, looking to the 
establishment of what was subsequently called the 
Carnegie Institution. This committee consisted of 
John S. Billings, Daniel C. Gilinan, John Hay, Charles 

NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



income of the institution was ioo,oooi. In December. 
1907, this endowment was increased by 400,000/., so 
that the present income is i2o,oooZ. 
, The institution was originally incorporated in 
accordance with the provisions of the laws of the 
District of Colombia, under the title Carnegie Institu- 
tion. Subsequently, however, it was re-incorporated 
by an Act of the Congress of the United States, 
approved April 28, 1904, under the title of Carnegie 
Institution of Washington, which is now its corporate 
designation. 1 By this new Act of Incorporation, the 
institution was placed under the control of a board 
of twenty-four trustees, all of whom had been mem- 
bers of the original board referred to above. This 

1 The reader's attent on mav be called lo the facis that_ the Carnegie 
Institute, located at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania ; the Carnegie Foundation 
for the Advancement of Teaching, with headquarters in New York City ; 
and the Carnegie Institution of Washington are separate and independent 
corporations. 



November 17, 1910] 



NATURE 



75 



board is self-perpetuating, but none of its members 
mav be such bv reason of official connection with 




Fio. 



of .' tation of Dei artraent of 



advantages of the museums, libraries, laboratories, 
observatory, meteorological, piscicultural, and forestry 
school, and kindred institutions of the 
several departments of the Govern- 
ment. 

(6) To ensure the prompt publica- 
tion and distribution of the results of 
scientific investigation, a field con- 
sidered highly important. 

No great amount of reflection is 
needed to reach the conclusion that 
the fields of work thus clearly 
mapped out by the founder could not 
be entered without some difficulties. 
That the organisation of such an in- 
stitution would be no easy matter 
might have been inferred also from 
tJie experience of the closely similar 
establishment, the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, sevent}- years earlier, for it 
may be recalled that the wisdom of 
the Congress of the United States 
debated the question of the proper 
functions of Smithson's foundation 
for a full decade before arriving at a 
definite programme for action. Even 
amongst those best qualified to judge 
of the merits of the wa\s and means available for 
the inauguration of this new enterprise, a great 



Evolution, Cold Spring H.irbjur. 



the United States Government or with other organisa- 
tions. Thus the institution is now, like any other 
private corporation, neither subject 
to any special restrictions by, nor 
benefited by any special privileges 
from, the Government. 

The trustees meet annually in De- 
cember to consider the aff^airs of the 
institution in general, the progress of 
work already undertaken, the initia- 
tion of new projects, and to make the 
necessary appropriations for the en- 
suing year. During the intervals 
between the meetings of the trustees 
the affairs of the institution are con- 
ducted by an executive committee. 
This committee consists of seven 
members chosen by and from the 
board of trustees and the president 
of the institution, who is a member 
ex-officio, and acts as chief executive 
officer. 

Amongst the aims of the institution 
specifically set forth in the founder's 
deed of trust are the following : — 

(i) To promote original research, 
paying great attention thereto as one 
of the most important of all depart- 
ments. 

(2) To discover the exceptional man 
in every department of study when- 
ever and wherever found, inside or 
outside of schools, and enable him to 
make the work for which he seems 
specially designed his life-work. 

(3) To increase facilities for higher 
education. 

(4) To increase the efficiency of the 
universities and other institutions of 
learning throughout the country, b\ 
utilising and adding to their existing 
facilities and aiding teachers in the 
various institutions for experimental 
and other work, in these institutions 
as far as advisable. 

(5) To enable such students as may find Washington I variety of opinions arose. ' Indeed, the volume of 
the best point for their special studies, to enjoy the | excellent advice and suggestion received bv the 

NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 




Fig. 3, — Sixty-inch Reflecting Telescope of Solar Oi^er 



76 



NATURE 



[November 17, 1910 



trustees of the institution during the first two years 
of its existence was overwhelming in abundance. 
The severity of the situation thus developed, however, 
was relieved by a humorous aspect found in the fact 
that it became possible to quote equally expert opinions 
on all sides of any question relative to the objects 
of the institution. In order, therefore, to accomplish 
anything in addition to correspondence it became 
necessary for the trustees to proceed in a way which 
has appeared in some degree arbitrary and without 
due regard to all interests concerned. 

The productive activities of the institution have been 
developed thus far along four principal lines of work. 
These are, first, large projects organised under and 
conducted by the institution itself; secondly, minor 
projects carried on by individuals who are for the 



not inappropriately may be added the divisiions in 
charge of the work of publications and the work of 
administration, makin}^^ thus twelve different depart- 
ments or divisions of work within the institution itself. 
Each of these principal departments of investigation 
is in charge of a director who is primarily responsible 
for the organisation and the conduct of the work 
entrusted to him. Annual appropriations are made to 
these departments in conformitv with carefully speci- 
fied budgets drawn up by the directors in cooperation 
with the president of the institution. Within the 
limits of his annual appropriation each director is 
given the larg-est freedom of action in the prosecution 
and in the development of the work he has in charge. 
Under the head of minor projects manv researches 
in widely separated fields have been undertaken bv 




Fig. 4, — Inteiicr View of Nutrition Laboratory. 



most part connected primarily with other institutions ; 
thirdly, the work of research associates and assistants 
who are temporarily attached to the institution, and 
who are for the time being: engaged chiefly in work 
of research; and, fourthly, the issue of publications, 
including especially the results of the investigations 
accomplished under the first three heads just men- 
tioned, and the publication of investigations of special 
merit not likelv to be cared for under other auspices. 

Under the head of large projects, ten departments 
of work have been established. Two of these depart- 
ments are devoted to* astronomical investig'ations ; 
three to research :.in biology ; one to economics and 
sociology ; one to research in geophvsics ; one to his- 
■torical research; one to" investigations in nutrition;' 
^hd one to research in terrestrial mag^netism. To these 

NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



individual investigators. In round numbers about thret> 
hundred of these investigators have been connected 
with academic institutions. Similarly, limited num- 
bers of eminent research associates have been and 
still are attached to the institution. In its earlier 
experience there were appointed also a limited number 
of research assistants, who were young men and 
women of promise, but had not yet demonstrated 
capacity for the accomplishment of fruitful research. 

Next in importance to the work of research is the 
work of publication carried on by the institution. For 
this object io,oooZ. to 15,000/. are now allotted 
annually, and the institution is publishing books at 
the rate of twenty to forty volumes per year. These 
publications are distributed g^ratuitously to a limited 
list of the greater libraries of the World. They atie 



November 17, 1910] 



NATURE 



77 



also offered for sale at the mere cost of production 
and transportation to purchasers, which cost is about 
half that which would be charged if the works were 
issued throug^h commercial publishing houses. The 
< xpense entailed by this work prohibits the issue of 
large editions for free distribution ; in fact, any 
attempt to meet the public demand for a free receipt 
u{ the institution's publications would speedily cur- 
tail the prosecution of research. 

In addition to the productive work referred to 
above, there falls to the administrative division 
<>peciallv, in the institution, a large amount of unpro- 
ductive work. This arises from a very general mis- 
.ipprehension as to the aims, objects, and capacities 
of the institution. Grossly exaggerated estimates of 
its income have generated, and tend to maintain, an 



Vkic: 





Fig. 5. — Non-magne:ic Ship C>iriii^u\ 

<xi.ii:<;%^r aggregate of fruitless correspondence. 
Deluded enthusiasts and designing charlatans, 
amateurs, dilettanti, arc-trisectors, circle-squarers. 
perpetual motion men and women, and all sorts of 
paradoxers press for endorsement, if not for pecuniary- 
aid. It appears to be a serious defect of existing 
•social conditions that there is no way of preventing 
those who have nothing to communicate to the world 
from interfering with those who have. 

In closing this brief account of the institution, the 
'effective work it has thus far accomplished may be 
summarilv indicated by the following statement : — 

Since its organisation, in 1902, upwards of one 
thousand individuals have been engaged in investiga- 
tions under the auspices of the institution, and there 
are at present nearly five hundred so engaged. Ten 

NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



independent departments of research, each with its 
staff of investigators and assistants, have been estab- 
lished. In addition to these larger departments of 
work, organised and conducted by the institution itself, 
numerous special reseiu-ches, carried on by individuals, 
have been subsidised. Two obser\-atories and five 
laboratories, for as many different fields of investiga- 
tion and in widely separated localities, have been con- 
structed and equipped. \ building in Washington, 
D.C., for administrative offices and for storage of 
records and publications, was completed and dedicated 
in December, 1909. For ocean magnetic surveys a 
specially designed non-magnetic ship with auxiliary 
propulsion was constructed and put in commission 
during the year 1909. Work in almost ever)- field, 
from archaeology and astronomy to thermodynamics 
and zoology-, has been undertaken, and the geograph- 
ical range of this work has extended to more than 
fort)' different countries. One hundred and fiftv-five 
volumes of researches, with an aggregate of forty 
thousand pages of printed matter, have been pub- 
lished. Upwards of one thousand shorter papers have 
been published in the current journals of the world 
by departmental investigators, by associates, and bv 
assistants. The total amount of funds expended to 
date in the consummation of this work is, in round 
numbers, 900,000/. R. S. Woodward. 

THE ROOSEVELT S IS AFRICA.' 

"^ O one can read this interesting book by Mr. 
■•-^ Roosevelt, sen., without realising how much 
the record owes to the work of Roosevelt, jun., of 
Kermit, the boy of nineteen to twent\- who, before he 
had reached his twentieth year, had contributed some 
of the finest trophies to the expedition, who, though 
slight of build and bojish of aspect, confronted great 
dangers with calm resourcefulness, who took admir- 
able photograohs. and assisted the work of the expedi- 
tion as a collector with the greatest zeal and useful- 
ness. 

The book under review is not without its defects 
and incongruities, and the expedition of which it is 
the record has received heavy censure from a good 
many people interested in the preser\-ation of the 
world's fauna. Theodore Roosevelt, its author, has 
the defects of his qualities. His remarkable disposi- 
tion and character have somewhat (as in the case of 
the late Sir Henr>- Stanley) prejudiced the judgment 
of a good many critics. In the first place, Mr. Roose- 
velt has not had sufficient leisure in which to do him- 
self justice as the writer of a book on real natural 
histor\-. Being a poor man when he left the Presi- 
dency, he was obliged, to a great extent, to pav the 
expenses of his very costly expedition by writing an 
account of it to be published week by week bv the 
newspapers, a full diary, so to speak, of the day's 
events. Then, taking advantage of a brief rest at 
Khartum, he puts this diar)- together in book form, 
and has barely time to glance at the proofs before 
leaving England for the States in June. In addition 
to this, his publisher has thought it wise (and this 
reviewer feels bound to say that he thinks it unwise) 
to add to this work on natural history two speeches, 
delivered by Mr. Roosevelt in Egypt and in London ; 
while the author himself, not content with his wonder- 
fully successful expedition and his own vivid appre- 
ciation of the African fauna and .\frican landscapes, 
has further added, under the form of a dissertation 
on his " pig-skin " trave1-librar\'. a HUs'^rtation on the 
world's best books, ancient and modem. 

1 " African Game Trail*." An Aoxjnnt of the African WaiHerings of an 
American Hunter NatdraUst. Bv Theodore Roosevelt. Pp. xvi-f-534. 
(London : John Murray, 1910.) Price i8x. net. 



78 



NATURE 



[November 17, 1910 



With the speeches delivered at the Muhammadan 
University of Cairo and at the Guildhall, London, 
the reviewer in Nature has nothing to do, since they 
treat of politics, but he thinks they are out of place 
in a natural history book. They should have been 
published with the next volume of Mr. Roosevelt's 
public speeches, and with thorn should have been 
given the other side of the picture, the things he also 
observed but did not mention publicly, or, if he did so, 
were not reported bv patriotic British stenographers or 
editors. As it is, these speeches do not give by any 
means a full statement of Mr. Roosevelt's views on 
Egypt. As to the "pig-skin library," it is perhaps a 
dangerous thing for a person of the world-wide in- 
fluence of Theodore Roosevelt to set up an index 
commendatorius of books ancient and modern, with 
the inference that books dealing with the subjects he 
prefers, but not mentioned by him, are not worth the 
traveller's attention. 

The fact is, that a second edition of this work should 




Photo:, 



Fig. I. — The Reticulated Giraffe. From "African Game Trail 



be broug^ht out, stripped of these unnecessary appen- 
dices and the at first necessary, but after wearisome, 
records of thanks and obligations to a hundred-and- 
one personages. We should like to see Mr. Roose- 
velt's book take its place in the ranks with Bates's 
"Naturalist on the Amazons," Schillings's "With 
Flashlight and Rifle," and works of such character. 
He is a g^ood zoolog-ist and a peculiarly accurate and 
discriminating observer. Although he has traversed 
lands visited already by some of the great naturalist- 
explorers of the world, he has still made discoveries 
himself, or through others, and records a great many 
facts not hitherto known about the life-history of 
beasts and birds in equatorial East Africa. He is 
careful to note the seasons at which the young of 
different antelopes and other large game appear. He 
brings home to us, as no previous traveller has done, 
the extent to which this wild game is persecuted and 
infested ■\vith ticks, to which, however, they seem to 
have become so habituated that they dread them much 

NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



less than the biting-flies, though the ticks are prob- 
ably quite as much spreaders of disease, and even 
where they do not introduce disease germs must be 
extraordinarily weakening as blood-suckers. Many 
birds are devoting themselves in Africa to little else 
than the picking off and eating of the ticks and flies 
that infest the mammals. Where these birds are killed 
by European sportsmen, a g^reat deal of future trouble 
is no doubt being prepared for us. For example 
(though 1 do not think this is mentioned by Mr. 
Roosevelt), certain types of heron (egret) are perpetu- 
ally snapping at tsetse-flies, or other flies, which 
settle on oxen or game, and, if fully protected, might 
account for a considerable proportion of these disease- 
carrying creatures. 

He has much that is new and interesting to say on 
the subject of the chita hunting-cat, really a little- 
known and little-studied carnivore in its wild state, 
both in Asia and Africa. The ordinary rhinoceros and 
:ts funny habits receive full illustration at his hands, 
and the square-lipped, white 
rhinoceros is revealed to us in 
Its gentler, less aggressive dis- 
position, as well as its asso- 
ciation with the white egrets 
which, in accompanying it fur 
its protection from ticks, whiten 
its broad back with their 
guano. (May this fact, equally 
possible in South Africa with 
the same kind of white heron, 
be an explanation of the other- 
wise absurd description " white 
rhinoceros"?) He pictures it 
for us in words, sitting down 
on its haunches like a dog (and, 
like its relation, the tapir), and 
shows us that due importance 
in dp'^cription and pictures has 
not hitherto been given to the 
hump over its vertebrae at the 
shoulders. Grevy's zebra and 
the northern type of Equus 
biircheUi (Grant's zebra) are 
rightly contrasted in appear- 
ance, habits, and cry. Some 
other peculiar features in both 
zebras, not hitherto recorded by 
naturalists, are set down here. 
Besides a good description of 
the vivid colours of the topi, 
or bastard hartebeest, he tells 
us that he has met with forms 
of the topi which develop a 
white blaze on the forehead. 
This is possibly a local sport, but is interesting as be- 
ing a parallel to the white forehead of a southern type 
of topi, the blesbok. (This white forehead would seem 
to arise from exaggeration of the two white, frontal 
chevron marks which are liable to occur and re-occur 
in certain types of hartebeest and gnu.) 

Mr. Roosevelt gives interesting particulars as re- 
gards the lion's method of killing most of the large'- 
antelopes and zebra by springing on the back and 
biting through the vertebrae of the neck. It is pos- 
sible that in the case of the stronger zebras or wiM 
asses, the lion flings himself on to the neck itself and 
drags down the animal's head, biting at the vertebree 
not far from the base of the skull. (This is well illus- 
trated bv a drawing in Mr. Millais's "Breath from 
the Veld.") In the case of full-grown buffalo, the 
lion's attack is generally made in concert, two or 
three voung male lions, or a lion and lioness, working 
together, but also with the same object of severing 
the neck vertebras. Failing this, attempts are made 



[Theodore Roosevelt. 



November 17, 1910] 



NATURE 



79 



to hamstring the beast by biting through the tendons 
of the hind legs, and once it is prone it is eviscerated 
bv claws and teeth. 

The alternation of the red-gold Jackson's hartebeest 
and the black and white Grant's zebra (looking silver\- 
often in a slant of sunlight) is charmingly described ; 
in fact, the book is full of verbal pictures, meet sub- 
jects for treatment by a painter. Indeed, on this 
score Mr. Roosevelt's remarks on the importance of 
pictures, as well as of photographs, in the effective 
illustration of wild life, are ver>- sensible. 

He describes to us the speed of the chita and its 

peculiar attitudes and en.-, ■" a bird-like chirrup " ; the 

dancing habits of the male widow-finches (Chera) ; 

■ the rhinoceros standing in the middle of the African 

plain, deep in prehistoric thought " ; the zebras and 



when at bay. He gives interesting and precise in- 
formation regarding the spitting-cobras, describing the 
venom as it is ejected through the point of the hollow 
tooth "like white films or threads." He quotes a 
fellow-traveller to the effect that the girafie when 
fighting with other giraffes or other foes, makes liitle 
or no use of the short ossicones as a weapon, but 
strikes with the strong chisel-like teeth of the lower 
jaw, the blow being delivered with all the force behind 
it of the immense, heavy neck. The boldness of the 
hippo in regions where he has not as vet been taught 
to be afraid of man, is vividly described — the angr\- 
combats in the water between rival males, and the 
departure on shore of the vanquished bull, who, 
straight awav, in a rhinoceros-like rage, attacks on 
land the native cattle, or even men and wcwnen cross- 




Copyrignz t . 



Fig. 2.— a Herd of Elephant in an Open Forest of High Timber. From "African Game Trails," 



[Kermit Roosevelt. 



their stamping-grounds and their boldness in attack- 
ing dogs with teeth and hoofs, and not unreadiness to 
attack the white man also; the lions with their black 
and yellow manes (he might also have alluded to the 
frequency with which East African lionesses are boldlv 
spotted with leopard-like markings, black below, and 
tawnv-brown above); the large cuckoos "which eat 
mice," and the mice they eat, striped like miniature 
zebras; the fantastic little elephant-shrews with their 
probosces; the variet>- and beaut\' of the water-birds 
(not foreettingf that creature of lovelv tints, the ibis- 
stork, Pseudotantalus) ; the white-tailed ichneumons, 
never sufficiertlv hitherto commented on in descrip- 
tions of East .African nature ; the bold roan antelopes, 
with their lar^e mouths and reported habit of biting 
as well as horning their foes, and squealing savagely 
NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



ing his angr>- trot. Roosevelt's notes on baboons, 
hyenas, elephants, white rhinoceroses, water-birds 
(especially p. 298), Grevy's zebra, white-bellied hedge- 
hogs, the hyraxes, and the forest and mountain rats, 
are all most interesting, and in nearlv every case novel, 
even to those acquainted with the East African fauna. 
Excellent in ever\' wav are his descriptions of the life 
of the savage men (invariably kindlv towards this 
expedition), amongst whom and with whom he 
travelled. His descriptions of the botanical aspects 
of the country are full of colour and actualitv. but 
are unfortunatelv marred here and there by the cor- 
rectlv described tree or plant being given the wrong 
name, either botanically or in the vernacular. 

In short, Mr. Roosevelt has written a book which 
would have been quite as noteworthv and of as lasting 



8o 



NATURE 



[November 17, 19 10 



interest if it had been written by an unknown per- 
sonage. But in its permanent form the relatively 
trivial press errors and slips of the pen should be 
corrected and all extraneous matter not connected with 
natural history, cut out. 

The illustrations — drawings as well as photographs 
• — are admirable. Mr. Roosevelt deserves praise for 
having carefully photographed the small mammals as 
well as the big. 

Special triumphs of the expedition were the shooting 
bv Mr. Theodore Roosevelt of the rare Somali reticu- 
lated giraffe, and by Mr. Kcrmit Roosevelt, of the 
East African sable antelope. In regard to this 
achievement, the writer of this review has enjoyed 
some satisfaction. In describing his own journey to 
Kilimanjaro in 1884, he stated that he had seen the 
sable antelope on the way thither. This statement 
was somewhat rudely derided bv a succeeding traveller, 
who declared that the sable antelope was never found 
north of the region opposite Zanzibar Island. 

H. H. Johnston. 



ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY AND RAIN. 

I'^HE fact that raindrops often bring down a 
measurable charge of electricity has been known 
for twenty years, but numerical measurements have 
been comparatively few, and data of even moderate 
trustworthiness are scarce. A recent memoir of the 
Indian Meteorological Department ^ contains an 
account of the important work done on this subject 
in 1908 and 1909 by Dr. G. C. Simpson. This work 
is partly observational, partly experimental, and partly 
theoretical. To see its true bearing, reference is 
necessary to some other aspects of atmospheric elec- 
tricity. 

If we denote by v the electric potential at a height 
s above the ground, and if dvjdz represents the rate 
of increase of v with height just above ground level, 
then treating the conductivity of the air as negligible 
the earth must have a charge the surface density a 
of which is —{dvjdz)! AfT. ^" ordinary fine weather v 
increases as we go upwards, and so a- is negative. 
In practice one usually derives dvjdz from the differ- 
ence of potential between two points in the same 
vertical one metre apart. This quantity, termed the 
potential gradient, varies much from day to day, or 
even hour to hour, and the average value seems to 
vary considerably at different parts of the earth. If, 
for example, we suppose it to be 150 volts, then re- 
membering that the centimetre is the unit of length, 
and that the electrostatic unit equals 300 volts, we 
deduce <r = — (i/47r)(i*5/3oo)=: — 4*0 x 10-* E.U. (or 
electrostatic units). 

Atmospheric air is in reality not a perfect non- 
conductor. If one gives a body in air on a perfectly 
insulating support a charge, whether positive or nega- 
tive, this is gradually lost. Of the numerous observa- 
tions on the rate of loss of charge those made by Mr. 
C. T. R. Wilson, with an apparatus which he devised 
a few years ago, appear least open to criticism. In 
a paper published in 1908, Wilson^ gives the result of 
a considerable number of observations on the loss of 
negative electricitv under fine weather conditions. 
His mean rate of loss exceeded 8 per cent, of the 
charge per minute of time. In other words, a charge 
equal to the earth's charge at any instant was lost 
every twelve minutes. During these observations the 
mean value of the potential gradient was 187. This 
answers to a surface density of — io-*X4'97 E.U., or 

^ Vol. XX., part 8, "On the Electricitv of Rain and its Orie'n in Thunder- 
storms.'' Rv Dr. George C. Simpson, Imperial Meteoro'ogist (also in 
Trans, and Pro-. R.S.). 

2 Roy. Soc. Proc, A, vol. Ixxx., p. e,-^y. 



NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



— i6"6xio-'* coulombs. Taking an 8 per cent, loss 
per minute, the loss per second — i.e. the value of an 
upwardly directed negative, or downwardly directed 
positive current — is (8/60)10-^ x i6'6x lo-'* or 
2'2xio-** in amperes. If this represented average 
conditions, we should have in the course of a year 
from each sq. cm. of the earth's surface a loss of 
7x10-* coulombs, or 21 E.U. of negative electricity. 
During rain the potential gradient is often negative, 
but the total duration of negative gradient in the 
course of a year is not large. We are thus led to the 
conclusion that whilst 21 E.U. is probably an over- 
estimate of the charge lost annually per sq. cm. of 
surface by conduction through the air, it is unlikely 
to be much in excess of the truth unless the con- 
ductivity of the air is exceptionally high at times 
when the gradient is negative. The question thus 
arises : How is the earth's charge maintained? 

Of the hypotheses advanced of late years, the one 
that has met with most approval is due to C. T. R. 
Wilson, who suggested that while districts enjoying 
fine weather are losing negative charge, other districts 
are deriving a corresponding amount of negative elec- 
tricitv from falling rain, the circuit being completed 
below by earth currents, and overhead by horizontal 
currents at a considerable height. Our knowledge of 
earth currents at the present moment does not enable 
us either to afiirm or to deny a systematic transfer of 
electricity between wet and dry areas. 

When Wilson's suggestion was made, it was be- 
lieved that while the electricity brought down by rain 
was sometimes positive, still negative largely pre- 
dominated, that being the result arrived at by Elster 
and Geitel, who were the chief of the early observers. 
Dr. Simpson's first contribution to the subject was the 
invention of an ingenious apparatus giving a con- 
tinuous record of the amount and sign of rainfall . 
electricity. This apparatus has been in operation at J 
Simla during the monsoon or rainy seasons of 1908 I 
and 1909, and the results are of an unexpected char- 
acter. What the apparatus really does is to collect 
and record rainfall electricity for two-minute intervals. 
The data represent the total charges received for each 
successive interval and the corresponding rainfall. 
During the two monsoons 172" i cm. of rain were re- 
corded, with 44'o E.U. of positive and i3'8 E.U. of 
negative electricity, or a balance of 30*2 E.U. of posi- 
tive. The two-minute intervals during which a posi- 
tive charge was measured amounted in all to 4*16 
days, as against i"7o days of negative. During about 
37 per cent, of the total duration of rainfall no sensible 
charge was measured. Snow is rare at Simla, but 
for such snow as fell there was much the same rela- 
tive excess of positive electricity as in the case of rain, 
the chief difference being that snow brought down 
more electricity than an equal weight of rain. An 
annual rainfall of 86 cm. is norrnal enough, and if 
the corresponding balance, 15 E.U., of electricity had 
been negative, it would have fitted Wilson's theory 
well so far; but being positive, it adds to the mystery 
respecting the source of supply of the fine weather 
current. 

There are some features which raise doubts as to 
whether Simla phenomena are fairly representative. 
Rain there seems to be accompanied by much thunder 
and lightning, and the excess of positive electricity 
was especially prominent during the very heavy rain 
accompanying thunderstorms. In 1908, when rain 
was falling at a less rate than 0*17 inch per hour, the 
time during which negative electricity was recorded 
was about 90 per cent, of that during which 
positive was recorded, and the mean charge 
per c.c. was 2*2 E.U. for negative, as against 
i"7 E.U. for positive, so that in the lightest 



November 17, 19^0] 



NATURE 



81 



tins negative electricity was slightly in ex- 
>s. The charge per c.c. tended to be larger the 
-hter the rain, but the fall in two minutes was so 
Tiall in light rains that it seems by no means im- 
: obable that with a more sensitive apparatus there 
A i.uld have been a smaller total excess of positive elec- 
ricitv recorded. Observations covering the complete 
iinual precipitation, whether rain or snow, at a 
umber of stations in different latitudes will be neces- 
sary before we can safely draw conclusions respecting 
I lie earth as a whole. 

It was discovered by Lenard many years ago that 

in the case of an ordinary waterfall, or when water 

falls on a solid obstacle, the water drops formed take 

.( positive, the surrounding air a negative charge. 

Lenard believed, however, that no such separation 

curred when drops split up without falling on an 

;i<tacle. Simpson found a similar absence of charge 

when experimenting with Simla tap-water, but on 

trvinir distilled water he found that the splitting up 

• drops bv means of a vertical air jet is accompanied 

a marked separation of electricity, the water tak- 

i,^ the positive charge. The breaking up of drops, 

,ch containing about 1/4 c.c. of water, gave the 

water a charge of about +23 x 10-^ E.U. per c.c. If 

the drops were already charged, this additional charge 

was added when they broke, so that the action is 

cumulative. Raindrops become unstable on attaining 

■ certain size, and tend to break, so that natural 

-nditions approach those of Simpson's experiments. 

rational explanation is thus given of a positive 

large on rain if it behaves as distilled water. This 

•• should expect it to do, except perhaps in smoky 

districts, but further experiments on actual rain-water 

in various localities seem desirable. The presence on 

nne rain of negative electricity is ascribed by Simp- 

on to a transfer of charge from air which has pre- 

viouslv surrounded breaking raindrops. 

The theoretical problem mainly considered by Simp- 
- in is the relation of rain to thunderstorms. He 
lieves that there are normally present in thunder- 
orm areas upward currents of air with velocities of 
: least 8 metres per second (18 m.p.h.). Such cur- 
rents prevent raindrops from falling, and Simpson 
supposes the drops to go through frequent repetitions 
of the cycle ; growth, breaking up (with separation of 
iectricitv), fresh growth, and so on, at a nearly con- 
ant height in the atmosphere until the charge is 
I great as to produce at a certain level a gradient 
irger than 30,000 volts per cm., which he takes to 
e the electric strength of air. When this limit is 
-ached, a lightning flash neutralises the accumu- 
ited charge over a limited area, and the process goes 
n repeating itself. There are various difficulties in 
he wav of accepting this explanation as complete, 
ut some represent our present ignorance rather than 
ositive knowledge. We should like to know, for 
istance, whether vertical air currents such as Simp- 
on postulates really do exist near the precise level 
here the air breaks down, also what the true nature 
t a lightning flash is, whether unidirectional or 
wcillator)-, what charge passes, and what is the ex- 
•enditure of energy. For all we know, the air may 
e in a strongly ionised condition, possibly even there 
nay be separation of the constituent gases, and a 
'Otential gradient much under 30,000 volts per cm. 
lav suffice to cause a discharge. In the meantime, 
impson's theory of thunderstorms had better be 
^garded as a hypothesis, but, unlike some hypotheses, 
promises to be useful in suggesting promising:- lines 
or observation and experiment. The separation of 
electricity by the breaking up of raindrops may not 
play quite so fundamental a part as Simpson sup- 
poses, but assuming it to take place with natural 

NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



rain, it can hardly fail to play an important part in 
thunderstorm phenomena. 

The memoir as a whole is most original and sug- 
gestive, and is one on which the meteorological service 
of India deserves to be congratulated. As many 
readers of Nature are doubtless aware, Dr. Simpson's 
services have been lent by the Indian Government to 
the present British Antarctic Expedition, principally 
with the view of his studying electrical conditions in 
high latitudes, and we may, I think, entertain high 
hopes that the resulting increase of knowledge will 
be eminently satisfactory both to India and to this 
country. C. Chree. 



A 



THE PREVENTION OF PLAGUE. 
-MEMORANDUM on plague has recently been 
prepared by Dr. Newsholme, medical officer of 
the Local Goveinment Board, and has been sent to 
the sanitary authorities of England and Wales, with 
a request that their officers should endeavour to secure 
the adoption of the suggestions contained therein. 
The memorandum gives an interesting conspectus of 
the essential features of the disease, and deals mainly 
with its methods of spread and the measures which, 
in the light of recent researches, must be taken for 
its prevention. Fortunately, i)lague, although a 
disease capable of manifesting i"tself as an epidemic 
of a widespread and virulent character, is now so well 
understood on its epidemiological side, that the direc- 
tion which preventive measures should take is obvious. 
The situation may be summarised in the dictum — " no 
rats, no plague." Practically, however, the matter is 
perhaps not so simple as it may seem. 

The first section of the memorandum describes 
briefly the symptoms in plague. The injected eyes and 
the thick, "drunken" speech are noted as character- 
istic signs of the disease. There is no mention, how- 
ever, of the tendency to "shouting" delirium and the 
impulse to get out of bed and wander off, utterly heed- 
less of their condition — well-known symptoms in the 
natives of India. The "acute" ward of a plague hos- 
pital is at times a very noisy place, and mild restraint 
requires to be put upon patients to prevent their un- 
conscious excursions. 

The "ambulant" form of plague is referred to, and 
it is stated that persons with this type of the disease 
may spread the infection. Spread of infection by 
such persons would seem, however, to be very doubt- 
ful, bv direct personal contagion at least, and it is 
equally doubtful whether effective carriers of-, the 
disease in the sense of typhoid carriers exist. The 
evidence for the existence of such carriers is not satis- 
factory, and although the possibility of the occurrence 
of "pneumonic" carriers must be considered, the 
rarity of this type, at least in India, and its extreme 
fatality, considerably limit its importance from this 
point of view. 

The statement that there is little or no liability to 
infection from contaminated food is a comforting one, 
and is justified by the accurate observations on the 
pathology of human plague made some years ago in 
Bombay by the Austrian Plague Commission, and by 
the results of experiments on susceptible animals. 

The memorandum accepts in its entirety the results 
of the recent investigations of the Plague Research 
Commission, viz., that the sole infective agents in an 
epidemic of bubonic plague to be reckoned with are 
the infected rat and the infected rat flea — the former 
an indirect agent and the latter the immediate infect- 
ing agent. It follows that the measures suggested 
for attempting to stamp out the disease are directed 
solely towards the destruction of rats and their para- 
sites. It has indeed been claimed that domestic 



82 



NATURE 



[November 17, 1910 



animals, such as cattle, pigs, fowls, ducks, &c., are 
susceptible to plague inftcuon, but extensive experi- 
ments made by competent observers in several parts 
of the world completely agree in opposition to this 
belief. 

In the memorandum the importance of preventing 
the access of rats to or their entrance into buildings 
is emphasised. It is pointed out that a cat in the 
house is a safeguard against domestic invasion by rats 
and mice, although it must be borne in mind that the 
cat is in some degree susceptible to plague. Major 
Buchanan, of the Indian Medical .Service, has strongly 
urged the advisability of stocking the villages in India 
with cats as a preventive measure, but it must be 
said that no very definite evidence in support of the 
proposal has been produced. 

With regard to the extermination of rats it is 
admitted that complete extermination is perhaps im- 
possible. .-\ material diminudon in the rat population 
would undoubtedly lessen the spread of infection 
amongst them, but the fertility of the rat and the fact 
that it overruns the whole country in enormous 
numbers make the task of permanently suppressing 
the rat community in this country an extremely diffi- 
cult one. It is certain that only a never-ceasing and 
complete organisation for rat destruction will appre- 
ciably reduce their numbers, and it is perhaps not 
sufficiently realised by some of the advocates of a 
general rat campaign that in order to be thorough and 
effective such a campaign would involve a most ex- 
tensive and, in the aggregate, a most costly organisa- 
tion. In this connection the experience of rat destruc- 
tion gained in Japan is instructive. Kitasato has 
reported that in five years 4,800,000 rats were killed 
in Tokio alone at a considerable financial outlay, but 
that at the end of this time no appreciable decrease in 
the rat population could be detected. Kitasato attri- 
buted this to the circumstance that the rate of de- 
struction, vigorous as it was, did not keep pace with 
the natural increase in the rat population. Recent 
experience in India appears to point in the same 
direction. 

It is beyond question, however, that so far as plague 
prevention is concerned a great deal can be done in 
this country by diminishing or, preferably, abolishing 
rat infestation in human habitations and in their 
immediate neighbourhood. 

G. F. Petrie. 



DR. THEODORE COOKE. 

AX7E announced with regret last week the death, on 
•'' November 5, of Dr. Theodore Cooke, C.I.E., 
formerly a member of the Bombay Educational De- 
partment. Born at Tramore, co. \Vaterford, in 1836, 
Dr. Cooke entered Trinity College, Dublin, where, 
after a distinguished career as a student, he graduated 
in 1859 in the faculties of arts and engineering. In 
the former faculty he was Hebrew prizeman, first 
honoursman, and senior moderator and gold medallist 
in science ; in the latter he obtained special certificates 
in mechanics, chemistry, mineralogy, mining, and 
geology. Pursuing his profession as an engineer, he 
joined in i860 the service of the Bombay, Baroda and 
Central India Railway, then under construction ; dur- 
ing this service he built for the company the great 
iron bridge at Bassein. Five years later the Govern- 
ment of Bombay secured the services of the talented 
young engineer as principal of the Civil Engineering 
College, which later with widened scope became the 
College of Science, at Poona. The post proved con- 
genial to Dr. Cooke ; his wide and varied knowledge, 
with which were associated much tact and great 

NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



administrative gifts, enabled him to fill it with signal 
success until he retired from India in 1893. 

Throughout his service Dr. Cooke had taken a keen 
interest in botanical studies, and field-work connected 
therewith was one of his chief recreations. What he 
did as a pastime was, however, characterised by the 
thoroughnes.s that marked his official work; he soon 
became a recognised authority on the vegetation of 
Bombay and .Scinde, and it was only fitting that when, 
in i8qi, the Botanical Survey of India was organised. 
Dr. Cooke should be placed in charge of the survcx 
operations in western India. Encouraged thereto bv 
.Sir George King, then director of the survey, Dr. 
Cooke made preparations for the production of a 
" Flora of the Presidencv of Bombay." Difficulti( s 
over which neither Sir George King nor Dr. Cooki- 
had control at first prevented the realisation of thi- 
scheme, and when Dr. Cooke retired in 1893 his 
energies found an outlet in a post to which he wa^ 
appointed at the Imperial Institute. 

The difficulties that had stood in the way of th( 
publication of a local flora of Bombay having at la>t 
been overcome, Dr. Cooke was able, some years later, 
to settle at Kew and commence the preparation of the 
work in the herbarium there. The first part was pub- 
lished in 1901 ; the seventh and concluding part ap- 
peared about two years ago. The work is marked b\ 
the thoroughness and attention to detail characteristic 
of all that Dr. Cooke did ; nothing is taken for 
granted ; every previous statement is carefully verified 
or, refuted ; and the " Flora " will remain a lasting 
meniorial to Dr. Cooke's critical acumen, industry, 
and energy. On its completion Dr. Cooke continued 
to work in the herbarium with undiminished ardour, 
assisting as a volunteer in the preparation of the grept 
" Flora Capensis," edited by Sir W. T. Thiselton- 
bver, until laid pside by the illness which has endei^l 
his career. Dr. Cooke, on whom his university' had 
already conferred the degrep of LL.D., was created a 
CLE. in i8qi, and was a Fellow of the Linnean and 
the Geological Societies. 



NOTES. 

The Nobel prize for chemistry has been awarded to 
Prof. Otto Wallach, professor of chemistry in the 
University of Gottingen. 

We regret to see the announcement of the death, on 
November 13, of Mr. W. R. Fisher, formerly assistant 
professor of forestry at Coopers Hill College. 

The Royal Geological Society of Cornwall at its annual 
meeting at Penzance on November 8 awarded Dr. George 
J. Hinde, F.R.S., the Bolitho gold medal for his valuable 
papers and services in connection with the geology of the 
county. 

A Reuter telegram from Pisa states that on 
November 10, in the presence of King Victor Emmanuel 
and a Government Commission, Signor Marconi received 
wireless telegrams direct from Canada and Massowah by 
means of his extra powerful installation at Coltano. 

Mr. a. E. Brown, secretary of the Zoological Society 
of Philadelphia, has died suddenly of heart disease in his 
sixty-first year. He was vice-president and curator of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences in the same city, and a 
frequent contributor of zoological and biological articles 
to various scientific journals. 

Dr. C. Willard Hayes, chief geologist to the U.S. 
Geological Survey, is now visiting Panama by the direc- 
tion of President Taft to make a preliminary study of 






November 17, 19 10] 



NATURE 



8. 



■ logical formations in the "canal zone," with special 
reference to the excavations at the Culebra cutting. Upon 
the results of his investigations will depend the decision 
whether a geologist will be permanently assigned to assist 
the canal commission. 

A Reuter message from Munich announces the election 

the following corresponding members of the Munich 

.\cademy of Sciences : — Dr. F. G. Kenyon, director and 

principal librarian of the British Museum ; Dr. L. Fletcher, 

F.R..S., director of the Natural History Museum, South 

Kensington ; Principal Miers, F.R.S., the University of 

adon; Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. ; Profs. Wilson and 

lx)rn, Columbia University, New York. 

Prior to the anniversary meeting of the Mineralogical 

.society in the Geological Society's rooms at Burlington 

House on Tuesday, November 15, Dr. Lazarus Fletcher^ 

'•' R.S., was presented with his portrait, painted by Mr. 

raid Festus Kelly, in recognition of the invaluable 

-^ivices he had rendered to the society during the past 

quarter of a century, the presentation being made by 

Prof. W. J. Lewis, F.R.S., on behalf of the members 

and other subscribers. For three j-ears, 1885-8, Dr. 

''I/tcher was president, and for twenty-one years, 1888- 

09, general secretary, of the society-, and it is to his 

lial and stimulating influence that its present prosperous 

idition is largely due. Dr. Fletcher resigned the 

retaryship upon his appointment as director of the 

itural History Museum. 

A CAREFLLLY planned effort is being made by the authori- 
< of the -American Museum of Natural History in New 
rk to popularise the resources of that institution. On a 
?nt afternoon they gave a reception to from 1500 to 
1800 of the school teachers of the city, having invited the 
principal of each school and two delegates whom he should 
appoint. The programme of this " Teachers' Day " in- 
cluded a personally conducted tour of the building, an 
introductory address by the president of the museum. Dr. 
H. F. Osborn, and six ten-minutes' talks by experts, 
interspersed by orchestral music, and followed by tea in 
the ornithological hall. The object of the reception was 
to show the teachers of New York what the museum had 
to offer both for themselves and for the children in their 
classes. 

Dr. \V. H. Brewer, professor emeritus of agriculture 
at the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University, has 
died at New Haven from the infirmities of old age. He 
was born in 1828. Before his appointment to the Yale 
chair in 1864 he had been professor of chemistry and 
geology at Washington College, Pennsylvania, and pro- 
fessor of chemistry in the University of California. He 
became professor emeritus in 1903. He had served on 
several important Government commissions, and had been 
president of the Connecticut Board of Health, of the 
Connecticut Academy of Sciences, and of the Arctic Club 
of America. In an editorial note on his career, the New 
York Evening Post describes him as one of the fast dis- 
appearing representatives of a stirring type. It quotes 
from a friend who once spoke of him as an " eminent 
geologist, an expert mining engineer, an .Arctic explorer, 
an art critic, an author, and a charming companion," 
and adds that, like Shaler and Holmes, he " was the 
product of no system other than that prescribed by his 
owh capacity of learning, and perhaps for that very reason 
possessed a vitality and range which are seen but seldom 
in the younger generation." 

At the annual general meeting of the London Mathe- 
matical Society, held on November 11, the following were 
elected to be the council and officers for the session 
NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



1910-11 (the names of members not on the retiring council 
are printed in italic type) : — President, Dr. H. F. Baker, 
F.R.S. , vice-presidents, Mr. J. E. Campbell. F.R.S. . Major 
P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S., Sir William Niven, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. ; treasurer. Sir Joseph Larmor, F.R.S. ; secretaries. 
Prof. A. E. H. Love, F.R.S., Mr. J. H. Grace, F.R.S. ; 
other members of the council, Mr. G. T. Bennett, Dr. 
T. J. I'A. Bromwich, F.R.S., Dr. W. Burnside, F.R.S., 
Mr. E. Cunningham, Mr. A. L. Di.xon, Dr. L. N. G. 
Filon, Dr. E. W. Hobson, F.R.S., Prof. H. M. Mac- 
donald. F.R.S., and Dr. A. E. Western. 

A'ery great vigour has characterised the conduct of the 
Tacubaya Observatory of late, and therefore the severe 
loss the institution has suffered by the death of the director. 
Dr. F. Valle, will be keenly felt, for he made the observa- 
tory a centre for scientific activity throughout all Latin 
America. Dr. Valle plaj-ed a foremost part in promoting 
scientific usefulness and maintaining an efficient standard 
throughout the Republic of Mexico. The " Annuaire," for 
which he was mainly responsible, appeared with great 
regularity,', and supplied a mass of information connected 
with geodesy, meteorology, and physics that would be par- 
ticularly useful in the society in which it circulated, while 
the articles on astronomy quickened local and popular scien- 
tific effort. But of greater importance in general, and on 
what the reputation of the late director will rest, was his 
ardent prosecution of the work of stellar photography in 
connection with the Carte du del, the observatory being 
responsible for the zone io°-i6° south declination. When 
the last report was issued, only 22 fields remained to com- 
plete the 1200 for the catalogue, and these must have long 
since been supplied. No fewer than 800 plates had been 
measured, and the catalogue plates were being actively 
pushed forward. Such activity contrasts very favourably 
with the results obtained at some observatories engaged 
on the southern zones, and the zeal displayed is the more 
commendable, as it is known Dr. Valle had to contend 
with very great difficulties in regard to the figure of the 
object-glass of his photographic refractor. Dr. Valle did 
not only measure his plates, but he used his meridian circle 
vigorously for determining the position of standard stars 
used in the reduction of the photographic plates. .Add to 
this record the work of the observatory in sj>ectroscopv, 
magnetism, seismology, and meteorology, and it will be 
admitted that Dr. Valle 's energy went far to remove the 
stigma of indifference and lassitude which at one time was 
inclined to rest on the observatories of Spanish America. 

The account of the work of the Port Erin Biological 
Station given by Prof. W. A. Herdman to the Liverpool 
Biological Society on November 1 1 shows that the station 
continues to develop. It is expected that the much needed 
extensions now in progress will be completed and equipped 
by Easter of next year. During last summer vacation 
Prof. Herdman, Dr. Dakin, and Dr. Roaf conducted, for 
the first time, a valuable course of work in the science of 
oceanography (including hydrography and planktology). 
The work consisted partly of lectures and demonstrations 
in the biological station, partly of collecting and observing 
work on the seashore, and partly of expeditions at sea in 
the steam yacht Ladybird and in the Lancashire Sea 
Fisheries steamer. The operations of the fish hatchery at 
the station have rtsulted in the hatching and setting free 
at sea of upwards of 8,000,000 plaice fry and more than 
5000 lobster larvae — a substantial advance upon the work 
of any previous year. Plankton observations were carried 
out on the same lines as in the previous three years, three 
collections being made twice a week in the sea off Port 
Erin the whole year round. During July Prof. Herdman 



84 



NATURE 



[November 17, 1910 



took a series of vertical plankton hauls from various deep 
localities off the west coast of Scotland. A comparison 
of the collections show (i) that there is a constancy year 
after year in the nature of the plankton at certain locali- 
ties, and (2) that some of the localities, not very far apart, 
differ considerably from one another in the nature of their 
plankton at the same time of year (July). 

The general committee of the Mansion House fund for 
providing a memorial to King Edward in London has had 
under consideration numerous proposals as to the form 
the memorial should take. The only decision which has 
as )et been arrived at is that, apart from the provision 
of a larger memorial of his Majesty, a statue of King 
Edward VII., with suitable accessories, be erected in some 
prominent and appropriate position in London, and that 
ti fund be immediately opened for the purpose. Other 
schemes are still under consideration. Originally 164 pro- 
posals were received by the committee, but, according to 
the daily papers, these have been ruled out, with a few 
exceptions, as unsuitable or impracticable. The general 
committee has still to decide finally ; but among schemes 
recommended to them by the executive committee are 
Lord Esher's proposal for an historical museum in London 
on the lines of the Mus6e Carnavalet in Paris. Secondly, 
the scheme of Lord Avebury for the building of a great 
hall for the University of London, to be used for degree 
and ceremonial purposes, and also for examinations. 
Thirdly, Lord Northcote's suggestion that a portion of the 
fund should be devoted to a scheme " for the protection of 
human life in the tropics by a great extension of that 
campaign against tropical disease which has already abated 
so largely the sum of human suffering." This last pro- 
posal has the support of the Society of Tropical Medicine 
and Hygiene, and a letter, signed by Prof. Ronald Ross, 
F.R.S., and other of^cers of the society, outlining the 
valuable work for the Empire which could be done by 
such an endowment of the study and prevention of 
tropical diseases, appeared in the Times of November 5. 
Lord Rosebery, as Chancellor of London University, has, 
In a letter to Lord Avebury, expressed his hearty approval 
of the scheme put forward by Lord Avebury. 

On November 8 Major Sykes delivered an interesting 
lecture to the Royal Geographical Society describing two 
short journeys which he took recently in north-eastern 
Persia the ancient Parthia, and HjTcania. This district 
has alwaj's been one of special interest to the historian. It 
formed part of the patrimony of the earliest Persian kings ; 
in it originated both the religion of Zoroaster and the 
Parthian dynasty, which measured its strength successfully 
with Rome ; it has always been the debatable land on the 
border between Iran and Turan ; and now it seems within 
measurable distance of falling, finally, into the possession 
of Russia, without any of the clamour, nay, danger, of 
war which such an advance of the Muscovite would have 
caused in England a few years ago. Such are the ways 
of high politics. The cities of north-eastern Persia are 
interesting also. Meshhed is a great centre of caravan- 
routes ; ancient Nishapur* is renowned as the birthplace 
and abiding-place of Omar Khayyam ; Turshiz is the tradi- 
tional town of Zoroaster, where the great prophet con- 
verted Vishtaspa the king and. planted the sacred cypress ; 
Budjurd and Astrabad are interesting as really Turanian 
rather than Iranian towns. The dividing line between 
Hyrcania and Parthia was never drawn definitely. In the 
inscription of Darius the Great at Bisitun (Behistun), the 
lands of " Parthva and Varkana " are mentioned together. 
The name of Hyrcania (Varkana) survives in that of the 
modern river Gurgan. Major Sykes had previously visited 
the valley of the Atrek, in which Budjurd lies. His route 

NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



on this journey was taken from Meshhed to Budjurd. 
thence to Astrabad, and back by way of Shahrud, Subza- 
war, and Nishapur (the well-known old trade-route) to 
Meshhed. On the way he made several interesting explora- 
tions, and identified some ancient sites, notably that of 
Paras, which is probably the ancient Parthian capital. 
On his second journey he went to Nishapur and Turshiz. 
At Nishapur he identified the sites of several ancient cities 
which have been built near the spot from the original 
Niv-Shapur of Sapor I. to the mediacv.'il Nishapur of Om.ir 
KhayyAm and the entirely different modern town. .At 
Turshiz Major .Sykes also made interesting discoveries. 

In spite of having presented his unrivalled collection to 
the nation. Lord Walsingham, as evident from a papf 1 
on Madeiran Tinerinae in the November number of th' 
Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, continues to devoii 
attention to his favourite Micro-Lepidoptera. Two new 
species are described in this communication. 

Witiierby's British Birds for November contains a lon^^ 
list of birds marked in the British Isles which have been 
recently recovered in various places, either at home or 
abroad. Among the items may be noted a teal marked 
in Essex in February and taken off Schleswig in August, 
and a tern ringed in Cumberland in July and captured 
south of Oporto in September. 

In a paper on the tooth-billed bower-bird {Scenopceetes 
dcntirostris) published in the Emu for October Mr. S. ^^". 
Jackson states, as the result of continued observation, that, 
as a rule, during the height of the breeding season thr>i 
birds do not visit their play-grounds or indulge in mimic ^ 
vocalisation in the daytime, but reserve the latter per- 
formance for the periods before sunrise and after sunset, 
when they are in the tree-tops. During the nesting season., 
the play-grounds are silent, unoccupied, and, most signifi- 
cant of all, untidy. 

To the November number of Pearson's Magazine Mr. 
Walter Brett contributes an appreciative notice of the bird 
groups mounted in the Natural History Museum at; New 
York. According to the author's own words, the birds in 
these groups " positively breathe with life. Their pose is 
natural ; their surroundings are true to nature ; their 
throats almost tremble with the song one expects to hear. 
And the reason of this is that these birds are life studies, 
scientifically correct as well as artistically perfect. The 
visitor knows they are stuffed only because he is aware 
that they are in a museum, not in an aviary." The article 
is illustrated with reproductions from photographs of 
several of the groups. 

No. 1766 of the Proceedings of the U.S. National 
Museum is devoted to an account, by Miss Rathbun, of a 
collection of stalk-eyed crustaceans, from the coast of Peru 
and adjacent parts of South America. The most notable 
additions to the fauna include a small crab of the genus 
Dromidia — the first of its group from western South 
America — and Panopaeus bermudensis, previously known 
from the Atlantic, while examples of two species hitherto 
represented by the types were also obtained. A noticeable 
feature is the abundance of Xanthidae and Inachidae and 
the scarcity of Parth'enopida; and shrimps of all kinds. 
Many of these Peruvian crustaceans, especially hermit- 
crabs, are used either as food or for bait. 

At the commencement of a review of the species of 
venomous toad-fishes of the genera Thalassophryne and 
Thalassothia, published as No. 1765 of the Proceedings of 
the U.S. National Museum, Messrs. Bean arid Weed state 
that these fishes differ from all other members of the class 
by possessing grooved or perforated spines, analogous to 



November 17. iq»o] 



NATURE 



8=; 



the fangs of venomous serpents, for introducing the poison 
they secrete into the bodies of their victims. In a speci- 
men of Thalassophryne reticulata examined by the authors 
the poison-sac was found to occupy the whole length of 
the under side of the spine. The position of the sac is 
ich that any pressure tending to drive the spine into the 
;in of another animal would produce a pressure on the 
ic, and thus inject the poison with considerable force into 
e wound. 

The ova and larvae of teleostean fishes taken at 
Plymouth in the spring and summer of 1909 form the 
..bject of the chief article in the Journal of the Marine 
■ ological Association (October). The work was specially 
reeled to practical questions connected with the fishing 
dustry, such as the location of spawning areas, the dura- 
tion of the spawning period, and the relative extent of the 
breeding of various kinds of fishes in the Plymouth area 
rather than to details of purely biological interest, and 
accordingly the descriptions of the eggs and larvae form- 
ing the subject of the article bear special reference to the 
means of ready identification at different stages of develop- 
ment. A striking feature in the collection of pelagic 
■ :Jgs was the overwhelming preponderance of those of non- 
arketable species, such as rockling, rock-wrasse, boar- 
~h. and dragonets. It may be assumed, if sufficient 
uTiples be taken, that the relative abundance of eggs in 
ihe plankton affords a trustworthy index to the pro- 
portionate numbers of adult fish at the spawning season, 
and it may therefore be expected that in inshore areas 
such eggs should be largely those of rockling and wrasse. 
nut this does not explain the predominance of dragonets, 
ar-fish, &c., over whitings, dabs, plaice, and soles. 
Although the latter are the objects of attention on the 
part of trawlers, it is still an open question to what 
xtent the present state of affairs may be attributed to 
awling. 

In the Biologisches Centralblatt (October 15) is published 
le first portion of an article, by Prof. K. Goebel, on 
xual dimorphism in plants, discussing the extent to 
vhich dioecious plants are modified apart from the sexual 
organs. Examples of specific differences in seed plants 
. are rare. Cannabis sativa is often quoted as a good 
, example, although the author doubts if there is much dis- 
tinction in a praefloral stage ; he also questions whether 
: is possible to distinguish staminate and pistillate speci- 
aents of Cycas, Taxus, and Juniperus when not in flower. 
\mongst cryptogams better examples occur, notably in 
le case of such liverworts as Symphyogyne leptothele, 
hich is figured. The fundamental reason for the differ- 
nces lies in the necessity for providing more nourishment 
for the products of the egg cell, and this also explains the 
(lositions of the sexual organs in monoecious plants. 

The current number of Tropical Life (No. 9, vol. vi.) 
contains several articles on cotton cultivation both in the 
British Empire and the United States. In Egypt, Mr. 
Foaden points out, cotton occupies from one-half to one- 
third of the total acreage of cultivated land in those 
provinces where the conditions are suited to its growth, 
while the value of the crop is from 25,000,000/. to 
30,000,000/. annually. Unfortunately, there has been a 
gradual fall in \ield per acre during the past few years, 

he cause of which has been variously attributed to a rise 

1 the subsoil water brought about by increased irriga- 
on, to an increase in insect pests, and to soil exhaustion. 

I hough the fertility of the Nile Valley is proverbial, the 
jils are usually deficient in nitrogen ; crops show re- 

aarkable increases when nitrate of soda is applied or 
when a crop of clover — berseem — is ploughed in. 

NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



In the current number of the Fortnightly Review Mr- 
J. Sa.xon Mills writes on the production of sugar from 
sugar beet, which he regards as one of the most hopefuf 
schemes yet suggested for the benefit of rural districts. 
All the arguments in favour of the crop are set out con- 
cisely, and some very persuasive statistics are given. FielJ 
trials in Lincolnshire, Suffolk, Essex, and at Newnham 
Paddox have shown that crops varying from 15 to 20 tons 
per acre can be obtained containing 16 to 18 per cent, of 
sugar, while the Continental crops are lower both in 
quantity and in sugar content. Indeed, sugar beet is 
actually grown on a commercial scale in parts of the 
eastern counties, but is shipped to Holland to be worked 
up in the Dutch factories. It is contended that factories 
would prove highly advantageous in English countrj' dis- 
tricts, and would also prove a remunerative investment. 
.As several factories are already being started in England, 
it ought not to be long before very definite information is 
forthcoming on this question. 

The report on the Experiment Station, Tortola, Virgin 
Islands, for 1909-10, is to hand, and records certain^ 
improvements and additions to the station in connection 
with the sugar and cotton work and the water supply. 
The export trade in sweet potatoes and limes shows signs 
of increasing, while it has also been shown that a limited 
quantity of cacao could be produced for export. The cotton 
industry received a check owing partly to a fall in price 
and partly to bad weather ; early planting is recommended 
as an improvement in cultivation. The report on the 
Botanic Station, Agricultural School and Experimentaf 
Plots, St. Lucia, 1909-10, shows that continued and steadv 
progress is being made. During the year no fewer than 
77.557 plants were sent out for distribution from the 
station, against 43,492 for the previous year. A scheme for 
prize-holdings competitions has been introduced, and will, 
it is hoped, raise the general level of cultivation. 

In a paper read at the November evening meeting of the 
Pharmaceutical Society, Prof. H. G. Greenish and Miss 
D. M. Braithwaite described a method by which the 
presence of the drug-room beetle (Sitodrepa panicea) mav 
be readily detected in powdered drugs. The quantity- of 
beetle present in an infested drug is so small that its direct 
examination under the microscope is practically impossible, 
and it is therefore necessary to separate the particles of 
insect from the drug before they can be observed. The" 
process of separation devised by the authors is dependent 
upon the fact that the hardened parts of the mature beetle 
are of such a highly chitinous character and so extremely 
resistant to the action of acids, alkalies, and oxidising 
mixtures that it is possible to destroy the organic matter 
of the powdered drug without destroying the beetle. It is 
possible by means of the process described to detect 
particles of beetle in a powdered drug containing 
oooooi gm. of beetle in 5 gms. of powder. By the use 
of this method it can be shown whether a powdered drug 
is prepared from " worm-eaten " or sound material. In 
the course of their investigations the authors found that 
while the larvae of the beetles undoubtedly ingest con- 
siderable quantities of starch, only a small proportion of 
this appears to be digested. It seems probable that the 
substances chiefly utilised as nutriment by the lar\ae are 
not carbohydrates, but nitrogenous substances, such as the 
remains of protoplasm, &c. 

Blackhead is a highly infectious disease of turkeys 
prevalent wherefver they are domesticated, and causes great 
financial loss each year. The symptoms are voluntary 
isolation, Stupor, loss of appetite, drooping of the wings. 



86 



NATURE 



[November 17, 1910 



and emaciation ; the disease is characterised by patho- 
logical changes in the ca^ca, intestines, and liver, while 
there are invariably present in the organs encysted stages 
of a coccidium, and also an amoeba known as A. mclea- 
gridis. In a long Bulletin issued by the Agricultural 
Experiment Station of the Rhode Island State College 
Drs. Cole and Hadley give a detailed summary of the 
work so far done on the disease, and add a number of 
observations of their own. Although but little advance 
is recorded in the methods of prevention and treatment, 
the bulletin will be found very useful to those interested 
in diseases of birds, both by reason of its completeness 
and for the evidence it offers that the cause is a 
coccidium. 

The United States laws dealing with commercial 
fertilisers go further than our own in that they require 
the name of the firm to be published along with the 
analytical data dealing with the manures and feeding- 
stuffs supplied. Bulletin 141 of the Purdue University 
Agricultural Experiment Station gives the results of 
analysis of several hundred fertilisers and feeding-stuffs, 
together with the guarantee and the name and address of 
the manufacturer. Any case of fraud is thus at once 
exposed. The law is fully explained in the bulletin, and 
several illustrative ' cases are quoted. There are also 
tables showing the average composition of normal feeding- 
stuffs, and of the materials used as adulterants. 
Altogether, the bulletin gives a very good idea of the 
work of an agricultural analyst in the United States. A 
smaller bulletin on the same lines is sent us by the West 
Virginia University Agricultural Experiment Station. 

In one of a series of papers on the foraminifera of the 
shore-sands of Selsey Bill, Sussex, Messrs. E. Heron- 
Allen and A. Earland have described the forms derived 
from Cretaceous sources (Journ. R. Microscopical Soc, 
1910, p. 401). In all cases these have been compared with 
specimens obtained from the hollows of flints in the same 
deposits ; 1 18 species are identified, some of which are 
new to the records from the Upper Chalk. Mr. Heron- 
Allen offers a copy of a privately issued paper on Chalk 
foraminifera, printed in 1894, to any worker who may 
apply for it (address : Large Acres, Selsey). This earlier 
paper contains complete directions as to preparing material 
from the Chalk, as well as records of a number of species 
found at Twyford, many of which were previously known 
only in Cainozoic strata. It is pleasant to see that the 
veteran Mr. Joseph Wright, of Belfast, remains an active 
adviser on the work published in 19 10. 

Copies have reached us of the valuable meteorological 
charts of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans for 
December, and of the South Atlantic and South Pacific for 
the season December, 19 10 to February, 191 1, issued by 
the U.S. Weather Bureau. In the North Atlantic chart 
Prof. Moore continues the useful practice of exhibiting, by 
daily synoptic weather charts, specimens of the typical 
cyclonic storms which occur in that month. One of these 
disturbances, which was central near the Azores on 
December 18, 1909, moved quickly across Great Britain 
to the North Sea. The synchronous chart of December 21 
shows that another storm dominated the entire northern 
part of the ocean, that typical cyclonic circulation prevailed 
from the American to the European continent, and that its 
disturbing influence was felt so far south as Madeira. 

An interesting application of the dilatometric method to 
th-; study of the polymorphism of the alkali nitrates is 
described by Prof. Bellati and Dr. Tinazzi in the Atti 
del Reale Istitnto Veneto. It is shown that ammonium 

NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



nitrate undergoes an abrupt expansion at 35°, a contrac- 
tion at 86°, and a second expansion at 125°, correspond- 
ing with the three transition-points of the four modifica- 
tions of the nitrate. Potassium nitrate undergoes an 
abrupt expansion at 127°, rubidium nitrate at 161°, 
ca;siuni nitrate at 148°, and thallium nitrate at 73° and 
142° C. 

In reference to Dr. Baker's remarks on the Theory of 
Numbers at the Sheffield meeting of the British Associa- 
tion (Nature, October 20, p. 514), Dr. Vacca, of Genoa, 
sends us the following quotation from Euler (Nov. Comm. 
Petr., vol. xvii., 1772, p. 25) : — 

" Non dubito fore plerosque, qui mirabuntur, me in 
huiusmodi questionibus evolvendis, quas nunc quidem summi 
geometrae aversari videntur, operam consumere ; veruni 
equidem fateri cogor, me ex huiusmodi investigationibus 
tantumdem fere voluptatis capere, quam ex profundissimi^ 
geometriae sublimioris speculationibus. Ac si plurimun 
studii et laboris impendi in quaestionibus gravioribu- 
evolvendis, huiusmodi variatio argumenti quamdam mihi 
baud ingratam delectationem affere solet. " 

We learn from the Engineer for November 11 that the 
Metropolitan Water Board intend to instal a battery of 
Humphrey gas pumps for the reservoir which is being 
constructed in the Lea Valley, near Chingford. A total 
pumping capacity of not fewer than 180 millions of gallons 
in twenty-four hours is required, made up of one unit 
of 20 and four units each of 40 million of gallons. It is 
understood that the Pump and Power Company, Ltd., 
offered to supply and erect on foundations provided by the 
Board five pumps of these capacities, together with a 
Dowson producer gas plant and all accessories, including 
two electrically driven compressors for starting purposes, 
for the sum of 19,388/. The guaranteed fuel consumption 
is not to exceed i-i lb. of anthracite coal fed into the 
producers per actual horse-power hour when working at 
the normal full load during an official trial of six hours' 
duration. The head to be pumped against is 29 to 30 feet, 
including friction. Thus a power of about 250 pump 
horse-power is required in each of the larger units. The 
conditions are ideal for the Humphrey gas pump, but as 
the power is larger than anything yet attempted by Mr. 
Humphrey, the results of the experiment will be awaited 
with considerable interest. At any rate, the Water Board 
cannot be accused of being behind the times. 

An article in the Builder for November 12 deals with 
a novel type of timber construction evolved by Mr. Otto 
Hetzer, of Weinar. In this new method the cross-sections 
of timber beams are adapted to actual stresses as in the 
case of riveted iron structures, and this is carried out by 
means of a composite beam with variable cross-sections in 
each given portion. A special glue being required, capable 
of forming an inseparable whole out of a number of 
composite parts, Mr. Hetzer seems to have succeeded, after 
many 3'ears of work, in producing one which possesses the 
required rapidity of binding, resistance against atmospheric 
influences, and the property of increasing hardening. The 
Hetzer compound beams are composed of three longitudinal 
layers, the uppermost of which is a wood characterised 
by a particularly high ' compressive strength (such as red 
beech), and the lowermost of a wood of great tractive 
strength (such as pine) ; the central portion need not be 
of any specially resisting material. An upward parabolic 
curvature is imparted to the central wood, so that in the 
central cross-section, submitted to the highest stresses, the 
whole of the deflection thrust is dealt with by this para- 
bolic core and the lowermost layer. Satisfactory tests of 
these beams have been made at the Institute of Charlotten- 



November 17, 19 10] 



NATURE 



87 



burg. Photographs of a bridge and several large roofs 
constructed under Hetzer's system are included in the 
article. 

One of the chapters in the latest volume of '* The Cam- 
bridge Modern History " (to be published on December 8), 
dealing with " The Scientific Age," is written by Mr. 
W. C. D. Whetham, F.R.S., who has undertaken the 
important and difficult task of surveying the trend of 
modern science in all its various departments. In this 
chapter will be found considerations of the Darwinian 
hypothesis, of evolution and religion, of electrical inven- 
tion, of bacteriological treatment of disease, and other 
phases of modern scientific progress. 

The October issue of The Central, the organ of the 
Old Students' Association of the City and Guilds of 
London Central Technical College, maintains the high 
standard previously reached by this periodical. The 
number is well illustrated, the frontispiece being an excel- 
lently reproduced portrait of Prof. W. J. Pope, F.R.S. 
Among articles contained in this issue may be mentioned 
hose by Mr. H. Clififord Armstrong on steel making; 
-Messrs. W. Gore and D. Halton Thomson on rainfall, 
<team-flow, evaporation, and reservoir capacity ; Mr. 
Howard Mayes on boiler management ; and Mr. .A. G. T, 
Glaisby on birds and photography. 



OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. 
Discovery of a Comet. — A telegram from the Kiel 
Centralstelle announces the discovery of a new comet by 
Dr. Cerulli on November 9. Its position at 8h. 2oSm'. 
I Rome M.T.) was R.A.=3h. 38m. 36s., dec. =8° 43' 20' 
v., and its daily motion amounted to —8s., - iq'. The 
nagnitude is given as 102, and the comet's position lavs 
about half-way between, but slightly below the line join- 
ing, ( and X Tauri. 

Metcalf's Comet (1910b).— Dr. Ebell publishes a con- 
tinuation of his ephemeris for comet 1910b in No. 44^2 
f the Astronomische Nachrichten. This ephemeris 
overs the period November 13 to January 4, and shows 
:hat the comet is now moving slowlv, in a north-easterly 
direction, through Serpens towards Corona ; on December 8 
it will be about ^° north of 5 Coronae, and of the twelfth 
magnitude. 

Recev-t Fireballs.— .\ large number of fireballs have 
been observed during the last few weeks. The records of 
their appearance are not, however, sufficientlv full and 
accurate to enable their real paths to be computed except 
in the cases where the objects were seen bv capable 
observers. 

The majority of the brilliant meteors have evidently 
belonged to a shower of Taurids, which is often very 
active in the first half of November, and is notable for 
the magnitude and conspicuous aspect of its members. 

.At loh. 24m.. November 9, one of the most interesting 
of the fine meteors recently seen was not a Taurid, but 
directed from a radiant at 312°+ 11° in the western skv. 
It passed from over a point east of Yeovil to west of 
Horsham at heights of 62 to 32 miles. The motion was 
unusually slow, viz. about 12 miles per second. The 
meteor sailed through the air in an apparently serpentine 
course, its sluggish, wriggling flight being specially noticed 
by observers at Bristol and other places, who mention it 
as quite an exceptional feature. There is no known 
shower at 312°+ 11° in November, but on November 2, 
i8qi. Mr. Denning recorded a brilliant meteor close to its 
radiant, estimated at 311°+ xi°. 

Solar Activity and Terrestrial Temperatures. — An 
important paper on the effect of solar changes on terres- 
trial temperatures is published by Mr. W. J. Humphreys 
in No. 2, vol. xxxii., of the Astrophysical Journal. 

Mr. Humphreys accepts the interrelation of magnetic, 
and auroral, disturbances and sun-spot changes as estab- 
lished, and points out that terrestrial temperatures and 
NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



rainfall are observed with sufficient accuracy to justify an 
e.xamination of their relation to solar activity. Further, 
he considers rainfall dependent upon temperature, which is 
more accurately measurable, and so considers only the 
latter. 

Taking Abbot and Fowle's conclusion that sun-spot 
maxima are accompanied by terrestrial temperature 
minima, and vice versa, the average range being 1° C, 
he points out the practical importance of a fuller know- 
ledge of the nexus between these phenomena. 

His conclusions, stated briefly, are that at spot maxima 
the solar atmosphere is more fully charged with " dust " 
(i.e. any particles capable of reflecting and scattering 
light), and therefore, owing to selective absorption, the 
proportion of ultra-violet radiations finally escaping will be 
diminished. Ultra-violet radiations acting on cold, dry 
oxygen, such as exists in the earth's upper atmosphere, 
produce ozone, therefore at spot maxima the amount of 
ozone will be less. 

Further, it has been shown that ozone absorbs a much 
greater proportion of the earth-reflected radiations than of 
the incident solar radiations. Thus at spot maxima, with 
less ozone, more heat will escape, and a lower tempera- 
ture ensue ; the converse explains the observed rise of 
temperature at spot minima. 

This process is complicated by many factors, such as the 
increase of ozone-producing aurorae at spot maxima, but 
Mr. Humphreys suggests that the observed change in 
terrestrial temperatures may depend largely, if not wholly, 
upon the selective absorption of the direct solar and the 
terrestrially reflected thermal radiations by the changeable 
amount of ozone in our upper atmosphere. 

Stars having Peculiar Spectra, and New Variable 
Stars. — Circulars 158 and 159 of the Harvard College 
Observatory contains lists of newly discovered variable stars 
and stars having peculiar spectra. In No. 158 thirty-eight 
new variables, chiefly discovered by Mrs. Fleming, are 
tabulated, and there is also a list giving the positions, 
magnitudes, &c., of nineteen stars of which the spectra 
exhibit various peculiarities. Ten of these are of type vi.. 
three are of type v. with bright lines, four are gaseous 
nebulae, and in the remaining two Hj8 is bright. In the 
spectrum of the ninth-magnitude star DM. — 14° 5265 thf» 
bright line appears to be of slightly greater wave-length 
than H/8. but is not the 5007 nebula line, and on a Liter 
photograph there is a trace of a bright line on the less 
refrangible edge of the dark H/3 ; it is suggested that in 
this spectrum the bright line mav be variable. 

No. 159 contains a list of fifteen new variables dis- 
covered on Nos. 7. 10. 16, and 10 of the Harvard Map, 
and the usual analytical table shows that osi of the 
probable variables on map 19 yet remain to be discovered. 
It is also stated that the very red star +46° 1817 appar- 
ently varies very irregularly. 

The Discovery of Neptune.— No. 19^4 of La Nature 
contains the complete text of the letter in which Leverrier 
sent to Dr. Galle the results which led to the visual dis- 
covery of Neptune. It is stated that the first time the 
whole of this historic document has been published is in a 
recent article by Dr. See in Popular Astronomy, and it is 
suggested that the proper place for the original would be 
in the museum of the Paris Observatory. 

Variable Stars in the Orion Nebula. — No. 4451 of 
the Astronomische Nachrichten contains a list of eleven 
more stars, in the nebula of Orion, which are apparently 
variable. The number of known variables in this nebula 
now amounts to 1^6. 



T//E BANQUET TO JUBILEE PAST-PRESI- 
DENTS OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY. 

'T'HE council and fellows of the Chemical Society 
■*■ honoured five of their past-presidents who had com- 
pleted their jubilee as fellows by entertaining them at a 
banquet at the Savoy Hotel on Friday, November 11. A 
large gathering numbering 250, including the Duke of 
Northumberland, the Postmaster-General, the presidents of 
the French and German Chemical Societies, and no fewer 
than eleven past-presidents, was presided over by Prof. 
Harold B. Dixon, F.R.S., the president. 



88 



NATURE 



[November 17, 19 10 



The names of the past-presidents who were being 
honoured were : — 

Elected President 
Prof. William Odling, F.R.S. ... 1848 1873-5 
The Rt. Hon. Sir Henry E. 

Roscoe, F.R.S 1855 1880-2 

Sir William Crookes, O.M., 

F.R.S 1857 1887-9 

Dr. Hugo Muller, F.R.S. ... 1859 1885-7 
Dr. A. G. Vernon Harcourt, 
F.R.S 1859 1895-7 

Unfortunately, Sir Henry Roscoe was absent through 
illness. 

After the loyal toasts had been duly honoured, the presi- 
<lent gave that of the " Past-presidents who have com- 
pleted their Jubilee of Fellowship." He referred to the 
personalities of the jubilee past-presidents, and to the par- 
ticular work in which each was more especially dis- 
tinguished : Sir Henry Roscoe, for his research on 
vanadium and as a pioneer educationist ; Sir William 
Crookes, for his discovery of thallium, his researches on 
the rare earths, the genesis of matter and diamonds, and 
his brilliant discoveries in physics ; Dr. Hugo Muller, for 
his researches on cellulose and discoveries in connection 
with printing; Dr. Vernon Harcourt, for his researches 
•on the rate of chemical change and his work as an 
enthusiastic teacher ; and Prof. William Odling, the doyen 
of chemistry, to whom all chemists will find it difficult to 
fathom their debt of gratitude. 

In replying to the toast. Sir Henry Roscoe, whose speech 
was read by the president, drew on his reminiscences of 
the thirty-one past-presidents of the society, all of whom 
with the exception of two he had known, and of his 
association with the society. 

Sir William Crookes sketched the steps by which he was 
led to the discovery of radio-activity. He stated that no 
law is more certain than the law of change. Radium has 
shaken our belief in the conservation of substance,, the 
stability of the chemical elements, the undulatory theory 
of light, and the nature of electricity; it has revived the 
dreams of alchemists, and has cast doubt upon the verj' 
existence of matter itself. Physicists are beginning to say 
that there is no such thing as matter ; that when we have 
caught and tamed the elusive atom and have split it into 
•700 little bits these residual particles will turn out to be 
nothing more than superimposed layers of positive and 
negative electricity. Speaking of the War Office Com- 
mittee of which he was a member, he stated that what 
our country now most urgently requires is " brain-craft," 
the master of " hand-craft," and researchers who will 
cultivate chemistry for its own sake. 

Dr. Miiller commented on his association with the 
■Chemical Society, on its rapid growth and increasing 
activity. 

Dr. Harcourt referred to the influence of the growth of 
chemistry upon the teaching of the science as a part of 
general education, and to the importance in education of 
a knowledge of the general results of scientific inquiry and 
of some insight into the methods by which such knowledge 
has been gained. He mentioned the difficulty which the 
teacher of chemistry finds in keeping himself abreast of 
his subject, and the danger of teaching the latest hypo- 
theses to students who are only studying science as a 
part of education and chemistry as a part of science, if it 
mislead them into believing that, because they have gained 
the latest lights, they have a thorough grasp of the science. 

Prof. Odling referred to his connection with the four 
■past-presidents who, with him, were being entertained, 
and with many of the older chemists, and of the associa- 
tion of Oxford University with the society. 

Sir Edward Thorpe proposed the toast of the honorary 
and foreign members, which was replied to by Prof. 
Haller, president of the French Chemical Society, and Prof. 
Wallach. president of the German Chemical Society. At 
the conclusion of his speech Prof. Haller presented, on 
behalf of his society, a silver medal of Lavoisier to each 
of the jubilee presidents in honour of the occasion. 

The last toast of the evening, that of " The Guests," was 
prooosed by Sir William Tilden and acknowledged by the 
Duke of Northumberland, president of the Roval Institu- 
tion of Great Britain, Mr. H. L. Samuel, the Postmaster- 
■General, and Herr Generaldirektor S. Eyde, of Christiania. 
NO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



THE INTERNATIONAL ACROGEOLOGICAL 

CONGRESS AT STOCKHOLM. 
A FEW months ago (August 4) we reviewed the pro- 
ceedings of the first International Agrogeological 
Congress, held at Budapest in 1909. The second was held 
this year simultaneously with the International Geological 
Congress at Stockholm, as an experiment. It was well 
organised by the local committee and well attended, the 
membership numbering about 160. The sessions were 
arranged to allow the frequent attendance of members at 
the geological meetings in which they were likely to be 
interested. But it seems to have been recognised by most 
that the bonds of association between the two congresses 
were not so close as to render it necessary, or even desir- 
able, that they should be held at the same place and time;- 
and it was decided by the council that the next meeting 
should take place independently at St. Petersburg four 
years hence. " 

A prominent feature in connection with the congress was 
the very interesting exhibition of specimens, maps and 
instruments illustrating the science of the soil, which was 
brought together in the rooms of the Technical School, 
44 Miistersamuelsgatan. The Swedish exhibits, \vhich 
naturally formed the greater part of this collection, 
included sample-sections of the typical soils and subsoils 
down to the underlying strata from which they were 
derived. The sections of peat-mosses which showed chang- 
ing conditions of accumulation were particularly note- 
worthy. Excursions were made, both during and after the 
congress, through selected districts and to the chief agri- 
cultural stations, thus enabling the visitors to appreciate 
the local methods of practical research, as well as to gain 
personal knowledge of Swedish agricultural conditions. 

The papers read at the meetings were grouped together 
by their subject-matter, so that each session was devoted 
to the discussion of a separate problem. As was to be 
expected from the earnestness which has been thrown into 
the study of soils in Germany, most of the papers were 
given in German. Indeed, hardly any other language 
was used at the sessions. At the opening meeting on 
the morning of August 17, Prof. Gunnar Andersson 
delivered his instructive presidential address on " The 
Swedish soil-types and their distribution," in which the 
geological bearings of the soil-study were allowed a 
prominence which they rarely attained in the subsequent dis- 
cussions. At the afternoon session the 'leit-motif' was 
"The mechanical analysis of soils," with illustrative 
papers by Dr. A. Atterberg (Sweden), Prof. P. Vinassa 
de Regny (Italy), and Dr. W. Beam (Egypt). 

At the subsequent sessions, on August 18, 19, 20, 22, 
and 24, the following were the principal subjects of dis- 
cussion : — " Colloids of the soil," introduced by papers by 
Prof. E. Ramann (Germany) and Dr. D. J. Hissink 
(Holland) ; " Preparation of extracts of soils for chemical 
analyses," after papers by Prof. A. de Sigmond (Hungary), 
Prof. A. Vesterberg (Sweden), and Prof. A. Rindell (Fin- 
land) ; "Nomenclature and classification of soils," with 
papers by Prof. E. W. Hilgard and Prof. R. H. Lough- 
bridge (California), Prof. P. Kossowitsch (Russia), M- 
B^la de Inkey (Hungary), and Dr. B. Frosterus (Fin- 
land) ; "Systematic soil-surveying," with papers by Dr. 
K. O. Bjorlykke (Norway), Prof. K. Gorjanovic-Kram- 
berger (Croatia), and Prof. F. Sandor (Croatia) ; " The 
analyses of peat soils," with papers by Dr. E. Haglund 
(Sweden) and Dr. H. von Feilitzen (Sweden). There 
were a few other papers, chiefly on the chemical side of 
the subject, which did not fall under the above headings, 
among them being an interesting general account of the 
soils of Egypt, by Dr. W. Eraser Hume. 

.-Xs a merely personal- impression of the proceedings 
from a geologist's point of view, it may be remarked 
that, with the rapid advance of specialisation in the study 
of soils, the connection of the subject with geology seems 
to have become more remote. It was only in the papers 
dealing with the mapping of soils that geological con- 
siderations were brought into prominence, and even then 
only as a basis for specialised classification. For the rest, 
it was toward physics, chemistry and plant-physiology 
that the new methods of research approximated. The 
major part of the papers dealt with the laboratory treat- 
ment of soils, mechanically and chemically, and with the 



November 17, 19 10] 



NATURE 



89 



:.sultants of the varied treatments. In the process of 
dismemberment it must often happen that the true 
:ndividualit>- of a soil is lost, so that schemes of labora- 
tory classification sometimes arbitrarily separate agri- 

ultural similars and unite agricultural discordants. This 

vas recognised in several of the discussions, and the 
-rudents of the soil are now fully aRve to the complexity 

f the problems needing investigation. In the opportunity 
afforded for comparing and criticising the diverse methods 

>f research the congress was eminently successful ; and on 
: he social, side it was wholly pleasurable. 



EDUCATION AT THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

'T^HE presidential address this year was devoted to the 
^ topic of university education. Readers of N.atcre 
lave already had an opportunity- of reading Principal 
Miers's suggestive discussion of the relations of teachers 
nd pupils at school, and of the change of method which 
hould differentiate university from school education, 
hicidenrally, the address raised the very practical question 
f the present overlapping of the two, and led to the 
ippointment of a research committee, with the president 
as chairman, to investigate the subject and to report at 
Portsmouth next year. 
The presentation of the reports of the Section L re- 
■arch committee on mental and physical factors involved 
n education, and of the committee of Section H on the 
-tablishment of a system of measuring mental characters, 
vas made the occasion for a joint session of the two 
~ ctions for the discussion of research in education. In 
he refHDrt of the committee of Section L the gradual 
uegration of a science of education, drawing its data, as 
Prof. Schuyten wrote, from hygiene, anthropology, physi- 
logy, normal and abnormal psychology, pedagogy", and 
ociolog}', and yet with a common centre of reference and 
.n inner coherence which set it apart from each of these 
lated sciences, was indicated. The work in psycho- 
)-dagogy now carried on in this country was briefly re- 
. iewed, and it was shown that, in spite of the lack of 
jnds which was everywhere reported, researches were on 
lot in at least ten university centres. Prof. Green in his 
ntroductory remarks showed how poorly off we are in 
lis respect in comparison with such countries as Belgium, 
France, Germany-, the United States, and even with 
Russia, where the War Office, in discharging its responsi- 
■lity for the education of the children of officers, main- 
■'lins a professor and a laboratory for research work 
ione. He also urged the imj>ortance of training for re- 
archers in this as in all other branches of specialised 
-search, a point which was subsequently taken up by 
Dr. C. S. Myers and other speakers. Prof. Findlay ex- 
plained how the university departments were in this matter 
="nt from pillar to post. Treasury grants being refused on 
ne ground that the Board of Education always looked 
^^11 after their own, while the Board, on the other hand, 
•1 set terms disavowed all responsibility for research work. 
I he position, as the president said, is " disgraceful." 

A typical illustration of more purely pedagogical research 
> as contributed by Dr. T. P. Nunn in his sketch of the 
i.ethods of algebra teaching worked out in the demonstra- 
on schools attached to the London Day Training College. 
I he old theorv of algebra, associated with the name of 
Euler, in which the symbols are regarded merely as 
numbers — " a large number of numbers " — has given place 
» the view of Chrystal and others, to whom algebra is a 
stematic science capable of development from its own 
axioms. The difficulty of adopting this view for school 
purposes is precisely the difficulty which faces the new 
school of geography teachers, namely, that the rational- 
-ing motive, the desire to build up a system for its own 
ake, does not develop in the English schoolbov much 
fore his sixteenth or seventeenth year. Dr. Nunn has 
herefore based his method on the utilitarian motive, and 
aims at every stage to exhibit the value of the results for 
application. At the same time he seeks to complv with 
the schoolmaster's demand that the subject shall have 
■ training value." Thus algebra for school purposes be- 
omes an instrument the capabilities of which are through- 
out expired, and so extended, a kind of linguistic for 
the (expression of thought operations. A large audience 
XO. 2142, VOL. 85] 



foltowed with keen interest Dr. Xunn's application of the 
theory in such crucial instances as the factorisation of 
a- — b', and the explanation of the product of two nega- 
tives. The processes under his hand revealed the 
behaviour of realities, and no longer, as of old, came out 
of the void. 

As an illustration of research upon mental processes 
Dr. Spearman gave an account of an inquiry into in- 
dividual variations of memory among some 400 subjects. 
His results showed that the correlation coefficient between 
different ways of memorising was always positive, or. in 
other words, that the powers of memory sfiowed some 
tendency to correspond, however the material upon whicfr 
they were exercised might vary, while the more like two 
performances were the greater was the degree of corre- 
spondence. The common view that people of quick 
memory forget more rapidly than those to whom memor- 
ising is a slow process was shown to be erroneous, the 
correlation coefficient between the two remaining the same 
after a lapse of time. It was also shown that the differ- 
ence between the two types could he largely traced to the 
method of recall, the quick memory being predominantly" 
auditory and motor, the retentive memory visual and ideal. 
Finally, a high correlation was established between 
memory and teachers' estimates of general intelligence, iir 
spite of the fact that the data upon which the latter were 
based were often obscure and variable. 

The remainder of the sitting was occupied by a series 
of papers and discussions on the measurement of intelli- 
gence, in which accounts were given of practically all the 
researches on this subject hitherto conducted in this 
country. Dr. Otto Lipmann discussed the methods of 
Binet and Simon (Annee Psychologiqtie, 1908, xiv., 
pp. i-94> and of Bobertag (Zeitschrift fiir ange-wandte 
Psychoiogie, iv.). His paper has been printed in full in 
The School World (October), so that here it will suffice 
to say that in his opinion their methods do not promise 
any certain test of a high degree of intelligence. We 
associate intelligence of this character with depth and" 
power of self-criticism ; but these things must be neglected 
in experimental tests, JFor results which would demonstrate 
the absence of these may be due to bodily condition or 
temporary inattention. On the other hand, the tests of 
Binet and Shnon will establish with certainty whether a 
child is of sufficiently normal intelligence to be equal to 
the public-school course. The impo